1900 copyrighted text. The preface argues that the teaching of rhetoric that focuses on statements of definitions and principals which students are expected to memorize is ineffective. Instead, this text proposes an inductive approach in which the teaching of rhetoric is paired with the teaching of literature. The divisions of the book are qualities of style (clearness, force, elegance), forms of style (verse, prose), and methods of treatment (description, narration, exposition, argumentation, persuasion). Exercises and illustrative examples are included throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is missing pages 2 - 139 and perhaps some pages of the appendix.
Text copyrighted 1897 and 1898. The author is credited as Professor of English at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The book is dedicated to Barrett Wendell. This textbook was designed for the first term of freshman composition at MIT, which is designed around weekly theme writing with instructor feedback. The sections of the book are: The Whole Composition (subject and title, unity, coherence, emphasis), The Paragraph (unity, coherence, emphasis), The Sentence (unity, coherence, emphasis), and Words (general and specific, conclusions). The first three sections each have a summary section at their ends. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1895 printing. Ricks is credited with a Bachelor of Science degree, as the Inspector of Schools to the School Board for London, and as the author of "Natural History Object Lessons". Introduction emphasizes the five sense as "doors and windows by which knowledge enters the mind" as well as muscular feeling. Object lessons are meant to cultivate the senses to train habits of attention, intelligent observation, and accurate comparison. Lessons build on one another and correspond to stages of development, and "words follow ideas." The text itself is divided into five stages. The first covers colors, shapes, tastes, and texture, size, and weight. The second covers color, form, tastes, "properties of bodies," and common objects. The third stages color, form, properties of bodies, common objects, and units of weight. The fourth covers color, form, properties of bodies, common objects, measure for dry goods, and manufactures. The fifth stages covers color, form, time, minerals, common metals, and textiles. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1892 printing of 1887 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Instructor of English in Cornell University. The text addresses the problems with the field's focus on philology and the quality of instruction in writing in the English language. The text argues students need a grounding in the inflections of English, should be taught English style, and should be constantly and rigorously drilled in composition. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete 28 page text, with additional advertisements.
1894 printing of 1887 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Late Teacher of Composition in the State Normal School, Albany, NY. A grammar and composition text. It aims to provide practical training for students whose education ends with common or grammar school, as well as those who go on for further study. Each lesson aims to be a language lesson. Encourages students to cultivate their powers of observation. Connects language to the expression of thought. Selections from the best writers are used to encourage a taste for good literature, to awaken a love of nature, or to deepen a moral impression. Lessons lay out tasks for completion. Incorrect forms for correction are not used. The text also covers letter writing and business forms. Includes pictorial illustrations. The lessons are a mix of grammar, punctuation, and composition. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1899 printing of 1896 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Formerly Teacher of Composition in the State Normal School, Albany, NY. A grammar and composition text. It aims to provide practical training for students whose education ends with common or grammar school, as well as those who go on for further study. Each lesson aims to be a language lesson. Encourages students to cultivate their powers of observation. Connects language to the expression of thought. Selections from the best writers are used to encourage a taste for good literature, to awaken a love of nature, or to deepen a moral impression. Lessons lay out tasks for completion. Incorrect forms for correction are not used. The text also covers letter writing and business forms. Includes pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text, excepting the index.
1894 printing of 1887 copyrighted text. The author is credited with an M.A. and as Professor of the Theory, History, and Practice of Education in the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. The preface states the text has material for four years of study and one year of training college for pupil-teachers. It also suggests its use in colleges, ladies' seminaries, high schools, academies, preparatory and normal schools. The text aims for simplicity and clearness. Part one's chapters cover orthography, etymology, words and their functions, syntax, analysis, word-building and derivation, word-branching, words derived from names of persons and places, words disguised in form, and words that have changed in meaning. Part two covers composition, punctuation, figures of speech, paraphrasing, prosody exercises and exam questions. The Schultz Archive copy contains the preface, TOC, and the section on composition from part two.
1906 printing of 1905 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Bachelor of Arts, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, and as the author of a book on elementary composition and a language speller. Author's note states the book is based on material from the author's years of teaching. It's distinctive approach includes: gradual increase in skill, establishment of good habits, repeated applications, careful grouping of subjects, a standpoint of a fellow-worker, encouraging self-reliance, and opportunities to complete pieces of literature. Also includes five sections of "Answers to Pupils' Inquiries." Chapters cover qualities of style, punctuation, points of view, kinds of sentences, figures of speech, descriptive writing, metaphorical stories, narration, poetry, exposition, argumentation, and the structuring of compositions. Includes an appendix on English and Library Work. The Schultz Archive copy includes the author's note, TOC, the first page of the introduction, and pages 54 – 67, 94 – 99, 138 – 175, 214 – 259.
1896 printing of 1896 copyrighted text. Author is credited as Teacher of English in Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY. The book is a collection of speeches presented at the Brooklyn Teachers' Association on the subject of elementary composition. Chapter 1, A Word to the Reader, states the author believes composition may include speaking as well as writing and work by a community as well as work by individuals. It also voices concern about composition teaching that invents a barrier of formulas and conventionality. Chapters cover letter-writing, story-telling, word-collecting, descriptions, the simile and personification, elaboration of sentences into paragraphs, outlining compositions, criticism and other various topics. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete 114 page text.
1907 copyrighted text. Author is credited with a PhD and as Assistant Professor of English in the University of Wisconsin. A practical manual for students of composition for reference in case of errors in themes and for independent reference by those who want information on good usage, grammar, spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, manuscript-arrangement, and letter-writing. Preface argues the text is purposefully dogmatic, as it is necessary for most students to observe rigidly and invariably rules to which masters of the art make exceptions. The author credits the influence of Professors Adams Sherman Hill, William Dwight Whitney, Alphonso G. Newcomer, John Duncan Quackenbos, Fred Newton Scott, and Joseph Villier Denney. Section one, the Composition of Discourse, includes: introductory on the standard of good usage, diction, the structure of sentences, and the structure of larger units of discourse. Section two, Putting Discourse on Paper, covers: spelling, legibility, arrangement of manuscript, alterations in manuscript, punctuation, syllabication, abbreviations, etc. Section three is Analytical Outlines; section four, Letter-Writing; section five, a Glossary of Miscellaneous faulty expressions. The appendices cover: exercises for breaking certain bad habits in writing and speaking, a grammatical vocabulary, and a list of words that are often mispronounced. The Schultz Archive is roughly the complete 239 page text.