1896 copyrighted text. Practical construction and logical arrangement of lessons designed to lead the pupil from perception to expression, illustration to definition, sentence-building to composition. It uses pictures, poems and unfinished stories for exercises as well as questions at the beginning of lessons. Progressive lessons on word forms and sentences structure are combined with exercises in narration and description. Good models are used to teach good style through imitation. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1889 copyrighted text. Drawn from the authors' classroom experiences as teachers, this practical and logical grammar through experience and observation rather than memorization. It features a system of grading as well as consideration of composition and letter-writing. For younger children. The Schultz Archive's copy is a brief excerpt including the introduction, the contents, pages 6 and 7, and pages 154 - 159.
New edition copyrighted 1884 of the 1878 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Doctor of Laws of English, as the President of the University of Lewisburg, and as author of The Science of Rhetoric. A compendium of rules for guidance in the art of writing. The prefaces argues that learners should first be assisted in finding a subject of thought, and then be shown how to accumlate, arrange, and express the ideas connected with the theme. Chapter one, Invention, contains sections on choice of subject, accumulation of materials, and arrangement of materials. Chapter two, Style, contains sections on diction (purity propriety, precision), sentences (concord, clearness, unity, energy, harmony), paragraphs, figures, and variation of expression. Chapter three, Punctuation and Capitals, covers grammatical points, rhetorical points, printer's marks, capital letters, and the correction of proofs. Chapter four, Criticism, covers taste and pleasure of taste. Chapter five, Special Forms of Composition, covers descriptions, narratives, letters, orations, and poems. The exercises includes sections for the first three chapters. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1880 printing of the 1878 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory in Harvard College. This treatise defines rhetoric as the art of efficient communication by language, communication implying both a speaker or writer and the audience. Part one, Composition in General, discusses and illustrates the general principles of written or spoken discourse. Its sections are: grammatical purity (including good use, barbarisms, solecisms, and improprieties), choice and use of words (including clearness, force, elegance, number of words, and arrangement of words). Part two, Kinds of Composition, covers principles of narrative and argumentative composition. The appendix cover rules of punctuation. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1899 printing of the 1899 copyrighted text. Herrick is credited as Assistant Professor of English in the University of Chicago. Damon is credited as Instructor in English in the University of Chicago. Preface argues students should first be encouraged to write freely and taught habits of thought and invention before subjecting them to criticism. Part one is meant for a first year course with this approach in mind. Parts two thru four are intended for a second year course to systematically drill the students in the principles of rhetoric. Part five may be included in the second year or later. The chapters in part one, preliminary work: composition--oral and written, what to write about, development of subjects, dividing subjects into paragraphs, building sentences, a review of punctuation, how to increase vocabulary, letters. Part two, usage: good use defined, standards of good use, barbarisms, improprieties, idiom and translation, grammar--good use in the sentence. Part three, diction: wordiness, right choice of words. Part four, rhetorical laws of the sentence and paragraph: clearness in sentences--unity, clearness in sentences--coherence, force in sentences, single paragraphs. Part five, whole composition: structure, summaries, original composition--literary laws, descriptive and narrative writing, expository and argumentative writing. The authors include a section of examples of "bad English" to teach correct usage, although they acknowledge this is controversial and suggest it may be omitted. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1875 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor in Davidson College. In this rhetoric principles and rules are stated briefly and any overlap with other subjects, such as psychology, logic, and aesthetics, is avoided. The introduction covers definition, aim and method of study, distribution, of rhetoric. Part one covers the processes of discourse: subject of a discourse, invention, disposition, amplification. Part two covers style: qualities of prose style, choice of words, figures of speech, the sentence, the paragraph, division of style (higher, lower, middle). Part three covers the elementary forms of discourse: description, narration, exposition, argument. Part four covers principal forms of prose: dialogue and epistolary, didactic prose, historical prose, oratorical prose. The author credits the influence of Lectures on the English Language by Hon. Geo. P. Marsh, Theories of Style by J. K. F. Rinne, German Style by Karl Becker, and Homletics by Vinet. The Schultz Archive copy cuts off on page 231, missing pages 232 through at least 279 (according to the ToC).
1847 printings of the 1846 copyrighted texts. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts. The text includes exercises with pictorial illustrations accompanied by connected phrases to teach parts of speech, such as articles and nouns; article, adjective, and noun; and intransitive predication. No instructions are given for each exercise. The Schultz Archive's copy of these two texts appears to be complete, although no table of contents exists to verify.
1869 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Divinity, a Doctor of the Laws of English, and the President of the University of Michigan. Based on the experiences of the author's teaching, this text in an orderly presentation of the theory of the science and art of rhetoric with illustrations and directions on how to profit from it. Includes examples for imitation and disapproval from modern and ancient, obscure and celebrated authors. Divided into five parts: words and the material of expression, figures of speech and thought, composition and style, invention, and elocution. Part one includes sections on how to acquire the knowledge of words and how to obtain a good vocabulary. Part two includes sections on dialogue, vision, and wit. Part three includes sections on taste and different genres (epistolary, historical, fiction). Part four includes sections on description, narration, abstract subjects, and discussions. Part five includes a section on the intellectual and moral elements of elocution. The Schultz Archive is roughly the complete text.
1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts and as the author of "Practical Grammar of the English Language." A grammar textbook written for beginning and advanced students. Part one consists of model oral lessons, on subjects such as naming things, action-words, and word-picturing. Part two covers a more systematic arrangement of the classifications of grammar and includes questions and illustrative examples. Part three covers the properties and modifications of speech with models for parsing and analysis. Part two includes synthetic exercises, while part three has exercises in false syntax. Review questions are used. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Revised 1880 edition of the original 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts. A grammar textbook written for beginning and advanced students. Part one covers technical grammar, sentence-making, and composition. Part two covers properties and modifications of different parts of speech. Part three is punctuation. Exercises in false syntax, guiding questions for descriptions of pictorial illustrations, fill in the blanks for words and phrases, and parsing and analysis (with diagrams for mapping sentences). The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1891 printing to the 1891 text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English, and as Late Professor of Rhetoric and of the English Language and Literature in the College of New Jersey, as the former principal of the New Jersey State Normal School, and as the author of a series of textbooks. A composition textbook designed for use by students with examples for practice. Part one (style) chapters cover punctuation, diction, purity, propriety, precision, kinds of sentences, rules for construction of sentences, figures of speech, special properties (sublimity, beauty, wit, humor), versification, poetry, prose (letters, diaries, news, editorials, history, etc.). Part two (invention) covers objects, transactions, abstract subjects, imaginary subjects, personal narratives, and descriptions. A chapter on proof-reading includes system of notation for correcting student writing. In addition to exercises, includes illustrative examples from celebrated writers. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1886 printing of the 1870 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English, and as Late Professor of Rhetoric and of the English Language and Literature in the College of New Jersey, as the former principal of the New Jersey State Normal School, and as the author of a series of textbooks. The author expresses the conviction that composition teaching should happen much earlier than the typical age of twelve to fourteen and requires regular practice. The book focuses on exercises; the author states practice should come before theory. The chapters cover simple words, derivative words, simple sentences, complex sentences, change of arrangement, change of structure, figurative expression (simile, metaphor, metonymy, etc.), style, letter writing, and an appendix on punctuation. The text contains examples and directions for exercises and compositions. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1869 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a faculty member of the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn, NY. Striving for simplicity and practical instruction, this text approaches teaching composition through steps of preparation rather than asking students to immediately write compositions. The chapters cover oral composition, formation of sentences, incorrect composition, punctuation, preparing composition, copying compositions, poetry and prose, elements of correct composition, style, figures of speech, criticism, and newspapers and magazines. Lessons use models and exercises. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1867 printing of the 1866 copyrighted text. The author (spelled "Hailman" here) is credited with a Master of Arts and is the Principal of the English and German Academy in Louisville, Kentucky. The introduction is by James N. McElligott, who is credited with a Doctor of Laws in English degree. McElligott's introductions explains that the text doesn't make the errors of some object-teaching that focuses on facts without order, but rather provides mental discipline through following the indications of nature and the laws of mind. In the author's words, the principal aim of school education is to teach students how to form ideas and how to express them. This theoretical treatise on education covers object lessons, development of the faculties, grammar, geometry, and natural history. The text includes illustrative examples. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1876 printing of the 1876 copyrighted text. A revised edition of the "popular" 1871 text. Preface explains it strives to teach children to use language, and is meant for nine, ten, and eleven-year-olds. The work is divided into two parts: part one for the year when students read the Third Book in a series of readers, part two for the succeeding year. Students are meant to write in response to the book's questions, the teacher is meant to correct these answers, and students are then to revise them. Illustrations are used to teach children through observation and to teach them facts of natural history. Part one is organized into chapters covering punctuation, words classed by use, errors, descriptions, comparisons, , objects, pictures, and genres (poetry, prose, letters, receipts, advertisements). Questions and sample teacher-students conversations are used throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1871 printing of the 1871 copyrighted text. No information on the author is given, although the author is presumably one of the publishers. The preface explains that twelve-year-olds should be able to speak and write accurately, avoid vulgarisms, and detect errors. While most methods of teaching grammar incorrectly focus on memorization, this text is interested in teaching the practical use of language. This is done through observation (or perception) of correct models, imitation of those models, and finally construction of correct sentences. Observation of correct sentences is guided with questions. The text is organized into punctuation, objects, pictorial illustrations (pictures), brief narratives, poems to be rewritten into prose, letter writing, longer narratives, and activities of classifying words. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
Shortly after the comparative analysis of Codding et al. was published, I prepared a comment on the article that I submitted for publication. In response to feedback from the editors, I eventually revised the manuscript substantially. That revised version has now been published. In this paper, I share the original submission of the comment, which focuses on important considerations for future studies of risk-‐ sensitive foraging. Meanwhile, Codding and his colleagues have published a response to my comment. They exhibit some confusion about my position, which they describe as “paradoxical.” In a reply to their response, I have therefore added some clarifying remarks at the end of this paper
The aims of this study is to evaluate the impact of interactive student response software (SRS technology) in large introductory classes in Political Science taught at the University of Cincinnati. Getting the students engaged in these classes has been one of the main priorities of the College of Arts and Sciences. This study draws on data from Introduction to International Relations offerings from Fall 2012 to Spring 2018, some of which have used interactive software while others have not used any software. Additionally, some offerings have had an assigned supplemental instructor (IS) while others have not had SI. The overall aim is to evaluate whether these instructional innovations have helped improved student performance in this class. The main hypothesis tested during the study is that availability of SRS technology tends to improve student performance during exams. The secondary hypothesis is that the availability of more advanced (second-generation) student response technology (such as Echo 360) tends to improve students performance in class in comparison to earlier (first-generation) SRS devices (known as “clickers”).
Background and significance
The positive impact of SRS engagement technology on student performance the across different disciplines been well documented in the literature (Marlow et al 2009; Kam and Sommer 2006; Prezler et al 2007 and others). Most of the literature focuses on first generation student response system, also known as clickers (Elliott 2003; Riebens 2007; Crossgove and Curan 2008, Shapiro 2009). Some of the studies focus on the use of this technology without a control group (Beavers 2010; DeBourgh 2008; Kennedy and Cutts 2005; Sprague and Dahl 2010) while others discuss how personal response software impact student performance throughout the whole semester (Evans, 2012). This study differs from existing ones in several ways. First, by collecting data over 5-year period, not only can we compare groups of students using SRS systems with those who don’t but also we can compare offerings using first-generation SRS technology (e.g. the “clickers”) and those using second-generation SRS software (such as Echo 360) that contains more advanced interactive features. Second, the study allows comparison of the SRS impact on different course components and requirements. Third, it evaluates the impact of the student response system in combination with other techniques used in a large classroom such as supplemental instruction or SI. This new setting offers valuable insights about the impact of different types of SRS technology and other interactive techniques designed to engage students in large classrooms.
Approach and Source of records
Records for student performance collected throughout the whole semester for each student. Demographic information for the students enrolled in class collected from the course rosters and from the University of Cincinnati’s student information system Catalyst ( https://catalyst.uc.edu/). All records are electronic. Those that are not available on Catalyst but are generated as a part of the student performance are currently stored in excel format by the instructor and researcher in an external USB drive which is only accessible to the instructor and PI (same person). No other person has access to the data.
The research does not involve the collection of data or other results from individuals that will be submitted to, or held for inspection by, the FDA. No part of the research involves any data that will be provided (in any form) to a pharmaceutical, medical device or biotech company.
Meteorological data from an Onset tower including shielded air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and rainfall collected every 15 min.
The location is 50.9583N, -114.8809W, alt 2083m
The station is still operational and files will be updated after manual yearly downloads.
1835 printing of the 1834 copyrighted text. The text uses pictorial illustrations to aid in the instruction of parts of speech. The text covers orthography, etymology and syntax. The syntax sections has examples to be parsed. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1831 printing of the 1831 copyrighted text of the Third Edition, Enlarged and Improved. This text is an abstract of a larger book. The directions for teachers says the book may be used with "children from five to eight or twelve years of age." The author states, in the preface, that as grammar is founded in custom, its best to teach students grammar by induction, allowing them to form rules based on their own knowledge of language. The first section of introductory exercises focuses on the senses as a source of knowledge. The second section is inductive exercises for different classes of words, such as nouns, articles, adjectives, and verbs, as well as different cases, such as nominative, possessive, imperative, intransitive, etc. A series of questions is used for each to help a student understand each classification. The final section is Orthography and Orthoepy. Periodically, the text has a section of recapitulation, wherein it asks a series of review questions. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1842 printing of the 1841 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Master of Arts and as Teach of the High School in Cambridge, Mass. The preface explains the text is mostly influenced by Murray's Grammar. It uses a clear and systematic order of parsing and explains its principles in simple language to make them understood by students. The Schultz Archive's copy includes preface, first and final chapters.
1835 printing of the 1834 copyrighted text. The introduction explains the author has taught for ten years and sought to write a text for his own use that comported to his own methods of teaching grammar. He states his text recognizes most of the principles adopted by Murray, but differs in the mode and style of illustrating them. His style of language has been adapted to the juvenile mind and he uses a philosophical mode of parsing and correcting false syntax and orthography to exercise the understanding of the pupil. The text uses numerous questions in each section as a method of exercising students' understanding. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1841 printing of the 1841 copyrighted text. The preface explains that too much emphasis has been given to teaching children facts and not enough to teaching morality. The stories in this collection are meant to teach children morals in simple enough language for them to understand. The collection contains 28 different stories with titles such as Carelessness, Anger, Candor, and the Fruits of Infidelity. Other stories have titles such as Snakes, More about Birds, and The Holiday. The text contains a few illustrations, but they are dark and details are difficult to make out. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1887 printing of the 1886 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of Arithmetic for Young Children. Willard Scott is the editor of this American edition. The introduction explains that this book contains exercises for children too young to read or write. The exercises involve examining objects to develop attention, memory, judgment, and invention. The book provides instructions for teachers on how to conduct conversations with children about the objects in the lessons. The book has three parts: exercises on familiar objects, practical exercises for the senses and hand, exercises for the body for young children. The exercises include questions to ask children and activities for them to perform (with detailed directions). The book also includes a few illustrations to guide students in their exercises. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1888 printing of the 1887 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a member of the London School Board, and as a Ph.D. and as a Fellow of the Royal Society. A lecture on object teaching, covering its origins in the Pestalozzi school, its adoption, rejection, and re-adoption in English schools, and how to practice it in the classroom with specific lesson examples. Includes an appendix on a box of different tools and materials to be used with object teaching. The Schultz Archive seems to be the complete text of this issue of Teachers Manuals, No. 6.
1915 copyrighted text. Genung is credited as the author of Outlines of Rhetoric, etc. Hanson is credited as the author of Two Years' Course in English Composition. The preface boasts a motto of "a minimum of theory and a maximum of the kind of practice that brings good results." The book is organized into three parts: elementary work, on how to approach any subject; rhetorical effectiveness, on style, figures of speech, and sentence and paragraph structure; kinds of composition, on different kinds of correspondence, and the modes of narration, description, exposition, and with a considerable emphasis on argument. Models of good writing are meant to be approachable ideals, exercises are used throughout and based on the practices of known writers, and oral composition is given attention as a step in the composing process.The Schultz Archive's copy is incomplete: It contains up to page 40, and roughly 192 to 353, and appendix II, pages 360 - 365.
1890 printing of the 1886 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric in Amherst College. The book's preface emphasizes the practical, being those elements that may be applied to the construction of literature and can be taught. It must be taught as mechanism and through its effects in the concrete. The introduction further explains that rhetoric is adaptation, a science and an art, and that the text will deal with it in two main topics: style, which deals with the expression of discourse, and invention, which deals with the thought. The style section of the book has chapters on diction, figures of speech, and composition. The invention section has chapters on mental aptitudes and habits, general processes in the ordering of material, reproduction of the thought of others, invention deal with observed objects (description), invention dealing with events (narration), invention dealing with generalizations (exposition), invention dealing with truths (argumentation), and invention dealing with practical issues (persuasion). The introduction credits the influence of Campbell. The rules are accompanied with illustrative examples from notable writers. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text. A few pages cut off the edges of the text.
1894 printing of the 1893 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric in Amherst College and as the author of two other texts on rhetoric. The preface explains that the book is meant to provide the necessary rhetorical theory and to accompany every step with critical and constructive written exercises in a progressive and systematic order. The theory is given as a list of rules, each accompanied by a paragraph of explanation and illustrative examples (the rules are positive expressions of principle rather than a series of don'ts). The exercises are novel according to the author and are based in groups of rules rather than individual ones, and they include compositions (on familiar topics) to be rewritten and sentences to be amended in a creative, problem-solving manner rather than corrective. The appendix has a digest of rules and a glossary of words and forms. The book is organized into two parts. Part One is Mastery of Materials and includes chapters on choice of words, phraseology, and special objects in style. Part Two is Organization of Materials and includes chapters on the sentence, the paragraph, and the whole composition. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1857 printing of the 1856 copyrighted work. Conceived as an alternative to the Letter Writers which merely supply sample epistles to be copied or imitated. It wishes to provide instructions for young writers who wish to think for themselves. It credits the influence of Jardine's Principles of English Composition, Newman's Rhetoric, Fowler's English Grammar, Parker's Aids to English Composition and Letter Writing Simplified, Wilson's Treatise on Punctuation, and Mrs. Hale's Dictionary of Poetical Quotations and The Treasury of Knowledge. For a list of subjects, see the text's title. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
This first New York edition was printed in 1867 and copyrighted in 1866. Based on lectures given by the author at the Teachers' Institutes at the invitation of the Secretary of the Board of Education of Massachusetts in 1845 and 1846. The contents include many education topics from arithmetic to geography to music to discipline. The Schultz Archive's copy includes only three chapters: the uses and abuses of memory, English grammar, and composition. The author's lecture of grammar seems to draw mostly on the work of Murrary, Crombie, Wallis, and Priestley. The composition chapter is brief and mostly covers the teaching of punctuation.
1895 printing of the 1893 copyrighted text. Fletcher is credited as Instructor of English at Harvard College and Carpenter is credited as Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia College. A series of lectures delivered to the Freshman class at Harvard (by Fletcher) in the spring of 1893. It purports to be a study of the different kinds of composition and their treatment of a variety of subject matter. The kinds considered are letter-writing, translation, description, narration, criticism, exposition, argument, and persuasion. The main principle (called relativity) is that compositions should be judged by their effectiveness for the purpose at hand. The purpose is defined by the object in view, the individuality of the writer, and the capacity of the reader. The lectures are accompanied with examples and exercises for students. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1834 printing of the 1834 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Mrs. John Farrar and is the author of Congo In Search of His Master and The Children's Robinson Crusoe. The text seeks to address the difficulty children have in writing letters (epistles) and to offer an alternative to another popular text, Complete Letter-Writer, which the author finds filled with absurdities and faults. The text offers general directions, simple criticism, and good examples in the form of a narrative about a young letter writer of fourteen. The work covers many topics, such as punctuation, paragraphs, folding letters, sample topics, and invitations. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Revised edition, 1904 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Principal of the George G. Meade Grammar School. Preface begins by acknowledging that textbooks don't succeed in teaching grammar, providing students with examples of false syntax is unproductive, students learn language outside the classroom, so in the classroom they should be given correct forms of use. The work has 280 exercises using pictorial illustrations; questions; prompting statements, paragraphs to be summarized or paraphrased; words to be described, defined, rearranged, or used in sentences; fill in the blanks; and other prompts for writing and phrase combining. The book credits school periodicals as sources for its exercises, such as Canadian School Journal, the New England Journal of Education, and the School Journal Intelligence. A handbook that emphasizes a wide assortment of exercises for grammar practice.
1842 printing of the 1842 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Master of Arts degree and as Professor of Belles Lettres in the High School of Philadelphia. Seeks to address the insufficiency in teaching grammar through parsing alone. It maintains the common forms of classification, but treats orthography more fully than usual, shortens the section on construction, expands the rules of arrangement, and uses oral and written exercises. Derivation has been moved to the appendix. Although it maintains much of Lowth and Murray, the work credits the heavy influence of M'Culloch. The work includes pictorial illustrations, especially in the sections of writing exercises. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
The printing is indeterminable from the copy. The text was copyrighted in 1828. The author is credited as the Principal of the Mayhew Grammar School in Boston.
The text simplifies the principles of grammar for younger pupils and asks them apply those principals in series of progressive exercises in parsing. Organized by the four divisions: orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. It also includes a series of exercises in false grammar at the end. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text, but the original was apparently water damaged, such that throughout the text the bottom corners are dark and may be difficult or impossible to read.
1845 printing (and second edition) of the 1844 copyrighted text. The author, Reverend Frazee, is credited as the Late Principal of Elizabeth Female Academy, Washington, Mississippi. The work is organized into orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. Etymology and syntax are arranged to be progressive and practical, the arrangement being founded on nature and therefore philosophical; definitions and rules are more accurate and precise; the mode of instruction is inductive, teaches the idea, illustrates it plainly, exercises the student upon it, and then requires the student to commit it to memory. The work credits the influence (in philosophical grammar) of Harris's Hermes, Monboddo, Cobbett's Grams. Lewis' An. Outlines, Tooke's Purley, De Sacy, Brewster, Crombie's Syntax, Webster's Grams. Latham's Grams. In practical grammar: Ben Jonson, Lowth, Andrew, Buchanan, Lennie, Stucliffe, Richard Hiley, Alexander, Comley, Chandler, Cardell, Cooper, Alger, Pond, Fowle, Frost, Green, Hull, Ingersol, Nutting, Parkhurst, Picket, Brace, Goodenow, Park and Fox, Pierce, Wright, Hazen, Cornell, Pue. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text. 192 pages.
1842 printing of 1842 copyrighted text. The second part is for grammar schools, while the first part is for preparatory schools (and includes illustrative engravings).The text rejects the old system of grammar of Murray. It claims to be a proper conservative grammar written for those English speakers who will not study other languages, addressed to the understanding and not the memory. It covers classes of English words (with tables of examples), rules for sentence construction, analysis and parsing, rules of syntax, and includes review questions Includes practical exercises to illustrate every principle and is arranged to explain the differences between its system and the old system. Credits the influence of Wallis, Harris, Horne Tooke, Gilchrist, and Crombie. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the entire text of the second part.
1866 printing of the 1866 copyrighted text. Fewsmith is credited with a Master of Arts and as Principal of an English and Classical School. Singer is credited as Principal of Zane Street Grammar School. The preface states there is an elementary introduction to this work being prepared. The work seeks to offer just the right amount of explanation to aid students in the understanding of its principles. It is for the classroom and personal study, following the usual division of the four parts of grammar: orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. Includes examples, models, and exercises (in parsing, false syntax, analysis). Credits the influence of Goold Brown. A grammar handbook structured around simple definitions. The Schultz Archive copy includes only up to page 40 (including the preface and ToC) of a text that is at least 228 pages.
1837 printing of the 1837 copyrighted text. Title page asserts this edition was abridged from a work preparing for publication. No information about the author is given. The preface explores many of what it argues are the faults with the rules of Murray's grammar, from which most contemporary grammar textbooks are derived. In its place, the author is working on a system of grammar termed the Architective, Constructive, or Structural System. It attempts to explain all the relations of words in the forms of speech, and its classifications are based on those relations. The preface says the work draws on, rebuts, or is in response to the works of Lowth, Cheever Felch, Rees, Cardell, Emerson and others.The Schultz Archive excerpt only includes preface and first few examples on nouns/verbs.
No printing date given. Copyrighted 1888. The author is credited as Principal of the George S. Meade Grammar School Philadelphia. The book purports to train young students to use their own simply vocabulary to compose properly-expressed sentences, as well as oral and written stories and descriptions, while also gradually expanding their vocabularies. Questions accompany detailed pictorial illustrations or short textual examples, some of which are abridged versions of Aesop's fables, to encourage thought and prompt elaboration or storytelling. There are 82 lessons in all. The Schultz Archive is roughly the complete text.
No printing date given. Copyrighted 1871. The author is credited for authoring a number of other books on various subjects. Although the preface argues thought is the seed of composition, the writer must also first conquer/study spelling, grammar, punctuation, style, and clearness of expression before writing an acceptable composition. The two most important points in preparation are the proper formation of ideas and their correct arrangement. The book provides a long list of themes/topics for a composition, with each being broken into several sections for elaboration and discussion. Some themes/topics are given introductions and conclusions. Others contain probing questions, sample quotations for evidence, or claims for further exploration. A few are more complete, brief compositions for study and imitation. Topics/themes include politeness, umbrellas, letter on business, and the cowardice of crime. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text, but many pages are blurred close to spine, making them either difficult or impossible to read in their entirety.
1857 printing of the 1857 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English (LL. D.). Despite the 1857 copyright notice, this work is identical to the 1835 edition also in the Schultz Archive: Lessons on Common Things: Their Origin, Nature, and Uses for Schools and Families. Illustrated with Fifty-Two Engravings on Wood.
Frost is credited as the editor. This is an American edition of the English book Lessons on Objects, published by teachers of the Pestalozzian school. In this edition hard and Latinized words have been replaced with common ones. Objects are broken down into parts and qualities. Certain lessons are written as dialogues between children and the teacher. The investigation of the objects at the center of these lessons increases in complexity as the lessons progress. Later lessons are written in full paragraphs or as a series of questions. Some of the objects or scenes are illustrated by the wood cut engravings. The book is sectioned into five series, the last two are further separated into subsections such as "on the senses" or "on the metals." The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text. Some of the pages are dark and may be difficult to read.
1835 printing (third edition) of the 1835 copyrighted text. Frost is credited as the editor. This is an American edition of the English book Lessons on Objects, published by teachers of the Pestalozzian school. In this edition hard and Latinized words have been replaced with common ones. Objects are broken down into parts and qualities. Certain lessons are written as dialogues between children and the teacher. The investigation of the objects at the center of these lessons increases in complexity as the lessons progress. Later lessons are written in full paragraphs or as a series of questions. Some of the objects or scenes are illustrated by the wood cut engravings. The book is sectioned into five series, the last two are further separated into subsections such as "on the senses" or "on the metals." The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text. Some of the pages are dark and may be difficult to read.
1828 printing, the second edition, copyrighted 1827. Short book focusing on exercises etymological and syntactical parsing that grow in difficulty over each chapter. The work attempts to make the study of English grammar easier through classification of the forms of English construction. It is to be used after students have committed the rules of grammar to memory. There are forty lessons in all. Some use quotations by distinguished authors. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1839 printing, the second edition - stereotyped, copyrighted 1839. The author has a Master of Arts degree and is credited at Professor of Belles Lettres in the High School of Philadelphia. Conceived as an alternative to texts which teach composition through an emphasis on words and phrases and neglect things, which form the substratum of thought. The text is a course of composition exercises on pictures and real objects. The first edition of 3,000 copies sold out, prompting a second edition which included additions of pictures and a section on dialogue writing. The work has three sections: Introductory Course of Easy Exercises, Structure of Sentences, and Figurative Language. The first section covers description of objects and scenes, subjects for description and narration, and narration of real and imaginary incidents. The second section covers parts of speech and exercises in composition focusing on qualities of style such as clearness, precision, strength, unity, and harmony. The book features many heavily detailed pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1839 printing, copyrighted 1839. The author has a Master of Arts degree and is credited at Professor of Belles Lettres in the High School of Philadelphia. Conceived as an alternative to texts which teach composition through an emphasis on words and phrases and neglect things, which form the substratum of thought. The text is a course of composition exercises on pictures and real objects. The work has three sections: Introductory Course of Easy Exercises, Structure of Sentences, and Figurative Language. The first section covers description of objects and scenes, subjects for description and narration, and narration of real and imaginary incidents. The second section covers parts of speech and exercises in composition focusing on qualities of style such as clearness, precision, strength, unity, and harmony. The book features many heavily detailed pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1904 printing of the 1904 and 1899 copyrighted text.The author is credited as President of the University of Illinois. The text covers the history of organized systems of education in the United States. It begins by discussing the role of English and Dutch settlers on the educational culture and values of the people of the United States and it precedes to look at the different levels of organization based on levels of government and administration from school districts to townships to counties to states and the national level. It includes private education and colleges and universities. It uses statistics from the United States bureau of education. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
No printing year given. 1897 copyrighted text. The author is a Ph.D. and credited as President of Swarthmore College. Based on two leading ideas: progressive exercises in composition and an inductive approach to grammar. The work is divided into sentences exercises and composition exercises. The exercises are based on occupations, nature, history, and great literature. Pictorial illustrations are used to stimulate the imagination. Book I of the text is for third and fourth graders. Book II is for fifth and sixth graders. The author credits the influence of Baron, Junghann, and Schindler. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text of Book I.
1846 fifth edition/printing of the 1843 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of District School Speaker. The text endeavors to find a more natural way of teaching grammar than to rely on the methods used for Latin and Greek. The text's first part is a plan for oral instruction. The second part covers the Eight Parts of Speech. The third part covers twelve rules of syntax, and contains lessons for parsing and the correction of false grammar. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes the preface.