Low-dimensional models have proven essential for feedback control and estimation of flow fields. While feedback control based on global flow estimation can be very efficient, it is often difficult to estimate the flow state if structures of very different length scales are present in the flow. The conventional snapshot-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), a popular method for low-order modeling, does not separate the structures according to size, since it optimizes modes based on energy. Two methods are developed in this study to separate the structures in the flow based on size. One of them is Hybrid Filtered POD method and the second one is 3D FFT-based Filtered POD approach performed using a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based spatial filtering. In both the methods, a spatial low-pass filter is employed to precondition snapshot sets before deriving POD modes. Three-dimensional flow data from the simulation of turbulent flow over a circular cylinder wake at Re=20000 is used to evaluate the performance of the two methods. Results show that both the FFT-based 3D Filtered POD and Hybrid Filtered POD are able to capture the large-scale features of the flow, such as the von Karman vortex street, while not being contaminated by small-scale turbulent structures present in the flow.
The present investigation deals with the application of an Adaptive Fuzzy Control Algorithm for active vibration control of an experimental flexible beam. The two-dimensional model of the experimental cantilever beam, given by an orthogonal tetrahedral space truss, represents a slender cantilever aluminum (7075-T6) beam of rectangular cross-section (1145 × 60 × 1.95 mm3). A variety of transient disturbances are introduced to excite the first four modes of the beam. The resulting transverse displacements are observed by a single sheet (50 × 50 mm2) of piezoceramic material placed at the clamped end of the beam. Active control of the beam is provided by one, two or three identical sheets of piezoceramic material collocated with the sensor. The control moments applied by the piezoceramic actuator are made to emulate the behavior of a discrete dynamic vibration absorber. The virtual absorber is tuned to the fundamental frequency using classical methods and the tuning ratios are time-invariant. However, the uniqueness of this approach is that the damping parameters of the emulated absorber are continuously varied by means of a fuzzy logic control algorithm to provide near minimum-time suppression of vibration. It is demonstrated that application of this methodology allows for its real-time implementation and provides relatively quick settling times in the closed-loop.
A general methodology has been developed for the design of a robust control law for a family of lightly damped second order problems. In this research effort, the passivity approach has been extended to systems having non-collocated input/output pairs by introducing an observer that incorporates the nominal dynamical model of the plant. The developed passive observer-based control law emulates numerous dynamic vibration absorbers which are tuned to a targeted frequency using classical methods and the tuning ratios are time-invariant. However, the uniqueness of this approach is that the damping parameters of the emulated absorbers are continuously varied by means of a fuzzy logic control algorithm to provide near minimum-time suppression of vibration. The developed approach is applied to both several benchmarks in the field of structural dynamics as well as experiments using piezo-ceramic sensors and actuators. Results show that this methodology provides stability and performance robustness on the one hand as well as requiring relatively low amount of actuation authority for desired nominal plant closeloop behavior.
This study introduces the technique of Genetic Fuzzy Trees (GFTs) through novel application to an air combat control problem of an autonomous squadron of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) equipped with next-generation defensive systems. GFTs are a natural evolution to Genetic Fuzzy Systems, in which multiple cascading fuzzy systems are optimized by genetic methods. In this problem a team of UCAV's must traverse through a battle space and counter enemy threats, utilize imperfect systems, cope with uncertainty, and successfully destroy critical targets. Enemy threats take the form of Air Interceptors (AIs), Surface to Air Missile (SAM) sites, and Electronic WARfare (EWAR) stations. Simultaneous training and tuning a multitude of Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs), with varying degrees of connectivity, is performed through the use of an optimized Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GFT presented in this study, the Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm (LETHA), is able to create controllers with the presence of deep learning, resilience to uncertainties, and adaptability to changing scenarios. These resulting deterministic fuzzy controllers are easily understandable by operators, are of very high performance and efficiency, and are consistently capable of completing new and different missions not trained for.
Over the past 10 years there has been a growing need to introduce closed-loop control technology for vibration suppression of buildings subject to wind or earthquake disturbances. This paper deals with the investigation of the effectiveness of a fuzzy logic based time variable damping tuned mass damper (TMD) on a building structure undergoing free and forced vibrations. The uniqueness of this approach is the application of a robust, nonlinear fuzzy based controller to emulate a time-optimal control strategy. Fuzzy logic based time variable damping is introduced into a semi-active TMD in order to enhance its performance in the vibration suppression of buildings. First, a single story structure for three different vibration suppression approaches is studied. The fuzzy logic based time variable damping TMD (fuzzy TMD) is compared to the baseline passive TMD as well as a conventional proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Forced vibration is introduced using a resonant harmonic sinusoidal excitation (i.e. same frequency as the fundamental frequency of the structure). Finally, the fuzzy TMD is compared to the baseline for the free vibration of a 15 story structure. For both structures studied, MATLAB based simulation results show that the passive TMD and the PD, both constant gain approaches, provide similar results whereas the fuzzy TMD yields half the settling time. This effort clearly demonstrates the potential of a variable gain (damping) strategy for the vibration suppression of buildings.
UAV’s are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. A certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of UAV’s. A quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAV’s are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. The objective of this research endeavor is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a quadrotor UAV. Validation of the math model developed is discussed using actual flight data. Excellent attitude tracking is demonstrated for near hover flight regimes. System design is comprehensively dealt with. The responses are analyzed and future work involving hardware-in-the-loop simulations is proposed.
The ability to spatially alter both the amount of body force along the span of a plasma actuator and the angle of the resulting jet relative to the surface has been demonstrated. A dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator consists of two electrodes separated by a dielectric barrier, which imparts momentum to the surrounding fluid parallel to the dielectric. To investigate a technique to shape the spanwise body force created by the plasma actuator, a control volume momentum balance was used. By shaping the buried electrode along the span of the actuator, the local volume of plasma generated can be controlled, which is related to the local body force. Pressure measurements were taken in the boundary layer behind the actuator to calculate the momentum imparted to the flow at various spanwise locations corresponding to different electrode widths. Particle image velocimetry data were then used to show that spatially varying, steady jets could be created with the use of only one actuator by varying the width of the buried electrode in a quiescent flow. The angle of the jet created, relative to the dielectric, by a plasma synthetic jet is also investigated. By pointing two plasma actuators at each other, an inverted impinging jet can be created as a result of the two independent jets colliding. By altering the strength of one of the jets relative to the other, the angle of separation can be changed. Particle image velocimetry data were taken to show the effects of altering the voltage (strength) applied to one of the actuators relative to the other. It was found that, with this method, jet vectoring could be achieved. The angle of the jet could be controlled a full 180 deg through small changes in the voltage applied to the electrodes, also in a quiescent flow.