In this study a general approach is introduced for the design of a robust control law for suppression of structure borne vibration. This control law is based on a passive design in the form of dynamic vibration absorbers. Passive absorbers minimize vibration at a speci c frequency, but their performance is improved by introducing adaptive tuning of the absorber. An adaptive dynamic vibration absorber is tuned to the forcing frequency, using classical methods. The tuning ratio is time varying and adapts itself to variations in the forcing frequency. However, the uniqueness of the approach in this study is that the damping parameter of the absorber is continuously varied by means of a fuzzy-logic control algorithm to provide a lower sound pressure level. The inputs of the fuzzy control law are the displacement and velocity of the main structure. The effectiveness of the control algorithm for active vibration control is demonstrated using MATLAB® simulations of a single-degree-of-freedom plant. This methodology provides superior performance in the presence of signi cant mistuning compared to a more conventional approach.
The control of exible structures employing the passivity approach has been extended to systems having noncollocated input/output pairs by introducing an observer that incorporates the nominal dynamical model of the plant. The passive observer-based control is applied to the American Control Conference benchmark problem, whereby, the control force emulates a dynamic vibration absorber attached to a virtual wall with passive control elements (spring, mass, and dashpot). The springs and mass elements of the controller are constant, whereas the damping coef cients are selected as time dependent in an attempt to choose continuously the most appropriate amount of damping in compliance with the design goals. A novel approach is introduced, whereby the passive observer-based control law is modi ed by varying the damping coef cient of the virtual dashpot by means of an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm. This modi ed system exhibits quick settling times and desirable performance characteristics. Results from the statistical robustness analysis for the developed controller are compared to 10 other (linear) solutionsof the benchmarkproblem. The comparisonis based onrobust stability, robust performance (settling time), and control effort. The results obtained by the adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm are superior to those obtained by all other methods, and, consequently, further application of the fuzzy algorithm is advocated.
The present study deals with an AFCA (Adaptive Fuzzy Control Algorithm) for an Euler-Bernoulli approximation of a two-dimensional version of a cantilever beam-like orthogonal tetrahedral space truss. Transient disturbances, modeled as a unit impulse, excite all the modes of the beam. The resulting transverse displacement at the free end of the beam and its corresponding rate are observed by sensors placed there, and active control of the beam is provided by a collocated force actuator.
A design methodology for the closed-loop control algorithm that is independent of an exact mathematical model (space-state model, F.E.M., etc.) of plant dynamics and which is based on fuzzy logic is presented. First, the behavior of the open-loop system is observed. Then, the control force applied to the system emulates the behavior of a dynamic vibration absorber which is tuned to the measured fundamental frequency. This approach not only assures inherent stability associated with passive absorbers, but also circumvents the phenomenon of modal spillover. The damping and the mass ratios of the absorber adapt themselves by using a fuzzy decision-making process. This results in relatively quick settling times, low overshoots and dying out of vibration within a few seconds.
When the control force is turned off after a mere 16 seconds, almost all the vibrational energy is dissipated. In addition, the performance of the AFCA is insensitive to varying initial conditions. To demonstrate the robustness of the control system to changes in the temporal dynamics of the cantilever beam, the transient response to a considerably perturbed plant is simulated. The Young's modulus of the beam was raised as well as lowered substantially, thereby significantly perturbing the natural frequencies of vibration. The mode shapes, however, remain unchanged. For these cases, too, the AFCA provides similar settling times and rates of vibrational energy dissipation.
A genetic algorithm was used to optimize performance of a fuzzy inference system acting as a controller for a magnetically actuated CubeSat. A solely magnetically controlled satellite is a nonlinear, underactuated system for which the uncontrollable axis varies as a function of orbit position and attitude; variation is approximately periodic with orbit position. Therefore, controllability is not guaranteed, making solely magnetic control a less than ideal option for spacecraft requiring a high degree of pointing accuracy or spacecraft subject to relatively large disturbances. However, for small spacecraft, such as CubeSats, with modest pointing and disturbance rejection requirements, solely magnetic actuation is a good option. The genetic-algorithm-tuned fuzzy controller solution was compared to a similar linear quadratic regulator solution that was tuned to minimize the cost function used by the genetic algorithm. Both were optimized with respect to a single set of initial conditions. The genetic-algorithm-tuned fuzzy controller was found to be a lower-cost solution than the linear quadratic regulator for the optimized set of initial conditions. Additionally, a Monte Carlo analysis showed the genetic-algorithm-tuned fuzzy controller tended to settle faster than the linear quadratic regulator over a variety of initial conditions.
For a Timoshenko beam model the equations of motion, representing the anisotropic continuum model of a two-dimensional, latticed, large space structure, are extended to include coupling between the extensional, shear and bending modes. This analytical model, applied to a 20-bay, orthogonal, tetrahedral, cantilevered truss structure, is used to determine the transient response when subjected to a unit impulse. It is demonstrated that for beam-like structures having a fixed bending stiffness and beam mass an increase in diagonal stiffness, on account of the stiffness of the vertical girder, leads to a rise in the transverse shear rigidity. This results in higher natural frequencies and a reduction in peak displacement. In addition, in an asymmetrical truss configuration, coupling between the extensional and shear modes raises the maximum peak displacement compared to that obtained for a symmetric truss. The model is modified to investigate the introduction of passive damping in the form of several dynamic vibration absorbers. For a fixed absorber mass budget, a simple yet efficient absorber parameter optimization procedure, based on the classical steady state criteria of a 2-DOF system, is developed to design several absorbers each tuned to a different modal frequency. It is found that inclusion of transverse shear rigidity, as a design parameter in damping augmentation studies, reduces settling time for predetermined maximum peak displacements.
This research was conducted within the framework of a National Science Foundation sponsored summer Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) students. This research considers small-scale and mathematical models of simple one-story structures that are subjected to free and base-motion excitations and installed with and without passive damping devices to gain an understanding of their dynamic behavior while reviewing active and semi-active damping means being applied and researched today. Using computer programming and numerical methods, the goal is to understand and counteract catastrophic disasters to structures caused by earthquakes. The research is broken down into a number of MATLAB simulations and experiments in order to understand basic dynamic and control features required to design earthquake resilient buildings. These experiments include free vibration experiments to test for the stiffness of columns for different heights and to test for the natural frequency and damping ratio of a one-story structure under different mass loads. Active PD control was then applied to an experimental system experiencing accelerations attributed to the Northridge 1994, Kobe 1995, El Centro 1940, and Mendocino 1992 earthquakes. Robustness comparisons were made between (1) P control; (2) D control; and (3) PD control for the above earthquake inputs to the shaker. A fuzzy logic controller was developed to effectively control transient vibrations. The uniqueness of this control concept is that the fuzzy control continuously varies the damping characteristics of a semi-active tuned mass damper (TMD). It was concluded that a fuzzy logic based TMD was more effective than a regular passive TMD, by providing half the settling times.
The effect of feedback flow control on the wake of a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 is investigated in direct numerical simulation. The control approach uses a low-dimensional model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The controller applies linear proportional and differential feedback to the estimate of the first POD mode. The range of validity of the POD model is explored in detail. Actuation is implemented as displacement of the cylinder normal to the flow. It is demonstrated that the threshold peak amplitude below which the control actuation ceases to be effective is in the order of 5% of the cylinder diameter. The closed-loop feedback simulations explore the effect of both fixed-phase and variable-phase feedback on the wake. Whereas fixed-phase feedback is effective in reducing drag and unsteady lift, it fails to stabilize this state once the low drag state has been reached. Variable-phase feedback, however, achieves the same drag and unsteady lift reductions while being able to stabilize the flow in the low drag state. In the low drag state, the near wake is entirely steady, whereas the far wake exhibits vortex shedding at a reduced intensity. A drag reduction of 15% of the drag was achieved, and the unsteady lift force was lowered by 90%.
For feedback control using low-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) models, the mode amplitudes of the POD mode coefficients need to be estimated based on sensor readings. This paper is aimed at suppressing the von Kairman vortex street in the wake of a circular cylinder using a low-dimensional approach based on POD. We compare sensor placement methods based on the spatial distribution of the POD modes to arbitrary ad hoc methods. Flow field data were obtained from Navier-Stokes simulation as well as particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. A low-dimensional POD was applied to the snapshot ensembles from the experiment and simulation. Linear stochastic estimation was used to map the sensor readings of the velocity field on the POD mode coefficients. We studied 53 sensor placement configurations, 32 of which were based on POD eigenfunctions and the others using ad hoc methods. The effectiveness of the sensor configurations was investigated at Re = 100 for the computational fluid dynamic data, and for a Reynolds number range of 82-99 for the water tunnel PIV data. Results show that a five-sensor configuration can keep the root mean square estimation error, for the amplitudes of the first two modes to within 4% for simulation data and within 10% for the PIV data. This level of error is acceptable for a moderately robust controller The POD-based design was found to be simpler. more effective, and robust compared to the ad hoc methods examined.
The effectiveness of a sensor configuration for feedback flow control on the wake of a circular cylinder is investigated in both direct numerical simulation as well as in a water tunnel experiment. The research program is aimed at suppressing the von Kármán vortex street in the wake of a cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100. The design of sensor number and placement was based on data from a laminar two-dimensional simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations for the unforced condition. A low-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to the vorticity calculated from the flow field and sensor placement was based on the intensity of the resulting spatial eigenfunctions. The numerically generated data was comprised of 70 snapshots taken over three cycles from the steady state regime. A linear stochastic estimator (LSE) was employed to map the velocity data to the temporal coefficients of the reduced order model. The capability of the sensor configuration to provide accurate estimates of the four low-dimensional states was validated experimentally in a water tunnel at a Reynolds number of 108. For the experimental wake, a sample of 200 particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements was used. Results show that for experimental data, the root mean square estimation error of the estimates of the first two modes was within 6% of the desired values and for the next two modes was within 20% of the desired values. This level of error is acceptable for a moderately robust controller.
Closed-loop control strategies were studied experimentally at low Reynolds and incompressible Mach numbers using periodic excitation to vector a turbulent jet. Vectoring was achieved by attaching a short, wide-angle diffuser at the jet exit and introducing periodic excitation from a slot covering one quadrant of the circumference of the round turbulent jet. Closed-loop control methods were applied to transition quickly and smoothly between different jet de ection angles. The frequency response of the zero-mass- ux piezoelectric actuatorwas at to about 0.5 kHz, but the jet responds up to 30–50 Hz only. This is still an order of magnitude faster than conventional thrust vectoring mechanism. System identi cation procedures were applied to approximate the system’s transfer function. A linear controller was designed that enabled fast and smooth transitions between stationary de ection angles and maintained desired jet vectoring angles under varying system conditions. The linear controller was tested over the entire range of available de ection angles, and its performance is evaluated and discussed.