The NATO and the EU Peacebuilding Missions Dataset is created to use fuzzy seta Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) analysis as a method of researching how NATO and the EU missions’ outcomes are influences by organizational assets and decision-making in both organizations. Outcome pertaining to these two sets of missions are intended to measure various aspects of organizational efficacy. There are two groups of variables – condition variables and outcome variables. In the next few sections, we will explain how these two groups of variables were generated, what existing sources and datasets were used and how mission indicators were generated. See attached research note for more detailed information.
Condition Sets: Description
By and large conditions sets that have been generated measure organizational assets for these NATO and EU missions, as well as patterns in their decision-making process. Two critical organizational assets used for both sets of missions are their annual operational budget and their annual deployed personnel. The dataset contains two control variables measuring operational legitimacy – number of contributing nations and number of UN resolutions passed in relevance to the situation in the area of deployment for the duration of the EU and NATO Mission.
Operational Duration – duration of the operation (in months). For ongoing missions, we have used December 31, 2018 as the end date. All data reflect occurrences no later than December 31, 2018.
Type of Operation – based on their mandate, operations are classified as civilian (coded as 0), military (coded as 1) and hybrid (i.e. with military and civilian components, coded as 0.5).
Annual Operational Budget – total annual mission budget in USD. Sources include SIPRI yearbook and peace operations database. In cases of missing data from the SIPRI yearbook, mission factsheets and original data from the mission have been used. This latter technique applies for the following missions: AMUK, AVSEC, BAM1, BAM2, CAP1, CAP2, MAM1, NAVF1, NAVF2, TMC1, EUAMI. If data is reported in EUR, average exchange rate for the duration of the mission has been used to convert the cost. Data has been adjusted to reflect operational budget over a 12-month period.
Average Annual Mission Personnel – it reflects the average total number of personnel/ staff supporting the NATO or EU peacebuilding mission per annum. Sources have been collected from SIPRI yearbook based on reportings for actual deployments on the ground. In cases when no data has been reported I the SIPRI yearbook/ peace operations dataset, mission factsheets and original data from the mission have been used. The data has been averaged and adjusted for a 12-month period.
Days to Launch – describes the number of days needed from the time a decision has been made by the IO top decision-making body (the European Council and NAC) to launch the mission to the time that the mission is officially declared “operational.” If no declaration that the mission is “fully operational” exists, landmark indicators that the mission is fully operational include: ceremony on the ground marking the beginning of the mission, the appointment of mission commander or first recoded operational presence involving activity on the ground. Sources include official EU and NATO documents announcing the decision to create the peacebuilding operation as well as official documents, press releases and reports in reliable media outlets (including New Agencies) documenting an event that would indicate the mission is “fully operational.”
Number of Contributing Nations –highest reported number of contributing nations for the duration of the NATO and the EU peacebuilding operation.
UN Security Council Resolutions – total number of UN Security Council (UNSG) resolutions relevant for the area of conflict adopted for the duration of the NATO and the EU mission. In cases when UNSC resolutions are relevant for multiple NATO and EU peacebuilding missions those have been reported to all relevant missions.
Outcome Sets: Description
Outcome sets include various indicators created to measure operational efficacy. They include annual events contributing toward peace, conflict and the mission’s functioning, annual fatalities and annual deaths among mission personnel, as well as annual difference in fatalities. A more detailed description of these indicators is included below:
Annual Peace Events – this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that have contributed for the peace process in the conflict area where NATO and EU mission have been deployed. Examples of peace events include steps taken to contribute to the peace process (e.g. creation of buffer zone, cession of hostilities, meeting intended to cease fire or set up the peace process, political events related to or contributing toward the peace process and successful conclusion of a peace agreement. It may also include a decision of an international body (e.g. UN Security Council, UN General Assembly or UN Secretary General, as well as a decision made by the NATO and the EU D-M bodies that contributes toward the peace process in the areas where the mission operates. For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual peace events are recoded.
Annual Conflict Events -- this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that have increased the conflict and the conflict potential in the area where NATO and EU mission have been deployed. Instances include resumption of hostilities among warring parties, occurrence of attacks, clashes, eruption of violence, the killing of civilians, military and peacemaking personnel and other violence-related events that contribute toward instability in the mission’s area. For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual conflict events are recoded.
Annual Mission-related Events -- this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that measures events related to functioning of the mission – the decision to launch, the actual launch, implementation, transfer of authority and/ or mandate, transformation and termination of the mission. It also includes events that reflect decisions made by the contributing nations or sponsoring IOs intended to impact mission’s performances (e.g. decisions related to funding, control and command, transformation of mission mandate and rules and other similar events). For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual mission-related events are recoded.
Average Annual Fatalities – this indicator reports how many average annual civilian deaths have been recorded for the duration of the mission. The data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Dataset (ACD) managed by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies ( https://acd.iiss.org/member/datatools.aspx).
Average Annual Mission Casualties – average annual number of deaths among peacebuilding personnel as reported in SIPRI yearbook/ peace operations database for the duration of the mission. Authors have used discretion to determine the accuracy in cases when there is discrepancy of reported data.
Fatalities Annual Difference – an indicator of differenced annual data of civilian casualties on the ground for the duration of the mission. The indicator is calculated as follows: Differenced Fatalities = Ʃ (CasualtiesY1-Y2 … Casualties Yn-Y(n-1))/ Duration of the mission (in years). It is intended to capture improvement of situation on the ground as a result of presence of the peacebuilding effort.
Condition Sets: Calibration and Rationale
Annual Operational Budget – mission budget reflects resources USD 5 million or less indicate fully out while USD 100 million or more would indicate fully in. A budget of USD 30 should be the watershed borderline of “nether in, not out.” [5-100 million]
Average Annual Mission Personnel – this indicator draws distinction between larger well-resourced missions and smaller missions with limited assets. By and large, missions with 20 personnel or less are fully out, while those with 20,000 or more are fully in. The borderline (net hither in, not out) is 130 people.
Days to Launch – the speed with which the decision is taken indicates how decision-making operated in the case of this mission. D-M that took 5 days or less should be fully out (in, change direction) while D-M 150 days or more should be fully in (out, change direction). 30 days (1 month) should be the neither in, nor out border.
Number of Contributing Nations –control indicator that demotes how high number of contributing nations contribute toward greater legitimacy (30 or more countries marks fully in), while 5 or fewer nations marks fully out. The “nether fully in, nor fully out” is at 15 nations.
UN Security Council Resolutions – total number of UNSC resolutions can vary, fully out is at 0 resolutions while fully in at 50 or more. Since moist of the missions are shorter, Nether fully in, not fully out would be at 8 UNSC resolutions. [Inductive]
Operational Duration – 1 year (12 months) denotes fully out (i.e. short-term mission) while 10 year 120 months denotes fully in; nether in not out would be for missions lasting 5 years (60 months). In other words, a decade is too long, a year is to short, five years is in the middle.
Outcome Variables: Calibration and Rationale
Annual Peace Events – this variable measures the occurrence of peace-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 10 events per annum is fully in. 1 event is nether in not out.
Annual Conflict Events -- this variable measures the occurrence of conflict-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 10 events per annum is fully in. 1 event is nether in not out.
Annual Mission-related Events -- this variable measures the occurrence of peace-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 10 events per annum is fully in. 0.5 event is nether in not out.
Average Annual Fatalities – this set measures average number of annual fatalities for the duration of the mission. Cases with 0 fatalities are fully out; cases with 10,000 fatalities are fully in. 1,000 fatalities represent “nether in, not out” value.
Fatalities Annual Difference – this is an indicator that measures the average year-to-year difference in number of fatalities for the duration of the conflict. -50 casualties is fully out (i.e. average growth of casualties by 50 per annum) as this indicator reflects low mission efficacy. 500 is fully in. This number indicates high efficacy; it denotes an average annual decline of casualties by 500 people. If the average number of casualties remains unchanged, then 0 denotes nether in, nor out.
Average Annual Mission Casualties – this indicator measures average number of annual casualties for the duration of the mission. 0 casualties is fully out; 500 casualties is fully in. 0.5 is nether in, nor out.
1895 printing of the 1895 copyrighted text. Reed is credited with a Master of Arts degree. Kellogg is credited with a Doctor of Laws of English degree. Together they are credited as the authors of two other texts of English lessons. A complete, consecutive, and carefully graded series of inductive lessons in composition-writing, emphasizing habits of close, logical observation and the discipline of taste. Subjects covered include capitals, abbreviations, punctuation; noun and verb agreement; possessive and explanatory modifiers; the complex sentence; noun clause--construction; construction of pronouns; construction of gender-forms; qualities of style; versification; letter writing; and conjugation. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text, but even numbered pages are cut off on the edge of one side, making some of them difficult to fully decipher. End of binding features excerpt from Word-Building with Roots, or Stems, and Prefixes and Suffixes.
1855 printing of the 1854 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Master of Arts degree and as Associate Principal of the Collegiate School in New York, and as the author of First Lessons in Composition. Based on the same plan as the author's book for younger students, First Lessons in Composition, this text is meant for students in colleges and higher academies. The preface boasts its merits are its clearness and simplicity, its variety of subjects and their connections, and the practicality of its exercises. The sections cover the history of the English language; punctuation; rhetoric--with sections on taste, the imagination, the sublime, the beautiful, wit, humor, figurative language, varieties of style, and criticism; prose composition--with sections on invention, amplification, metaphorical language, climax and anithesis, paraphrasing, description, narration, letters, fiction, orations, etc; and poetical composition. Collection of rules and exercises, beginning with history of English language and punctuation until building up to poetry. It credits the influence of Blair, Burke, and Alison. Illustrative textual examples are used throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1876 printing of the 1876 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Doctor of Laws of English degree and as the author of other texts on composition and grammar. A collection of lessons that teaches the art of expression through oral and written inductive exercises rather than the old method of grammar teaching that relies on verbal parsing. Object-lessons are a substantial part of the text, and pictorial illustrations have been crafted to aid in the object-treatment of subjects. Ninety lessons appear in the text, covering subjects such as sentences, capital, periods; sentences expressing questions; letters and their sounds--syllables; use of possessive forms; comparatives and superlatives; the use of adverbs; analysis of sentences; punctuation; violations of unity; letter writing; exercise in criticising; oral discussion of subjects; and exercises in narration. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1851 printing of the 1851 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Master of Arts and as Rector of the Henry-Street Grammar School in New York. The text was designed to fill a gap in composition textbooks for students ages 9 to 12. The first fifty pages use inductive lessons with exercises to familiarize students with the nature and use of the different parts of speech so they can recognize them and supply them when given incomplete sentences. Following this the text offers a more difficult treatise on grammar with different kinds of clauses and sentences, preparing the students for the rules of punctuation. Next are capitals and spelling. Then students are ready to express themselves in their own language, prompted with suggestive words to write sentences of every kind. Style is then taught with the properties of purity, propriety, precision, clearness, strength, harmony, and unity with examples for correction. Students are also taught different kinds of composition, such as letters, descriptions, narrations, biographical sketches, essays, and arguments, and three main figures of speech. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Text copyrighted 1882. The author is credited with a Master of Arts and as Superintendent of Schools in Aurora, IL. Based on years of classroom experience training children to talk, this text aims to guide the young learner in the correct use of language at the time when he is acquiring a vocabulary and forming habits of speech. The preface states that exercises such as sentence building, filling a blank, parsing, analysis, and correcting errors are not very helpful in correcting habits of speech. Corrects habits are obtained by the exercise of expression wholly one's own. This text aims to teach the form taught through those former means through the practice of original expression. Exercises are meant to be practiced orally before being written. Numerous pictorial illustrations appear throughout, and illustrative excerpts from well known writers of poetry and prose and used as well. The Schultz Archive's copy ends on page 239. It is unclear if this is the last page of the text.
A handwritten note dates the printing to 1877. The text is copyrighted 1864. The author is credited with a Master of Arts and an M.D., as well as being the author of two books on grammar. The preface states the work is designed to concise and comprehensive, while also stating that the study of composition should begin at a very early age. The chapters cover spelling; capitals; punctuation; words and phrases; sentences; different kinds of composition (narration, description, letter-writing, and essays); figurative language; a review of capitals, punctuation, and style; and themes. Exercises involve fill in the blanks, correcting errors, classifying, adding punctuation, and answering review questions. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Third edition. 1873 printing. No copyright page. Reverend C. Mayo is credited as author of part one, "A Lecture of the Life of Pestalozzi." He is credited with a Doctor of Laws of English and as Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford. Elizabeth Mayo is credited as the author of part two, "Pestalozzi and His Principles," although she quotes extensively from a lecture by Rev. Dr. Mayo given in 1826. Robert Dunning is credited "with notes, original and selected" for both parts. He is also credited as Lecturer on School Management, Home and Colonial Training College. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes the title pages of parts one and two and pages 156 thru 239 of the text.
1844 printing of the 1844 copyrighted text. The title page says the book is designed as a sequel to Progressive Exercises in English Composition. As with its predecessor, this text seeks to address two primary obstacles for student writers: obtaining ideas and expressing ideas. The author's approach to obtaining ideas is based on what he terms the principle of association. The exercises herein are not presented as a progressive course, but rather are meant to be selected by teachers as they deem useful. The material varies from sample sentences for punctuation practice, to models of the various kinds of compositions, to long lists of subjects for different kinds of compositions. There are seventy-five lessons in all. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Text copyrighted 1897 and 1898. The author is credited as Professor of English at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The book is dedicated to Barrett Wendell. This textbook was designed for the first term of freshman composition at MIT, which is designed around weekly theme writing with instructor feedback. The sections of the book are: The Whole Composition (subject and title, unity, coherence, emphasis), The Paragraph (unity, coherence, emphasis), The Sentence (unity, coherence, emphasis), and Words (general and specific, conclusions). The first three sections each have a summary section at their ends. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1841 and 1842 copyrighted texts. The author is credited as "author of the prize essay on education, entitled 'The Teacher's Manual.'" A series of four books designed to connect pure feelings and correct moral ideas with intellectual instruction through narratives accompanied by questions for students. Many of the stories are given titles indicative of the moral theme explored, such as "Cruelty and Oppression" and "Envy, Hatred, and Malice." Pictorial illustrations also appear throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy includes selections from each of the four books, but none of the four is complete.
1848 printing of the 1848 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Principal of the Epes Grammar School in Salem, MA. A composition manual with blank pages for students to transcribe and preserve their compositions for the purposes of improving their taste, gaining knowledge of themselves, improving their thinking and writing, and providing evidence of their improvement. The book also provides a condensed presentation of rules, abbreviation, and common signs used in writing and printing. It also includes the meaning of foreign words and phrases. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes pages on writing and sending letters, and advice on composing taken from Blair (clearness, unity, strength, and harmony), plus a list of subjects for composing.
1894 printing of the 1893 copyrighted text. It is apparently identical to the Schultz Archive's 1893 printing, with the exception of a few pages of advertisements at the end. The author is credited as Assistant Professor of English in the Leland Stanford Junior University. Designed to be a supplement to a more technical grammatical and rhetorical treatise, this text shows students how to find material and work that material into good, interesting compositions. Seventy-three exercises deal with particular kinds of composition, specimen subjects and themes are given with observations and suggestions for treatment, and models of various kinds of composition are provided (but these models are of student work or writing of a similar level of accomplishment). The work is divided into two parts. Part one, Composition Based on Experience and Observation, has sections on finding material, narration, description, and narration and description combined. Part two, Composition Based on Reading and Thought has sections on principles of composition, exposition, argumentation, persuasion, and miscellaneous forms (such as news, book reviews, letter, dialogue, as humor). John Genung's Rhetoric is listed as an influence. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1893 printing of the 1893 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Assistant Professor of English in the Leland Stanford Junior University. Designed to be a supplement to a more technical grammatical and rhetorical treatise, this text shows students how to find material and work that material into good, interesting compositions. Seventy-three exercises deal with particular kinds of composition, specimen subjects and themes are given with observations and suggestions for treatment, and models of various kinds of composition are provided (but these models are of student work or writing of a similar level of accomplishment). The work is divided into two parts. Part one, Composition Based on Experience and Observation, has sections on finding material, narration, description, and narration and description combined. Part two, Composition Based on Reading and Thought has sections on principles of composition, exposition, argumentation, persuasion, and miscellaneous forms (such as news, book reviews, letter, dialogue, as humor). John Genung's Rhetoric is listed as an influence. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1939 printing of the 1838 copyrighted text. This later printing contains additional text and illustrations, despite the same copyright year as the prior edition. The author is credited as Principal of Green Street Seminary and the author of other books. A collection of composition exercises consisting of stories to be analyzed, descriptions, skeletons of letters, analysis of poetry and scripture, general subjects, discussions, poetical exercises, an epitome of rhetoric, an a list of subjects for compositions. The method proposed is in opposition to teaching children in language they do not understand. It emphasizes given children clear conceptions of things before providing them with those things' names. The text includes some pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1838 printing of the 1838 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Principal of Green Street Seminary and the author of other books. A collection of composition exercises consisting of stories to be analyzed, descriptions, skeletons of letters, analysis of poetry and scripture, general subjects, discussions, poetical exercises, an epitome of rhetoric, an a list of subjects for compositions. The method proposed is in opposition to teaching children in language they do not understand. It emphasizes given children clear conceptions of things before providing them with those things' names. The text includes some pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1911 printing. The author is credited with a Ph.D., as Professor in the History of Education at Teachers College in Columbia University, and as the author of other books on the history of education. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes two complete chapters. Chapter Ten: The Naturalistic Tendency in Education: Rousseau; Chapter Eleven: Psychological Tendency in Education. There is also a selection from Chapter Twelve: Sociological Tendency in Education.
1894 copyrighted text. Metcalf is credited as Supervisor of Schools in Boston, MA. Bright is credited as Superintendent of Schools, Cook County, IL. A rearrangement of the authors text, Language Lessons, for a younger class of pupils. The preface argues students need opportunities for observation to awaken interest and stimulate thought. This text provides students with exercises giving students opportunity to speak and write. Poems are included to be read and committed to memory and occasionally to be studied. The text includes some illustrations to spur observation and thought. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Fourth edition of the 1885 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts degree and as Professor of Rhetoric and the English Lanugage in the University of Pennsylvania, member of MLA, and author of a book on English etymology. The preface from the third edition (1889) explains the added Analysis, which is meant to help map the contents and aid the student in studying. The preface to the original edition explains the author has tried to properly balance principles of the art of rhetoric with their practical application, as well as treat both style and invention. The book is focused on the study of prose, but illustrative examples from poets and novelists are occasionally used. The introduction explains rhetoric and composition, laws of rhetoric, and kinds of discourse. The book's first part, Style, covers grammatical purity, elements of style, and qualities of style (significance, naturalness, pathos, humor, satire, harmony, etc.). The second part, Invention, covers the theme and the discussion (modes of discussion, definition, division, comparison and contrast, excitation). The preface also credits the influence of Henry Day. The Schultz Archive's copy is not the complete text. It includes the Analysis and selections from the Introduction and parts one and two.
1894 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Ph.D. from Leipsic and as Professor of the English Language in Wesleyan University. The preface explains the book is the result of teaching composition in secondary schools and college and aims to give brief practical suggestions to young writers (and is not a guide to English criticism). It puts special emphasis on the choice and treatment of themes, and the author argues that the study of composition should be combined with the study of literature, as the best models of English prose provide a standard for students to measure their writing against. The book is in two sections: theory and practice. Theory chapters cover words, sententences, paragraphs, the theme, the plan, kinds of composition (description, narration, exposition, argument, persuasion), composition and revision, and style. Practice chapters cover words, sententences, paragraphs, the theme, the plan, kinds of composition (description, narration, exposition, argument, persuasion), studies in literature, and punctuation. Excerpts from celebrated writers are used as illustrative examples. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.