This is an excerpt of the 1868 printing of the 1867 copyrighted text. The author has a Master of Arts and is the superintendent of the Bingham School. The work professes to innovation in response to the study of philology of the period; it discusses grammar as a science with laws. It professes an interest in plain English to foreign words. Its definitions are identical to those in Latin grammar. Credits the influence of Mulligan, Latham, Richardson, Goold Brown, and Butler. Its etymology and syntax are derived from German grammars of Latin and Greek. Rules and their explanations are followed by the copious parsing exercises. Excerpt includes preface, ToC, and chapters on orthography and nouns.
This third edition is dated 1805. The author is credited with a Master of Arts and as the author of three other books. Bingham's book is based on the notion that children love to receive letters and cherish the ability to respond on their own. The intent of the book is to assist students in learning to write, specifically letters, by making writing a pleasurable experience. The book consists of many example letters that children may write or receive. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text of the third edition (pages 20-21 are repeated), and a single page (page 60) is difficult to read. Otherwise, the text is in good condition.
1856 printing of this work copyrighted in 1856. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts degree. A sequel to Barton's New System of English Grammar, Practical Exercises is directed toward primary school students for the acquisition of English grammar. The book founds itself upon imitation and exercises in order to progress students from basic understanding of grammar to its more substantial application in composition scenarios and the critical study of English Literature. It also includes review questions. The contents covers punctuation, sentence structure, style (purity, propriety, precision), structure and style, figurative language, and modes of composition (narratives, descriptions, epistles, essay, arguments). The appendixes includes information on writing for publication and proofreading. The Schultz Archive includes the entire text, and it is in good condition (the cover page is somewhat sideways).
The printing of the second thousand of the text, dated 1862. The copyright was registered in 1859. William S. Barton is credited as the author of other grammar books and has a Master of Arts degree. Building on the author's previous work Intermediate Grammar, the work is meant for high school students and high school teachers, but also for college work and general reference. It draws specifically on english philology. The preface gives credit to Wallis, Harris, Lowth, Greenwood (as older grammarians) and Murray, Crombie, Latham, Webster, Brown (as modern), and Bopp, Becker, Kuhner and Andrews and Stoddard for contributions to the philosophy and method of language. The Schultz Archive's excerpt only covers roughly the first 59 pages, including preface, basic orthography, and nouns. It does, however, also include two appendixes and the index, which lays out the contents of this 373 page text. The scans are very good quality.
No information is given on the printing of this 1889 edition printed in London. Henry J. Barker was lecturer on English Language and Literature to Pupil Teachers under the London School Board. Barker's text examines the study of the English language as interpreted by young students. Some of the chapters were previously published in Longman's Magazine as "Studies of Elementary School Life." The chapters contain anecdotes and commentary on the student whose writing is featured in that chapter, a selection of writing by that student, and further commentary on the writing itself. The purpose of the text seems to be amusement for the reader, perhaps at the expense of the "specimens" in the text. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (pages 86-87 are missing), and the scans are good quality, except some highlighter obscures text throughout.
No information on the printing or edition is given. The copyright is 1884. No information on the author is given. The book emphasizes adaptation as the fundamental law of rhetoric and the effects produced "at the time and under the circumstances." Conversation and letter writing are to be used to develop in the student rhetoric's important laws. Personal experience is seen as the basis for students learning narration and description. Illustrations are used throughout, particularly anecdotes and quotations from leading authors. The author specifically acknowledges _The Art of Extempore Speech_ by M. Bautain and _The Art of Reading_ by M. Legouve as influences. The sections are Sentence Making, Conversation, Letter-Writing, the Essay, the Oration, and Poetry. The chapter on conversation focuses on sociability, beginning with a chapter on "Good Breeding." The chapter on the essay is quite alliterative, its chapters: preparation, invention, style, purity, propriety, precision, perspictuity, power, perfection, and (most interestingly) preparation for the press. The Schultz Archive includes a large portion of the text; however, it is missing part I and pages 152-69, 256-303, and 504-end (Part V on oration and Part VI Poetry). The scans are good quality, but there is some highlighter that obscures text throughout.
This is an 1894 printing of this work. Its copyright was registered in 1884.T. Whiting Bancroft was Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Brown University. Bancroft's composition text seeks to add a focus on rhetoric, modes and types of composition. Bancroft intends for his text to be used in conjunction with existing composition textbooks. The treatment of argumentative composition intends to show relation between deductive and inductive thought. It is divided into two sections: kinds of composition and practice in composition. Kinds of composition are broken into three parts: Explanatory, argumentative, and persuasive composition. The section on practice of composition is primarily concerned with themes. It provides examples of themes and outlines of essays that explore these themes. In the last part of the practice of composition on the relation of reading to composition, the author has credited the influence of librarians. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text; however, some of the pages are missing and have blank scans in their places. The quality of the text is high.
No information on edition or printing is given on the copy. The author, Charles Sears Baldwin, is a Ph.D. and an instructor in rhetoric in Yale University. This manual for first term college students is divided into three parts: the composition as a whole, the paragraph, and the sentence. Intended to prepare and supplement writing knowledge before more special courses, Baldwin's college composition text is intended only to provide students with a structural system for composition. Baldwin advocates not writing strictly by rules; rather, he suggests a basic understanding of the principles of composition. In the introduction he states there are four kinds of writing: description, narration, persuasion, and exposition. This book focuses on applying its principles exclusively to exposition. It further advocates that its rules of construction be applied in the process of revision. It uses familiar terms such as unity, coherence, clearness, and emphasis. The Schultz Archive includes the text in its entirety, and the quality of the text is high.
No information regarding edition or printing is in the copy. No information on the author is provided. Balch's addition to the list of grammar handbooks seeks to improve the methods of grammar instruction by rendering language study more scientific (and less like an art) and less focused on mere rule memorization. The author hopes that such a transformation will make the study of grammar more interesting for high school students because they will be encouraged to create their own models. He is interested in "the essential principles of human speech and the best method of constructing sentences according to the idiom of the English language." The preface also interestingly states that "[t]he inseparable connexion between words, ideas, and things, is carefully observed." The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt of the cover page, contents, preface, introduction and a short section of text. The text is legible, but some highlighting does obscure throughout.
No information on edition or printing is on this copy. The title state the author is an instructor.
Balch's primary school grammar handbook wishes to change the manner in which grammar is taught to schoolchildren. Instead of expecting them to memorize and apply myriad rules in which they are not interested, Balch believes children's natural interest should be fostered by the usage of familiar things to teach. The Schultz Archive only includes a very brief excerpt of the cover page and preface. The quality is poor, but everything is legible.
1887 printing of the enlarged edition of the first part of Bain's English Composition and Rhetoric. Alexander Bain is a Doctor of Laws of English and Emeritus Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen.The first part, Intellectual Elements of Style (included here), is focused on "Elements of Style that concern the understanding." The second part is about the "emotional qualities." This "re-modeling" is designed to narrow the scope and devote more attention to certain portions chosen for their utility. Its topics are order of words; number of words; the sentence; the paragraph; figures of speech; and the qualities of style: clearness, simplicity, impressiveness, and picturesqueness. Bain states that these topics are expounded, exemplified, and applied to the arts of criticism and composition. Bain has somewhat reordered the contents that was previously sectioned under the kinds of composition (description, narration, exposition, oratory). The Schultz Archive copy is the complete text of part first of the enlarged edition.
1884 printing of the revised American edition of Bain's rhetorical manual focused on style, structure, and modes. The copyright page states it was registered in 1866. Alexander Bain had a Master of Arts and was Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. It states an interest in methodizing instruction in english composition, stating that little can be done to cultivate students' fund of expression, but that they can be taught to discriminate between good and bad expression. Rhetoric is defined as "the means whereby language, spoken or written, may be rendered effective." The text is divided into two parts. Part one deals with composition in general, particularly figures of speech, qualities of style, the sentence, and the paragraph. Part two deal with five kinds or modes of composition: description, narration (historical composition), exposition (science), oratory (persuasion), and poetry. Its rules and principles are accompanied with examples from canonical texts. It also includes analyzed extracts in its appendix. Although it has not been digitzed, the Schultz Archive's hardcopy is the complete text. It is identical to the 1887 printing (that is digitzed), excepting paratextual advertisements.
1887 printing of the revised American edition. The copyright page states it was registered in 1866. Alexander Bain had a Master of Arts and was Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. It states an interest in methodizing instruction in english composition, stating that little can be done to cultivate students' fund of expression, but that they can be taught to discriminate between good and bad expression. Rhetoric is defined as "the means whereby language, spoken or written, may be rendered effective." The text is divided into two parts. Part one deals with composition in general, particularly figures of speech, qualities of style, the sentence, and the paragraph. Part two deal with five kinds or modes of composition: description, narration (historical composition), exposition (science), oratory (persuasion), and poetry. Its rules and principles are accompanied with examples from canonical texts. It also includes analyzed extracts in its appendix. The Schultz Archive's copy is the complete text.
No printing or edition information is provided on this copy. Rufus W. Bailey has a Master of Arts degree, but his status as a reverend is omitted on this text. He was a teacher for over thirty years. The prefaces states this book is for mothers, fathers, elder brothers and sisters, and female teachers employed in primary and public schools. A grammar handbook for younger students that features various modes of examples such as lists or mock conversations. It argues that children learn nouns first, then verbs, and then the combining of these two in sentences. Part one teachers sentence structure and parts of speech; part two, etymology; part three, syntax; part four, rules of punctuation, orthography, and a dictionary of english grammar. It does not use exercises of correcting false grammar, as the author believes those are unhelpful. The Schultz Archive's copy is the complete text.
Stated as the tenth edition on the cover page. Reverend R. W. Bailey is stated as having a Master of Arts degree and in the preface it states he taught English youth for over thirty years. Bailey's English Grammar is a fairly standard grammar handbook from the nineteenth century. The author acknowledges the myriad grammar handbooks that precede his own, but explains that his book serves as a kind of aggregate of such manuals. It divides grammar into four parts: orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. It gives three classes of words: nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The handbook includes fairly detailed sections on many of the parts of speech. It says its method of parsing is analytic rather than synthetic, but philosophic and inductive. The end of each section has a review. The preface states an interest in a pure English. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt (the cover page, preface, contents and a few snippets of text), but they are good quality.
No edition or printing information is given on this copy. The author alludes to the fact that he is a teacher in the preface where he addresses the audience as his “fellow teachers.” Badgley's work is a grammar textbook for school children that emphasizes object teaching and working with the familiar in order to promote a better understanding of the English language. Badgely states the instruction is drawn from nature and uses the inductive and synthetic method. It moves from facts and things to general truths and from arranging words into sentences to analysis. “Ideas and thoughts precede expression.” The sections are grammar and the parts of speech; classification and variation of nouns and pronouns, adjectives and adverbs; analysis of sentences and syntactical parsing; and syntax (a list of rules and exercises of violation of these rules).The book provides exercises in the form of staged conversations in order to better relate to the students. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text in very good condition.
No edition or printing information is included on this copy. No author is credited, although Whitney, Jocelyn, and Annin are credited as illustrators. It includes basic information on composing, including advice on penmanship, titling, margins, paragraphs, spelling, capital letters, punctuation, arranging sentences, style (purity, precision, clearness, strength, harmony, unity), and modes (debates, letters). The majority of the text is a collection of ornate illustrations for the purpose of aiding composition development. Each illustration is accompanied with advice on how to elaborate on subjects within the illustration.
No edition or printing information is given in the copy. The author has a Bachelor of Arts from Smith College. As indicated by the subtitle, the work is intended for secondary and college students. Includes topics historical, imaginative, argumentative and subsequent brief chapters on: plan, or analysis; elaboration of points; criticism of one's own work; form of finished composition; composition an essential factor in the study of rhetoric; and figures of speech. The work seems addressed more to the teacher of the students than the students themselves. It attempts to explain how to students should mentally approach the act of writing but its language suggests a teacher thinking about the student’s mental habits rather than the student working though his own thoughts.
No edition or printing information is available on this copy. The author, Israel Alger Jr., was a school teacher in Boston with a Master of Arts degree. This work was approved for use in Boston schools by the School Committee of Boston. This work is an “enlargement” of Lindley Murray’s grammar textbook with exercises. It is sectioned as exercises in parsing, exercises in etymology, exercises in syntax, exercises in punctuation, and exercises to promote perspicuous and accurate writing. This last section includes exercises in writing focusing on rules of purity, propriety, precision, clearness, unity, strength and figures of speech. The exercises are incorrect examples that violate these rules.
No edition or printing information is available in this copy. Written by Reverend Charles Adams, Principal of Newbury Seminary, a high school and literary institution. This system of grammar was created by the author for use in his own classes. It is based on the work of Lindley Murray, whose works on English grammar were published in the last decade of the 18th century. The author has endeavored to improve upon its definitions where possible. It provides four divisions of grammar: Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody. Orthography covers the nature of letters and proper spelling. Etymology covers the classifications of words with accompanying examples. Rules of syntax are accompanied with correct and incorrect examples. Prosody has two parts: pronunciation, comprising accent, quantity, emphasis, pause, and tone, and the laws of versification, which is the arrangement of syllables. Laws of punctuation are included. The text ends with eleven chapters of example texts that serve as exercises in parsing.
The Schultz Archive includes the complete text with minimal disruptions in quality. There are very rare instances of highlighting which obscures the readability; however, the text is otherwise impeccable.
Abbott's work provides rules and exercises for eliminating ambiguity in writing. The premise of this textbook is the notion that clarity, unlike many other characteristics of writing and speech, can be achieved through mechanistic rules and practice. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt, consisting of the title page, preface and partial table of contents.
An American 19th century abridgment of 18th century textbook on literary criticism by the Scottish Enlightenment scholar Henry Home, Lord Kames. Explores the role of human nature in literary composition and criticism, particularly the emotions and passions. The original was published in 1762. Includes review questions.
[New York] Bulletin de l'Union républicaine de langue française, November 15, 1869-September 9, 1871. The emigres of 1848-49 formed the core of support for the Bulletin, which became involved with the International Workingmen's Association. The gap towards the end of 1870 reflected the dislocations of the Franco-Prussian War and the French declaration of a republic, after which hundreds of French radicals in New York returned to France, at least for the duration of the war. The publication reappeared in 1872 as Le Socialiste.
[New York City] The European, November 15, 1856-May 2, 1858, editor Hugh Forbes. Forbes, an English Garibaldian organized the emigres of 1848-49 in New York City with local radicals into a coalition of Universal Democratic Republicans. It became part of the International Association of the 1850s, and the foundation for the American sections of the International Workingmen's Association after the Civil War. Impressed by Forbes' war record coupled to his militant hostility to slavery, eastern abolitionists involved with John Brown recruited Forbes to be his military advisor. Convinced that the plan for Harpers Ferry was suicidal and unnecessary, Forbes left the operation. By 1860, he was back in Italy with Garibaldi, and, in his absence, became an easy figure to blame for the project's defeat.
Habitat: sandstone bluffs and gorges, hemlock/hardwood coves, floodplains, upland nixed hardwood forests, pine forests; wet sandstone
Locality: Crane Hollow Nature Preserve (Crane Hollow) S of Gibisonville St. N of Conkle's Hollow State Nature Preserve, E of 374 Cream Ridge Road
Cincinnati has one of the lowest home ownership rates in the country for cities of comparable size. Several other cities with low rates of home ownership in 1970 have managed to increase their rates two to four percent over the past 25 years, but the home ownership rate in Cincinnati has been stable over that period at 38 percent.
The best explanation for Cincinnati’s low home ownership rate is that the topography of the city encouraged dense development involving multiple-unit structures up until World War II. When the highway programs of the post-war period opened up the suburbs to development, the city was already built-out and could not compete for new single-unit construction that the federal government was subsidizing on a massive scale.
In the last 50 years, the Hamilton County suburbs have gained 140,000 owners while the number of owners in the city has decreased by 1,000. As a result, the home ownership rate in the Cincinnati metropolitan area is greater than the national rate for areas of comparable size (63 percent versus 61 percent) while the rate in the city is far less than the national rate.
The City of Cincinnati faces a number of challenges in any effort to increase its home ownership rate. Government programs in other cities typically produce dozens of units a year, not the hundreds of units that Cincinnati needs to produce. In order to achieve even a modest increase in home ownership, the city will have to alter market forces in the direction of increased supply of housing suitable for owner-occupancy and increased demand for home ownership.
In order to increase its rate of home ownership to 41 percent by the year 2010, the City of Cincinnati needs to adopt a four-part strategy:
Increase the Supply of Units
The market cannot produce new units on its own. The city needs to assemble and prepare sites in order to reduce the additional costs associated with building in the city as opposed to the suburbs. City Hall must continue to eliminate barriers to development and provide new services to builders. Cincinnati will not be able to increase the number of middle-class owners without creating new neighborhood areas with the appropriate mix of amenities. At the lower end of the owner-market, the city needs to move aggressively to convert abandoned structures into units people will want to buy and rehabilitate.
Help Renters Become Owners
While converting renters to owners is an essential component of an overall strategy, the City of Cincinnati must recognize that not everyone can be an owner and target its resources appropriately. The city does not have unlimited funds to change the cost equation of owning a home and will, therefore, have to learn from other cities how to work with lending institutions to increase the flow of dollars under Community Reinvestment Act initiatives. Other cities have had some limited success with programs to convert people renting duplex and condo units into owners. The city needs to increase the availability, extent and quality of education and counseling programs.
Attract New Households to the City
The city has to market its neighborhoods, and in some cases, smaller areas within neighborhoods. This will require market research, training programs for Realtors, investments in street furniture, increased services, publications extolling city neighborhoods, and programs comparable to the Living in Cleveland program. The city needs to start working cooperatively with the Cincinnati Public Schools. Specific market niches in which the city can hope to compete very successfully include the empty nesters, the gay and lesbian community, first time buyers, and people interested in downtown living.
Maintain the Existing Pool of Owners
About 75 percent of the time a home owner in Cincinnati sells and buys another home in the Cincinnati area, the home purchased will be in the suburbs. The city must create opportunities for the home seller to move up without moving out of the city.
In addition to the above strategies, which involve the central city market, the City of Cincinnati needs to actively promote strategies that will help slow the rate of suburbanization and that will create low income housing opportunities in the suburbs. If suburbanization continues at the current rate, and if the city continues to be the governmental unit with de facto responsibility for low income housing, there is every reason to wonder if there is anything that the city can do to increase its rate of home ownership.