The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and General Relativity could be studied using a factor dependent on specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. This mathematical definition of mass is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter Annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and General Relativity could be studied using an expression dependent on specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical definition of mass that is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter Annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and the General Relativity could be understood as children of a common expression that uses a factor dependent on the specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical definition of mass that is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and the General Relativity could be understood as children of a common expression that uses a factor dependent on the specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical definition of mass that is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the specific relativity and the general relativity could be understood as children of a common expression that uses a factor dependent on the specific energy. Surprisingly when such factor is used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an extraordinary approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical perspective of both time and mass that opens up again the question of what their definition really is, and which are the factors that modify such variables.
A formula has been developed that defines the relativity of time in a novel approach. In the present paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity. Using the previous equation, that serves as basis of the theory proposed, an interpretation of the nature of Black Holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed. Which ultimately leads to an alternative understanding of mass and energy.
A formula has been developed that defines the relativity of time in a novel approach. In the present paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity. Using the previous equation, that serves as basis of the “Time Theory” proposed, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed. Which ultimately leads to an alternative understanding of mass and energy.
A new formula has been developed that determines the passage of time. In the paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity.
Additionally, using the previous equation, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed.
Moreover, and based on all of the above, a different way of understanding mass and space is proposed. Which ultimately implies an alternative expression that relates mass and energy.
The development of complex and dependable systems like autonomous vehicles relies increasingly on the use of systems modeling language (SysML). In fact, SysML has become a de facto standard for systems engineering. With model-driven engineering, a SysML model serves as a reference for the early defect detection of the system under design: the earlier the errors are detected, the less is the cost of handling the errors. Mutation testing is a fault-based technique that has recently seen its applications to SysML behavioral models (e.g., state machine diagrams). Specifically, a system's state-transition design can be fed to a model checker where mutants are automatically generated and then killed against the desired design specifications (e.g., safety properties). In this paper, we present a novel approach based on process mining to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the SysML mutation testing based on model checking. In our approach, the mutation operators are applied directly to the state machine diagram. These mutants are then fed as traces into a process mining tool and checked according to the event logs. Our initial results indicates that the process mining approach kills more mutants faster than the model checking method.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a cognitive science to enables human to explore many intelligent ways to model our sensing and reasoning processes. Industrial AI is a systematic discipline to enable engineers to systematically develop and deploy AI algorithms with repeating and consistent successes. In this paper, the key enablers for this transformative technology along with their significant advantages are discussed. In addition, this research explains Lighthouse Factories as an emerging status applying to the top manufacturers that have implemented Industrial AI in their manufacturing ecosystem and gained significant financial benefits. It is believed that this research will work as a guideline and roadmap for researchers and industries towards the real-world implementation of Industrial AI.
It is shown in present study that Rainflow method is unable to accurately estimate fatigue life ofcomponents under random loading, almost always. The inconsistencies between results of Rainflowmethod and hysteresis curve are also discussed. Alike the Peak counting method, it is shown that Shadowmethod doesn’t consider the possibility of deformation within individual cycles. Hence, Moshrefifar andAzamfar method is proposed as a novel technique having accurate results in different analytical condi-tions which are in good consistence with results obtained from hysteresis curves. Authors finally proposean algorithm as well as a C language program for this method.
Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPSs) are complex manufacturing systems which aim to integrate and synchronize machine world and manufacturing facility to the cyber computational space. However, having intensive interconnectivity and a computational platform is crucial for real-world implementation of CPPSs. In this paper, the potential impacts of blockchain technology in development and realization of real-world CPPSs are discussed. A unified three-level blockchain architecture is proposed as a guideline for researchers and industries to clearly identify the potentials of blockchain and adapt, develop, and incorporate this technology with their manufacturing developments towards Industry 4.0.
A genetic algorithm was used to optimize performance of a fuzzy inference system acting as a controller for a magnetically actuated CubeSat. A solely magnetically controlled satellite is a nonlinear, underactuated system for which the uncontrollable axis varies as a function of orbit position and attitude; variation is approximately periodic with orbit position. Therefore, controllability is not guaranteed, making solely magnetic control a less than ideal option for spacecraft requiring a high degree of pointing accuracy or spacecraft subject to relatively large disturbances. However, for small spacecraft, such as CubeSats, with modest pointing and disturbance rejection requirements, solely magnetic actuation is a good option. The genetic-algorithm-tuned fuzzy controller solution was compared to a similar linear quadratic regulator solution that was tuned to minimize the cost function used by the genetic algorithm. Both were optimized with respect to a single set of initial conditions. The genetic-algorithm-tuned fuzzy controller was found to be a lower-cost solution than the linear quadratic regulator for the optimized set of initial conditions. Additionally, a Monte Carlo analysis showed the genetic-algorithm-tuned fuzzy controller tended to settle faster than the linear quadratic regulator over a variety of initial conditions.
Fuzzy logic is used in a variety of applications because of its universal approximator attribute and non-linear characteristics. But, it takes a lot of trial and error to come up with a set of membership functions and rule-base that will effectively work for a specific application. This process could be simplified by using a heuristic search algorithm like Genetic Algorithm (GA). In this paper, genetic fuzzy is applied to the task assignment for cooperating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) classified as the polygon visiting multiple traveling salesman problem (PVMTSP). The PVMTSP finds a lot of applications including UAV swarm routing. We propose a method of genetic fuzzy clustering that would be specific to PVMTSP problems and hence more efficient compared to k-means and c-means clustering. We developed two different algorithms using genetic fuzzy. One evaluates the distance covered by each UAV to cluster the search-space and the other uses a cost function that approximates the distance covered thus resulting in a reduced computational time. We compare these two approaches to each other as well as to an already benchmarked fuzzy clustering algorithm which is the current state-of-the-art. We also discuss how well our algorithm scales for increasing number of targets. The results are compared for small and large polygon sizes.
UAV’s are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. A certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of UAV’s. A quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAV’s are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. The objective of this research endeavor is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a quadrotor UAV. Validation of the math model developed is discussed using actual flight data. Excellent attitude tracking is demonstrated for near hover flight regimes. System design is comprehensively dealt with. The responses are analyzed and future work involving hardware-in-the-loop simulations is proposed.
Wildfire is one of the most significant disturbances responsible for reshaping the terrain and changing the ecosystem of a particular region. Its detrimental effects on environment as well as human lives and properties, and growing trend in terms of frequency and intensity of wildfires over the last decade have necessitated the development of efficient forest fire management techniques. During the last three decades, Forest Fire Decision Support Systems (FFDSS) have been developed to help in the decision-making processes during forest fires by providing necessary information on fire detection, their status and behavior, and other aspects of forest fires. However, most of these decision support systems lack the capability of developing intelligent fire suppression strategies based upon current status and predicted behavior of forest fire. This paper presents an approach for development of efficient fireline building strategies via intelligent resource allocation. A Genetic Algorithm based approach has been proposed in this paper for resource allocation and optimum fireline building that minimizes the total damage due to wildland fires. The approach is based on a simulation–optimization technique in which the Genetic Algorithm uses advanced forest fire propagation models based upon Huygens principles for evaluation of cost index of its solutions. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous environmental conditions have been considered. Uncertainties in weather conditions as well as imperfect knowledge about exact vegetation and topographical conditions make exact prediction of wildfires very difficult. The paper incorporates Monte-Carlo simulations to develop robust strategies in uncertain conditions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in efficient resource allocation for fighting
complex wildfires in uncertain and dynamic conditions.
This paper describes a market-based solution to the problem of assigning mobile agents to tasks. The problem is formulated as the multiple depots, multiple traveling salesmen problem (MTSP), where agents and tasks operate in a market to achieve near-optimal solutions. We consider both the classical MTSP, in which the sum of all tour lengths is minimized, and the Min-Max MTSP, in which the longest tour is minimized. We compare the market-based solution with direct enumeration in small scenarios, and show that the results are nearly optimal. For the classical MTSP, we compare our results to linear programming, and show that the results are within 1 % of the best cost found by linear programming in more than 90 % of the runs, with a significant reduction in runtime. For the Min-Max case, we compare our method with Carlsson's algorithm and show an improvement of 5 % to 40 % in cost, albeit at an increase in runtime. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the market-based solution to deal with changes in the scenario, e.g., agents leaving and entering the market. We show that the market paradigm is ideal for dealing with these changes during runtime, without the need to restart the algorithm, and that the solution reacts to the new scenarios in a quick and near-optimal way.
Over the past 10 years there has been a growing need to introduce closed-loop control technology for vibration suppression of buildings subject to wind or earthquake disturbances. This paper deals with the investigation of the effectiveness of a fuzzy logic based time variable damping tuned mass damper (TMD) on a building structure undergoing free and forced vibrations. The uniqueness of this approach is the application of a robust, nonlinear fuzzy based controller to emulate a time-optimal control strategy. Fuzzy logic based time variable damping is introduced into a semi-active TMD in order to enhance its performance in the vibration suppression of buildings. First, a single story structure for three different vibration suppression approaches is studied. The fuzzy logic based time variable damping TMD (fuzzy TMD) is compared to the baseline passive TMD as well as a conventional proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Forced vibration is introduced using a resonant harmonic sinusoidal excitation (i.e. same frequency as the fundamental frequency of the structure). Finally, the fuzzy TMD is compared to the baseline for the free vibration of a 15 story structure. For both structures studied, MATLAB based simulation results show that the passive TMD and the PD, both constant gain approaches, provide similar results whereas the fuzzy TMD yields half the settling time. This effort clearly demonstrates the potential of a variable gain (damping) strategy for the vibration suppression of buildings.
The standard curriculum for Aerospace Engineering students at the University of Cincinnati includes AEEM361 Integrated Aircraft Engineering. The goal of this course is to instruct students in the tools and methodology of aircraft design. The integrated aspects of aircraft design are underscored by introducing prejunior (between sophomore and junior) students to the state-of-the-art morphing technology, inspired by bat and bird flight, which can enable an aircraft to adapt its shape to best suit the flight condition thereby enhancing mission performance. In this article, we present the development of unique software tools, which provide undergraduates an opportunity to design airfoils for morphing aircraft. Morphing is introduced in the form of “on demand” camber as well as sweep change with the aim of improving aerodynamic efficiency for a multiobjective (several design points) mission profile. The Global Hawk UAV mission in general and its LRN1015 airfoil in particular is in focus due to the relative long mission times spent at the two different flight conditions, namely high-speed dash and low-speed loiter. We are using several tools to virtually simulate a morphing wing including XFOIL to perform fast and relatively accurate two-dimensional steady-flow simulations of different morphed configurations using a camber-controlled morphed wing to maneuver. In this article we detail AeroMorph, the educational MATLAB-based tool developed for design of a camber-controlled morphing of airfoils with the aim of improving aerodynamic efficiency and exploration of the basic relationships between flap deflection and airfoil morphing based on a camber change.
There are a variety of scenarios in which the mission objectives rely on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) being capable ofmaneuvering in an environment containing obstacles in which there is little prior knowledge of the surroundings. With an appropriate dynamicmotion planning algorithm, UAVs would be able tomaneuver in any unknown environment towards a target in real time. This paper presents a methodology for two-dimensional motion planning of a UAV using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy inference system takes information in real time about obstacles (if within the agent’s sensing range) and target location and outputs a change in heading angle and speed. The FL controller was validated, andMonte Carlo testing was completed to evaluate the performance.Not only was the path traversed by the UAV often the exact path computed using an optimal method, the low failure rate makes the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) feasible for exploration. The FLC showed only a total of 3% failure rate, whereas an artificial potential field (APF) solution, a commonly used intelligent control method, had an average of 18% failure rate. These results highlighted one of the advantages of the FLC method: its adaptability to complex scenarios while maintaining low control effort.
Feedback flow control of the wake of a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 is an interesting and challenging benchmark for controlling absolute instabilities associated with bluff body wakes. A two dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is used to develop low-dimensional models for estimator design. Actuation is implemented as displacement of the cylinder normal to the flow. The estimation approach uses a low dimensional model based on a truncated 6 mode Double Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (DPOD) applied to the streamwise velocity component of the flow field. Sensor placement is based on the intensity of the resulting spatial modes. A non-linear Artificial Neural Network Estimator (ANNE) was employed to map the velocity data to the mode amplitudes of the DPOD model. For a given four sensor configuration, developed using a previously validated strategy, ANNE performed better than two state-of-the-art approaches, namely, a Quadratic Stochastic Estimator (QSE) and a Linear Stochastic Estimator with time delays (DSE).
This research was conducted within the framework of a National Science Foundation sponsored summer Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) students. This research considers small-scale and mathematical models of simple one-story structures that are subjected to free and base-motion excitations and installed with and without passive damping devices to gain an understanding of their dynamic behavior while reviewing active and semi-active damping means being applied and researched today. Using computer programming and numerical methods, the goal is to understand and counteract catastrophic disasters to structures caused by earthquakes. The research is broken down into a number of MATLAB simulations and experiments in order to understand basic dynamic and control features required to design earthquake resilient buildings. These experiments include free vibration experiments to test for the stiffness of columns for different heights and to test for the natural frequency and damping ratio of a one-story structure under different mass loads. Active PD control was then applied to an experimental system experiencing accelerations attributed to the Northridge 1994, Kobe 1995, El Centro 1940, and Mendocino 1992 earthquakes. Robustness comparisons were made between (1) P control; (2) D control; and (3) PD control for the above earthquake inputs to the shaker. A fuzzy logic controller was developed to effectively control transient vibrations. The uniqueness of this control concept is that the fuzzy control continuously varies the damping characteristics of a semi-active tuned mass damper (TMD). It was concluded that a fuzzy logic based TMD was more effective than a regular passive TMD, by providing half the settling times.
Tasks allocation is a fundamental problem in multiagent systems. We formulate the problem as a multiple traveling salesmen problem (MTSP), which is an extension to the well known traveling salesman problem (TSP), both considered to be NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. We propose a solution in which agents interact in an economic market to win tasks situated in an environment. The agents strive to minimize required costs, defined as either the total distance traveled by all agents or the maximum distance traveled by any agent. Using a set of simple market operations, the agents come up with a solution for task allocation. In this work we examine the processing speed of the market-based solution (MBS), as well as the quality vs. optimal solutions achieved using enumeration for a 3 agents by 8 tasks scenario. We show that the MBS is both quick and close to optimal. We then show that the MBS can be scaled to more complicated problems, by comparing its results with results from genetic algorithm (GA) and clustering. We also show the robustness of the MBS to changes in the scenario, e.g. the addition and removal of tasks or agents.
Low-dimensional models have proven essential for feedback control and estimation of flow fields. While feedback control based on global flow estimation can be very efficient, it is often difficult to estimate the flow state if structures of very different length scales are present in the flow. The conventional snapshot-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), a popular method for low-order modeling, does not separate the structures according to size, since it optimizes modes based on energy. Two methods are developed in this study to separate the structures in the flow based on size. One of them is Hybrid Filtered POD method and the second one is 3D FFT-based Filtered POD approach performed using a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based spatial filtering. In both the methods, a spatial low-pass filter is employed to precondition snapshot sets before deriving POD modes. Three-dimensional flow data from the simulation of turbulent flow over a circular cylinder wake at Re=20000 is used to evaluate the performance of the two methods. Results show that both the FFT-based 3D Filtered POD and Hybrid Filtered POD are able to capture the large-scale features of the flow, such as the von Karman vortex street, while not being contaminated by small-scale turbulent structures present in the flow.
Uninhabited aerial vehicles provide numerous advantages in fighting wildland fires that include persistent operation and elimination of humans from performing what can be dull, dangerous, and dirty work. Multiple cooperating uninhabited aerial vehicles can potentially bring about a paradigm shift in the way we fight complex wildland fires. This paper investigates algorithmic development for cooperative control of a number of uninhabited aerial vehicles engaged in fighting a wildland fire. The paper considers two tasks to be performed by a group of uninhabited aerial vehicles: 1) Cooperative tracking of a fire front for accurate situational awareness, and 2) cooperative, autonomous fire fighting using fire suppressant fluid. The scenario considered in this paper makes the following assumptions: information regarding the location of the fire and position of all uninhabited aerial vehicles is made available to each uninhabited aerial vehicle; and each uninhabited aerial vehicle is equipped with unlimited fire suppressant fluid which extinguishes fire in a circle of specified area directly beneath it. This paper formulates these two tasks of fire fighting based upon optimization of respective utility functions, develops a decentralized control method for the cooperative uninhabited aerial vehicles, and analyzes the system for its stability and its ability to carry out the tasks. The proposed strategies have been verified with the help of extensive simulations. Although simplifying assumptions have been made, this preliminary study presents a framework for path planning and cooperative control of multiple uninhabited aerial vehicles engaged in gathering data and actively fighting forest fires.
Mazes have intrigued the human mind for thousands of years, and have been used to measure cognitive abilities of laboratory animals. In recent years, mazes have been used to examine the artificial intelligence of robots by observing their ability to traverse mazes using algorithm for maze exploration and exploitation.A simulation of a multi-agent system is used to demonstrate the benefits of utilizing a group of several robots in maze exploration. Using a behavioral algorithm based on Tarry’s algorithm, it is shown that the group performance improves and becomes more robust as the number of robots increases. In addition, the amount of data transfer required for group coordination can be minimized to a small set of data items, which is independent of either the number of robots in the group or the maze size.As a result, the above multi-agent approach can be scaled up to mazes or groups of any size, as indicated by the results of the MATLAB-based simulation.
The ability to spatially alter both the amount of body force along the span of a plasma actuator and the angle of the resulting jet relative to the surface has been demonstrated. A dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator consists of two electrodes separated by a dielectric barrier, which imparts momentum to the surrounding fluid parallel to the dielectric. To investigate a technique to shape the spanwise body force created by the plasma actuator, a control volume momentum balance was used. By shaping the buried electrode along the span of the actuator, the local volume of plasma generated can be controlled, which is related to the local body force. Pressure measurements were taken in the boundary layer behind the actuator to calculate the momentum imparted to the flow at various spanwise locations corresponding to different electrode widths. Particle image velocimetry data were then used to show that spatially varying, steady jets could be created with the use of only one actuator by varying the width of the buried electrode in a quiescent flow. The angle of the jet created, relative to the dielectric, by a plasma synthetic jet is also investigated. By pointing two plasma actuators at each other, an inverted impinging jet can be created as a result of the two independent jets colliding. By altering the strength of one of the jets relative to the other, the angle of separation can be changed. Particle image velocimetry data were taken to show the effects of altering the voltage (strength) applied to one of the actuators relative to the other. It was found that, with this method, jet vectoring could be achieved. The angle of the jet could be controlled a full 180 deg through small changes in the voltage applied to the electrodes, also in a quiescent flow.
For the systematic development of feedback flow controllers, a numerical model that captures the dynamic behaviour of the flow field to be controlled is required. This poses a particular challenge for flow fields where the dynamic behaviour is nonlinear, and the governing equations cannot easily be solved in closed form. This has led to many versions of low-dimensional modelling techniques, which we extend in this work to represent better the impact of actuation on the flow. For the benchmark problem of a circular cylinder wake in the laminar regime, we introduce a novel extension to the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) procedure that facilitates mode construction from transient data sets. We demonstrate the performance of this new decomposition by applying it to a data set from the development of the limit cycle oscillation of a circular cylinder wake simulation as well as an ensemble of transient forced simulation results. The modes obtained from this decomposition, which we refer to as the double POD (DPOD) method, correctly track the changes of the spatial modes both during the evolution of the limit cycle and when forcing is applied by transverse translation of the cylinder. The mode amplitudes, which are obtained by projecting the original data sets onto the truncated DPOD modes, can be used to construct a dynamic mathematical model of the wake that accurately predicts the wake flow dynamics within the lock-in region at low forcing amplitudes. This low dimensional model, derived using nonlinear artificial neural network based system identification methods, is robust and accurate and can be used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the wake flow. We demonstrate this ability not just for unforced and open-loop forced data, but also for a feedback-controlled simulation that leads to a 90% reduction in lift fluctuations. This indicates the possibility of constructing accurate dynamic low-dimensional models for feedback control by using unforced and transient forced data only.
The effectiveness of a small array of body-mounted sensors, for estimation and eventually feedback flow control of a D-shaped cylinder wake is investigated experimentally. The research is aimed at suppressing unsteady loads resulting from the von-Kármán vortex shedding in the wake of bluff-bodies at a Reynolds number range of 100–1,000. A low-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) procedure was applied to the stream-wise and cross-stream velocities in the near wake flow field, with steady-state vortex shedding, obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Data were collected in the unforced condition, which served as a baseline, as well as during influence of forcing within the “lock-in” region. The design of sensor number and placement was based on data from a laminar direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. A linear stochastic estimator (LSE) was employed to map the surface-mounted hot-film sensor signals to the temporal coefficients of the reduced order model of the wake flow field in order to provide accurate yet compact estimates of the low-dimensional states. For a three-sensor configuration, results show that the estimation error of the first two cross-stream modes is within 20–40% of the PIV-generated POD time coefficients. Based on previous investigations, this level of error is acceptable for a moderately robust controller required for feedback flow control.
The effect of feedback flow control on the wake of a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 is investigated in direct numerical simulation. The control approach uses a low-dimensional model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The controller applies linear proportional and differential feedback to the estimate of the first POD mode. The range of validity of the POD model is explored in detail. Actuation is implemented as displacement of the cylinder normal to the flow. It is demonstrated that the threshold peak amplitude below which the control actuation ceases to be effective is in the order of 5% of the cylinder diameter. The closed-loop feedback simulations explore the effect of both fixed-phase and variable-phase feedback on the wake. Whereas fixed-phase feedback is effective in reducing drag and unsteady lift, it fails to stabilize this state once the low drag state has been reached. Variable-phase feedback, however, achieves the same drag and unsteady lift reductions while being able to stabilize the flow in the low drag state. In the low drag state, the near wake is entirely steady, whereas the far wake exhibits vortex shedding at a reduced intensity. A drag reduction of 15% of the drag was achieved, and the unsteady lift force was lowered by 90%.
The effectiveness of a sensor configuration for feedback flow control on the wake of a circular cylinder is investigated in both direct numerical simulation as well as in a water tunnel experiment. The research program is aimed at suppressing the von Kármán vortex street in the wake of a cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100. The design of sensor number and placement was based on data from a laminar two-dimensional simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations for the unforced condition. A low-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to the vorticity calculated from the flow field and sensor placement was based on the intensity of the resulting spatial eigenfunctions. The numerically generated data was comprised of 70 snapshots taken over three cycles from the steady state regime. A linear stochastic estimator (LSE) was employed to map the velocity data to the temporal coefficients of the reduced order model. The capability of the sensor configuration to provide accurate estimates of the four low-dimensional states was validated experimentally in a water tunnel at a Reynolds number of 108. For the experimental wake, a sample of 200 particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements was used. Results show that for experimental data, the root mean square estimation error of the estimates of the first two modes was within 6% of the desired values and for the next two modes was within 20% of the desired values. This level of error is acceptable for a moderately robust controller.
A short computational program was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a closed-loop control strategy for the stabilization of an unstable bluff-body flow. In this effort, the non-linear one-dimensional Ginzburg–Landau wake model at 20% above the critical Reynolds number was studied. The numerical model, which is a non-linear partial differential equation with complex coefficients, was solved using the FEMLAB®/MATLAB® software packages and validated by comparison with published literature. At first, a model independent approach was attempted for wake suppression using feedback control. The closed-loop system was controlled using a conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller as well as a non-linear fuzzy controller. A single sensor is used for feedback, and the actuator is represented by altering the boundary conditions of the cylinder. Simulation results indicate that for a single sensor scheme, the increase in the sophistication of the control results in significantly shorter settling times. However, there is only a marginal improvement concerning the suppression of the wake at higher Reynolds numbers. The feedback control design was then augmented by switching over to a model-dependent controller. Based on computationally generated data obtained from solving the unforced wake, a low-dimensional model of the wake was developed and evaluated. The low-dimensional model of the unforced Ginzburg–Landau equation captures more than 99.8% of the kinetic energy using just two modes. Two sensors, placed in the absolutely unstable region of the wake, are used for real-time estimation of the first two modes. The estimator was developed using the linear stochastic estimation scheme. Finally, the loop is closed using a PID controller that provides the command input to the variable boundary conditions of the model. This method is relatively simple and easy to implement in a real-time scenario. The control approach, applied to the 300 node FEMLAB® model at 20% above the unforced critical Reynolds number stabilizes the entire wake. Compared to the model-independent controllers, the controller based on the low-dimensional model is far more effective in the suppression of the wake at higher Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, while the latter approach employs only the estimated temporal amplitude of the first mode of the imaginary part of the amplitude, all higher modes are stabilized. This suggests that the higher order modes are caused by a secondary instability that is suppressed once the primary instability is controlled.
For feedback control using low-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) models, the mode amplitudes of the POD mode coefficients need to be estimated based on sensor readings. This paper is aimed at suppressing the von Kairman vortex street in the wake of a circular cylinder using a low-dimensional approach based on POD. We compare sensor placement methods based on the spatial distribution of the POD modes to arbitrary ad hoc methods. Flow field data were obtained from Navier-Stokes simulation as well as particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. A low-dimensional POD was applied to the snapshot ensembles from the experiment and simulation. Linear stochastic estimation was used to map the sensor readings of the velocity field on the POD mode coefficients. We studied 53 sensor placement configurations, 32 of which were based on POD eigenfunctions and the others using ad hoc methods. The effectiveness of the sensor configurations was investigated at Re = 100 for the computational fluid dynamic data, and for a Reynolds number range of 82-99 for the water tunnel PIV data. Results show that a five-sensor configuration can keep the root mean square estimation error, for the amplitudes of the first two modes to within 4% for simulation data and within 10% for the PIV data. This level of error is acceptable for a moderately robust controller The POD-based design was found to be simpler. more effective, and robust compared to the ad hoc methods examined.
Closed-loop control strategies were studied experimentally at low Reynolds and incompressible Mach numbers using periodic excitation to vector a turbulent jet. Vectoring was achieved by attaching a short, wide-angle diffuser at the jet exit and introducing periodic excitation from a slot covering one quadrant of the circumference of the round turbulent jet. Closed-loop control methods were applied to transition quickly and smoothly between different jet de ection angles. The frequency response of the zero-mass- ux piezoelectric actuatorwas at to about 0.5 kHz, but the jet responds up to 30–50 Hz only. This is still an order of magnitude faster than conventional thrust vectoring mechanism. System identi cation procedures were applied to approximate the system’s transfer function. A linear controller was designed that enabled fast and smooth transitions between stationary de ection angles and maintained desired jet vectoring angles under varying system conditions. The linear controller was tested over the entire range of available de ection angles, and its performance is evaluated and discussed.
In this study a general approach is introduced for the design of a robust control law for suppression of structure borne vibration. This control law is based on a passive design in the form of dynamic vibration absorbers. Passive absorbers minimize vibration at a speci c frequency, but their performance is improved by introducing adaptive tuning of the absorber. An adaptive dynamic vibration absorber is tuned to the forcing frequency, using classical methods. The tuning ratio is time varying and adapts itself to variations in the forcing frequency. However, the uniqueness of the approach in this study is that the damping parameter of the absorber is continuously varied by means of a fuzzy-logic control algorithm to provide a lower sound pressure level. The inputs of the fuzzy control law are the displacement and velocity of the main structure. The effectiveness of the control algorithm for active vibration control is demonstrated using MATLAB® simulations of a single-degree-of-freedom plant. This methodology provides superior performance in the presence of signi cant mistuning compared to a more conventional approach.
The present investigation deals with the application of an Adaptive Fuzzy Control Algorithm for active vibration control of an experimental flexible beam. The two-dimensional model of the experimental cantilever beam, given by an orthogonal tetrahedral space truss, represents a slender cantilever aluminum (7075-T6) beam of rectangular cross-section (1145 × 60 × 1.95 mm3). A variety of transient disturbances are introduced to excite the first four modes of the beam. The resulting transverse displacements are observed by a single sheet (50 × 50 mm2) of piezoceramic material placed at the clamped end of the beam. Active control of the beam is provided by one, two or three identical sheets of piezoceramic material collocated with the sensor. The control moments applied by the piezoceramic actuator are made to emulate the behavior of a discrete dynamic vibration absorber. The virtual absorber is tuned to the fundamental frequency using classical methods and the tuning ratios are time-invariant. However, the uniqueness of this approach is that the damping parameters of the emulated absorber are continuously varied by means of a fuzzy logic control algorithm to provide near minimum-time suppression of vibration. It is demonstrated that application of this methodology allows for its real-time implementation and provides relatively quick settling times in the closed-loop.
The control of exible structures employing the passivity approach has been extended to systems having noncollocated input/output pairs by introducing an observer that incorporates the nominal dynamical model of the plant. The passive observer-based control is applied to the American Control Conference benchmark problem, whereby, the control force emulates a dynamic vibration absorber attached to a virtual wall with passive control elements (spring, mass, and dashpot). The springs and mass elements of the controller are constant, whereas the damping coef cients are selected as time dependent in an attempt to choose continuously the most appropriate amount of damping in compliance with the design goals. A novel approach is introduced, whereby the passive observer-based control law is modi ed by varying the damping coef cient of the virtual dashpot by means of an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm. This modi ed system exhibits quick settling times and desirable performance characteristics. Results from the statistical robustness analysis for the developed controller are compared to 10 other (linear) solutionsof the benchmarkproblem. The comparisonis based onrobust stability, robust performance (settling time), and control effort. The results obtained by the adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm are superior to those obtained by all other methods, and, consequently, further application of the fuzzy algorithm is advocated.
The present study deals with an AFCA (Adaptive Fuzzy Control Algorithm) for an Euler-Bernoulli approximation of a two-dimensional version of a cantilever beam-like orthogonal tetrahedral space truss. Transient disturbances, modeled as a unit impulse, excite all the modes of the beam. The resulting transverse displacement at the free end of the beam and its corresponding rate are observed by sensors placed there, and active control of the beam is provided by a collocated force actuator.
A design methodology for the closed-loop control algorithm that is independent of an exact mathematical model (space-state model, F.E.M., etc.) of plant dynamics and which is based on fuzzy logic is presented. First, the behavior of the open-loop system is observed. Then, the control force applied to the system emulates the behavior of a dynamic vibration absorber which is tuned to the measured fundamental frequency. This approach not only assures inherent stability associated with passive absorbers, but also circumvents the phenomenon of modal spillover. The damping and the mass ratios of the absorber adapt themselves by using a fuzzy decision-making process. This results in relatively quick settling times, low overshoots and dying out of vibration within a few seconds.
When the control force is turned off after a mere 16 seconds, almost all the vibrational energy is dissipated. In addition, the performance of the AFCA is insensitive to varying initial conditions. To demonstrate the robustness of the control system to changes in the temporal dynamics of the cantilever beam, the transient response to a considerably perturbed plant is simulated. The Young's modulus of the beam was raised as well as lowered substantially, thereby significantly perturbing the natural frequencies of vibration. The mode shapes, however, remain unchanged. For these cases, too, the AFCA provides similar settling times and rates of vibrational energy dissipation.
The present study deals with an AFCA (Adaptive Fuzzy Control Algorithm) for an Euler-Bemoulli approximation of a two-dimensional version of a cantilever beam-like orthogonal tetrahedral space truss. Transient disturbances, modeled as a unit impulse, excite all the modes of the beam. The resulting transverse displacement at the free end of the beam and its corresponding rate are observed by sensors placed there, and active control of the beam is provided by a collocated force actuator.
A design methodology, based on fuzzy logic which assumes no a priori knowledge of plant dynamics, for the closed-loop control algorithm results in relatively quick settling times, low overshoots and dying out of vibration within a few seconds. The control algorithm is enhanced and made much faster by eliminating the need of repeatedly solving the set of differential equations of motion of an emulated dynamic vibration absorber. When the control force is turned off after a mere 15 seconds, almost all the vibrational energy is dissipated as the beam returns to its undisturbed state throughout its length. In addition, the performance of the AFCA is insensitive to varying initial conditions. To examine the robustness of the control system to changes in the temporal dynamics of the cantilever beam, the transient disturbance response to a considerably perturbed plant is simulated. The Young's modulus of the beam was raised as well as lowered by 60%, substantially perturbing the natural frequencies of vibration compared to the nominal plant. The AFCA provided similar settling times and rates of vibrational energy dissipation, satisfying the aim of plant model independence.
For a Timoshenko beam model the equations of motion, representing the anisotropic continuum model of a two-dimensional, latticed, large space structure, are extended to include coupling between the extensional, shear and bending modes. This analytical model, applied to a 20-bay, orthogonal, tetrahedral, cantilevered truss structure, is used to determine the transient response when subjected to a unit impulse. It is demonstrated that for beam-like structures having a fixed bending stiffness and beam mass an increase in diagonal stiffness, on account of the stiffness of the vertical girder, leads to a rise in the transverse shear rigidity. This results in higher natural frequencies and a reduction in peak displacement. In addition, in an asymmetrical truss configuration, coupling between the extensional and shear modes raises the maximum peak displacement compared to that obtained for a symmetric truss. The model is modified to investigate the introduction of passive damping in the form of several dynamic vibration absorbers. For a fixed absorber mass budget, a simple yet efficient absorber parameter optimization procedure, based on the classical steady state criteria of a 2-DOF system, is developed to design several absorbers each tuned to a different modal frequency. It is found that inclusion of transverse shear rigidity, as a design parameter in damping augmentation studies, reduces settling time for predetermined maximum peak displacements.
Breakthroughs in genetic fuzzy systems, most notably the development of the Genetic Fuzzy Tree methodology, have allowed fuzzy logic based Artificial Intelligences to be developed that can be applied to incredibly complex problems. The ability to have extreme performance and computational efficiency as well as to be robust to uncertainties and randomness, adaptable to changing scenarios, verified and validated to follow safety specifications and operating doctrines via formal methods, and easily designed and implemented are just some of the strengths that this type of control brings. Within this white paper, the authors introduce ALPHA, an Artificial Intelligence that controls flights of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles in aerial combat missions within an extreme-fidelity simulation environment. To this day, this represents the most complex application of a fuzzy-logic based Artificial Intelligence to an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle control problem. While development is on-going, the version of ALPHA presented withinwas assessed by Colonel (retired)Gene Lee who described ALPHA as “the most aggressive, responsive, dynamic and credible AI (he’s) seen-to-date.” The quality of these preliminary results in a problem that is not only complex and rife with uncertainties but also contains an intelligent and unrestricted hostile force has significant implications for this type of Artificial Intelligence. This work adds immensely to the body of evidence that this methodology is an ideal solution to a very wide array of problems.
This work presents a methodology for real-time estimation of wildland fire growth, utilizing afire growth model based on a set of partial differential equations for prediction, and harnessing concepts of space-time Kalman filtering and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition techniques towards low dimensional estimation of potentially large spatio-temporal states. The estimation framework is discussed in its criticality towards potential applications such as forest fire surveillance with unmanned systems equipped with onboard sensor suites. The effectiveness of the estimation process is evaluated numerically over fire growth data simulated using a well-established fire growth model described by coupled partial differential equations. The methodology is shown to be fairly accurate in estimating spatio-temporal process states through noise-ridden measurements for real-time deploy ability.
The methods and outcome of a senior undergraduate project related to the control of a turbulent cylinder wake flow using plasma actuators are summarized in this article. The study integrates computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with experimentation and combines fluid mechanics with flow control research, crossing the boundaries between engineering disciplines.Comput. Appl. Eng. Educ.
Comparison of approximate approaches to solving the Travelling Salesman Problem and its application to UAV swarming. International Journal of Unmanned Systems Engineering. 3(1): 1-16. The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a widely researched Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard optimization problem with a range of important applications in a wide spectrum of disciplines including aerospace engineering. In this paper, a comparison of different approaches to solve the TSP and also its application towards swarming of UAVs is considered. The objective of the TSP is to determine the optimal route associated with the shortest tour connecting all targets just once. Genetic Algorithms (GA) are one of the most widely applied techniques for solving this class of optimization problems. Two other techniques, 2-opt and Particle Swarm Optimization, are used and the results are compared with those obtained using GA. The comparison is made for different numbers of targets, using salient figures of merit such as computational time required and the cost function which is the minimum solution (distance) obtained. Results show that the 2-opt approach with the closest neighbour as initial starting point for the search yields superior performance. In the Multiple Travelling Salesman Problem, we propose a cluster-first approach which allocates each specific UAV to a subset of targets. The 200 targets are divided into four clusters corresponding to the four UAVs and then TSP algorithms like 2-opt and GA are employed to solve each cluster. This approach drastically reduces the computational time and also gives much better results than the conventional technique of directly applying GA over the 200 targets.