In this paper, I study how medical records are being used by cyber-criminal for financial gain and patient manipulation. I studied what kind of criminal organizations may be involved in these operations and confirmed incidents from the black market. I conducted a literature review which generated several sources from online databases. I determined five major criminal factions that are most likely to use compromised medical records, determined possible motivations and looked at several cases of medical records being sold on the black market. The healthcare industry’s digitization efforts have left it tremendously ill-equip to combat emerging threats. It is evident that the healthcare industry must take extreme measures in order to counteract the evolving threat landscape. It is my hope that the findings of paper will being to shed light on these issues and help healthcare professionals understand what kind of threats the industry is facing.