This research is focused on botanical remains from the late
Hopewell and Woodland time period, around the 5th century
A.D. from Newtown, Ohio. Many burial graves as well as
artifacts of domestic debris were recovered, including flint,
pottery, bone, numerous fragments of hardwood charcoal,
and some plant species thought to be domesticated. This
research sought to identify all the plant remains excavated
from the Newtown Fire Station archaeological site, uncovered
during the construction of a porch addition to the firehouse.
These remains were identified using an electron microscope
and organized by taxa, weighed, and photographed. After the
remains were examined for identification purposes, they were
studied for environmental context. Among the remains found
were several fruit, nut, crop, and hardwood species. These
preserved and charred remains serve as botanical evidence
for the reconstruction of survival strategies of the past
Newtown inhabitants, as well as diets and other domestic
The Pothomorphe clade of Piper contains ten species of shrubs and vines that are native to the New World tropics. One of these, Piper umbellatum, has been introduced outside its native range, and has become successfully established in most wet tropical areas around the World. The species is rather weedy in its native range, and also in parts of the Old World, where it occurs along roadsides, in cultivated fields, and other disturbed habitats. In other parts of the Old World, however, it behaves much like a native plant and can only be found on forested slopes along mountain streams. This is the exact opposite of the expected pattern, and makes one question whether P. umbellatum is indeed New World in origin. Research analyzing the Pothomorphe clade was undertaken to help understand the origin and distribution of P. umbellatum in both the Old and New World. DNA was extracted from various Piper specimens and sequenced to examine nuclear ITS and chloroplast petA–psbJ sequences. The complete analysis revealed poor resolution among species, but indicates the New World origin of P. umbellatum. Additional data are clearly needed to further study and understand the relationships among populations of Pothomorphe around the world.
Himerometra robustipinna, dark red crinoids, with H. magnipinna, banded whitish and dark colored arms and pinnules, Anneissia bennetti, Comaster audax at lower center, and other species. I called this dense aggregation "The Cathedral". At least 14 spp were counted here on one daytime dive.
Neonatal Brachial Plexus Injury (NBPI) is a common birth injury to the nerves innervating the upper limb. A poorly understood and currently incurable consequence of this injury is tightness of affected muscles, or muscle contractures. Paradoxically, contractures do not occur in a rare form of NBPI (preganglionic) in which afferent (sensory) innervation of the muscle is preserved, in contrast to the more common postganglionic NBPI which causes complete denervation, suggesting a possible role of afferent denervation in contracture formation. Afferent neurons interface with muscle at the spindle and golgi tendon organ (GTO). Previous studies have implicated muscle spindles in contracture formation, but the GTO has not been investigated. Unilateral pre and post-ganglionic NBPIs were created in neonatal mice. Bilateral biceps muscles were harvested four weeks later, cleared, and immunohistochemically stained in whole mounts to assess GTO morphology. The nerves innervating the biceps were sectioned and stained to quantify afferent denervation. Complete denervation by postganglionic NBPI led to loss of GTO in denervated muscles, whereas preservation of afferent innervation in preganglionic NBPI preserved normal GTO morphology. These findings suggest that afferent innervation is required for postnatal GTO maintenance, and that loss of the GTO may play a role in contracture formation.
The Multi-Genre Research Project: Teaching Students the Research Skills for Academic Writing will discuss ways to help students become more flexible writers by developing an awareness of how genre works. According to scholars who study students' ability to transfer knowledge from one context to another, genre knowledge, among other skills, helps students analyze and adapt to various writing situations.