Shortly after the comparative analysis of Codding et al. was published, I prepared a comment on the article that I submitted for publication. In response to feedback from the editors, I eventually revised the manuscript substantially. That revised version has now been published. In this paper, I share the original submission of the comment, which focuses on important considerations for future studies of risk-‐ sensitive foraging. Meanwhile, Codding and his colleagues have published a response to my comment. They exhibit some confusion about my position, which they describe as “paradoxical.” In a reply to their response, I have therefore added some clarifying remarks at the end of this paper
With the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among young adult populations, adaptive and innovative treatment options
must be considered for the future. While there are various approaches to mental health treatment, art therapy is one traditional
method that has been used to treat the symptoms of mental health disorders across various health contexts and populations. Some art
therapists have even integrated information and communication technologies (ICTs) into their practices. With these factors in mind
and considering the prominence of ICTs use among student populations, this study seeks to understand how the immersion and
presence afforded by one such technology, virtual reality (VR), can impact the outcomes of art therapy practices. Through the use of
an arts-based VR application, Tilt Brush, this study compares traditional art therapy methods as they are employed in and outside of
VR. Through the comparison of self-reported measures, we can better understand the possibilities and effectiveness of art therapy
practices delivered via Tilt Brush VR.
The previous study for which this one serves as an update concluded that there was good news for those who wished to live in racially integrated communities in Hamilton
County. The news remains good. At the 2010 census, fifty-four suburban Hamilton
County communities and Cincinnati neighborhoods, over one-third of the total,
containing 45% of the total population of the county, were at least modestly racially
integrated (Table 9).2 This continues trends that began as early as 1970 when seven
communities achieved integration that persisted for at least forty years. At the 1980
census, twelve achieved racial integration that lasted for at least thirty years. And at the 1990 census, ten became integrated with that persisting for at least the next twenty years. Together, twenty-nine communities have remained racially integrated for at least twenty years.
At the same time, the dissimilarity index (DI), a standard measure of residential
integration, showed improved black/white integration for both the city of Cincinnati and
Hamilton County as a whole (Table 1). Cincinnati’s DI dropped from 91.2 in 1950, its
highest point, to 64.8 in 2010. Hamilton County’s DI dropped from 82.8 in 1980, the
earliest for which we have data, to 71.3 in 2010. This means that increasing numbers of whites and blacks are living on the same blocks in a number of communities here.
The desirability of these integrated neighborhoods has apparently remained steady over time. Although both the city and the county have lost population, the integrated
neighborhoods have proportionally lost no greater population than the rest. Moreover, in the last decade, conventional wisdom to the contrary, several of the long-term integrated communities experienced increases in the white percentage of their population.
When we looked at socio-economic conditions throughout the county as measured by
seven indicators drawn from the census, we found a range of values for the integrated
communities. Some are clearly in quite good shape and improving and some show signs of decay. On a scale that aggregates five of these indicators, integrated communities on the average fell between the values for the city of Cincinnati as a whole and for suburban Hamilton County. This is particularly good news as the declining economy has certainly hurt the African Americans population more than the rest of the population. Because of this, the integrated communities might be expected to show a greater decline than the rest of the county, and while some of them have been hurt, on the average, they seem to be holding their own in comparison to the rest of the county.
Finally, the city of Cincinnati, which has long seen an increase in black population and a decrease in white population, in the 2000s saw a significant slow-down in the decline of white population and an actual decrease in black population. This suggests that the black/white ratio may stabilize in the city in the near future.
In the spring of 2001 the hilly uplands immediately northwest of the modern city of Durres were for the first time investigated using the techniques of intensive surface survey. In total, an area of six square kilometers was explored and twenty-nine sites were defined, most of them new. Remains of Greek antiquity were plentiful and include unpublished inscriptions and graves. One site may be the location of a previously unknown Archaic temple. Included in this article are descriptions of the areas investigated, a list of sites, and a catalogue of the most diagnostic artifacts recovered. Patterns of settlement and land use are discussed and compared to those recorded by other surveys in Albania.