OBJECTIVE: Damage to hair from UV exposure has been well reported in the literature and is known to be a highly complex process involving initiation via absorption of UV light followed by formation and propagation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this work was to understand these mechanisms, explain the role of copper in accelerating the formation of ROS and identify strategies to reduce the hair damage caused by these reactive species.
METHODS: The location of copper in hair was measured by Transmission electron microscopy–(TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and levels measured by ICP-OES. Protein changes were measured as total protein loss via the Lowry assay, and MALDI ToF was used to identify the biomarker protein fragments. TBARS assay was used to measure lipid peroxide formation. Sensory methods and dry combing friction were used to measure hair damage due to copper and UV exposure and to demonstrate the efficacy of N,N’ ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and histidine chelants to reduce this damage.
RESULTS: In this work, a biomarker protein fragment formed during UV exposure is identified using mass spectrometry. This fragment originates from the calcium-binding protein S100A3. Also shown is the accelerated formation of this peptide fragment in hair containing low levels of copper absorbed from hair during washing with tap water containing copper ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) studies indicate copper is located in the sulphur-poor endo-cuticle region, a region where the S100A3 protein is concentrated. A mechanism for formation of this peptide fragment is proposed in addition to the possible role of lipids in UV oxidation. A shampoo and conditioner containing chelants (EDDS in shampoo and histidine in conditioner) is shown to reduce copper uptake from tap water and reduce protein loss and formation of S100A3 protein fragment. In addition, the long-term consequences of UV oxidation and additional damage induced by copper are illustrated in a fourmonth wear study where hair was treated with a consumer relevant protocol of hair colouring treatments, UV exposure and regular shampoo and conditioning.
CONCLUSIONS: The role of copper in accelerating UV damage to hair has been demonstrated as well as the ability of chelants such as EDDS and histidine in shampoo and conditioner products to reduce this damage.
Background: Role of apolipoprotein (apo) A-II on metabolism of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is unknown.
Results: Conformational changes of apoA-I, the major apolipoprotein of HDL, caused by apoA-II in discoidal HDL are confined to two regions of apoA-I.
Conclusion: Interactions between the two major apolipoproteins in discoidal HDL are site specific.
Significance: Functional implications of HDL complexes will significantly benefit from such structural information.
Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial phospholipid essential for electron transport chain (ETC) integrity. CL-deficiency in humans is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (Taz) gene and results in a multisystem pediatric disorder, Barth syndrome (BTHS). It has been reported that tafazzin deficiency destabilizes mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and affects supercomplex assembly. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Taz-knockdown on the mitochondrial proteomic landscape and metabolic processes, such as stability of respiratory chain supercomplexes and their interactions with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in cardiac muscle. Proteomic analysis demonstrated reduction of several polypeptides of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, including Rieske and cytochrome c1 subunits of complex III, NADH dehydrogenase alpha subunit 5 of complex I and the catalytic core-forming subunit of F0F1-ATP synthase. Taz gene knockdown resulted in upregulation of enzymes of folate and amino acid metabolic pathways in heart mitochondria, demonstrating that Tazdeficiency causes substantive metabolic remodeling in cardiac muscle. Mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes are destabilized in CL-depleted mitochondria from Taz knockdown hearts resulting in disruption of the interactions between ETC and the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, potentially affecting the metabolic channeling of reducing equivalents between these two metabolic pathways. Mitochondria-bound myoglobin was significantly reduced in Taz-knockdown hearts, potentially disrupting intracellular oxygen delivery to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Our results identify the critical pathways affected by the Taz-deficiency in mitochondria and establish a future framework for development of therapeutic options for BTHS.
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament assembly protein that stabilizes sarcomeric structure and regulates cardiac function; however, the profile of cMyBP-C degradation after myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. We hypothesized that cMyBP-C is sensitive to proteolysis and is specifically increased in the bloodstream post-MI in rats and humans. Under these circumstances, elevated levels of degraded cMyBP-C could be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm MI. To test this hypothesis, we first established that cMyBP-C dephosphorylation is directly associated with increased degradation of this myofilament protein, leading to its release in vitro. Using neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro, we were able to correlate the induction of hypoxic stress with increased cMyBP-C dephosphorylation, degradation, and the specific release of N′-fragments. Next, to define the proteolytic pattern of cMyBP-C post-MI, the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated in adult male rats. Degradation of cMyBP-C was confirmed by a reduction in total cMyBP-C and the presence of degradation products in the infarct tissue. Phosphorylation levels of cMyBP-C were greatly reduced in ischemic areas of the MI heart compared to non-ischemic regions and sham control hearts. Post-MI plasma samples from these rats, as well as humans, were assayed for cMyBP-C and its fragments by sandwich ELISA and immunoprecipitation analyses. Results showed significantly elevated levels of cMyBP-C in the plasma of all post-MI samples. Overall, this study suggests that cMyBP-C is an easily releasable myofilament protein that is dephosphorylated, degraded and released into the circulation post-MI. The presence of elevated levels of cMyBP-C in the blood provides a promising novel biomarker able to accurately rule in MI, thus aiding in the further assessment of ischemic heart disease.
Bacterial methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) is a protease that removes methionine from the N termini of newly synthesized bacterial proteins after the peptide deformylase enzyme cleaves the formyl group from the initiator formylmethionine. MAP is an essential bacterial gene product and thus represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. A fundamental challenge in the antibacterial drug discovery field is demonstrating conclusively that compounds with in vitro enzyme inhibition activity produce the desired antibacterial effect by interfering with the same target in whole bacterial cells. One way to address the activity of inhibitor compounds is by profiling cellular biomarkers in whole bacterial cells using compounds that are known inhibitors of a particular target. However, in the case of MAP, no specific inhibitors were available for such studies. Instead, a genetically attenuated MAP strain was generated in which MAP expression was placed under the control of an inducible arabinose promoter. Thus, MAP inhibition in whole cells could be mimicked by growth in the absence of arabinose. This genetically attenuated strain was used as a benchmark for MAP inhibition by profiling whole-cell lysates for unprocessed proteins using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MS). Eight proteins between 4 and 14 kDa were confirmed as being unprocessed and containing the initiator methionine by adding back purified MAP to the preparations prior to MS analysis. Upon establishing these unprocessed proteins as biomarkers for MAP inhibition, the assay was used to screen small-molecule chemical inhibitors of purified MAP for whole-cell activity. Fifteen compound classes yielded three classes of compound with whole-cell activity for further optimization by chemical expansion. This report presents the development, validation, and implementation of a whole-cell inhibition assay for MAP.
Commonly used methods for isolated enzyme inhibitor screening typically rely on fluorescent or chemiluminescent detection techniques that are often indirect and/or coupled assays. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely reported for measuring the conversion of substrates to products for enzyme assays and has more recently been demonstrated as an alternative readout system for inhibitor screening. In this report, a high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) readout platform, based on the direct measurement of substrate conversion to product, is presented. The rapid ionization and desorption features of a new generation matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-triple quadrupole (MALDI-QqQ) mass spectrometer are shown to improve the speed of analysis to greater than 1 sample per second while maintaining excellent Z′ values. Furthermore, the readout was validated by demonstrating the ability to measure IC50 values for several known kinase inhibitors against cyclic AMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA). Finally, when the assay performance was compared with a common ADPaccumulation readout system, this HTMS approach produced better signal-to-background ratios, higher Z′ values, and a reagent cost of about $0.03 per well compared with about $0.60 per well for the fluorescence assay. Collectively, these data demonstrate that a MALDI-QqQ-MS–based readout platform offers significant advantages over the commonly used assays in terms of speed, sensitivity, reproducibility, and reagent cost. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening 2008:1007-1013)
Proteomic analysis of biological samples in disease models or therapeutic intervention studies requires the ability to detect and identify biologically relevant proteins present in relatively low concentrations. The detection and analysis of these low-level proteins is hindered by the presence of a few proteins that are expressed in relatively high concentrations. In the case of muscle tissue, highly abundant structural proteins, such as actin, myosin, and tropomyosin, compromise the detection and analysis of more biologically relevant proteins. We have developed a practical protocol which exploits high-pH extraction to reduce or remove abundant structural proteins from skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations in a manner suitable for two dimensional gel electrophoresis. An initial whole-cell muscle lysate is generated by homogenization of powdered tissue in Tris-base. This lysate is subsequently partitioned into a supernatant and pellet containing the majority of structural proteins. Treatment of the pellet with high-pH conditions effectively releases structural proteins from membrane compartments which are then removed through ultracentrifugation. Mass spectrometric identification shows that the majority of protein spots reduced or removed by high-pH treatment were contractile proteins or contractile-related proteins. Removal of these proteins enabled successful detection and identification of minor proteins. Structural protein removal also results in significant improvement of gel quality and the ability to load higher amounts of total protein for the detection of lower abundant protein classes.
Candida albicans is a leading pathogen in infections of central venous catheters, which are frequently infused with heparin. Binding of C. albicans to medically relevant concentrations of soluble and plate-bound heparin was demonstrable by confocal microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A sequencebased search identified 34 C. albicans surface proteins containing ≥1 match to linear heparin-binding motifs. The virulence factor Int1 contained the most putative heparin-binding motifs (n = 5); peptides encompassing 2 of 5 motifs bound to heparin-Sepharose. Alanine substitution of lysine residues K805/K806 in 804QKKHQIHK811 (motif 1 of Int1) markedly attenuated biofilm formation in central venous catheters in rats, whereas alanine substitution of K1595/R1596 in 1593FKKRFFKL1600 (motif 4 of Int1) did not impair biofilm formation. Affinity-purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) recognizing motif 1 abolished biofilm formation in central venous catheters; preimmune IgG had no effect. After heparin treatment of C. albicans, soluble peptides from multiple C. albicans surface proteins were detected, such as Eno1, Pgk1, Tdh3, and Ssa1/2 but not Int1, suggesting that heparin changes candidal surface structures and may modify some antigens critical for immune recognition. These studies define a new mechanism of biofilm formation for C. albicans and a novel strategy for inhibiting catheter-associated biofilms.
Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the main determinants of poor prognosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this study was to 1) isolate and identify proteins contained in the LN urinary protein signature (PS) of children with SLE; 2) assess the usefulness of the PS-proteins for detecting activity of LN over time. Using surface-enhanced or matrix assisted laser desorption/ ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, the proteins contained in the LN urinary PS were identified. They were transferrin (Tf), ceruloplasmin (Cp), α1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP), lipocalintype prostaglandin-D synthetase (L-PGDS), albumin and albumin-related fragments. Serial plasma and urine samples were analyzed using immunonephelometry or ELISA in 98 children with SLE (78% African-American) and 30 controls with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. All urinary PS-proteins were significantly higher with active versus inactive LN or in patients without LN (all p<0.005), and their combined area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85. As early as 3 months before a clinical diagnosis of worsening LN, significant increases of urinary Tf, AGP (both p < 0.0001) and L-PGDS (p < 0.01) occurred, indicating that these PS-proteins are biomarkers of LN activity and may help anticipate the future course of LN.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease and lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the main determinants of poor prognosis (1). Currently, LN is gauged by measuring circulating and excreted indicators of renal dysfunction, with supporting information from kidney biopsies. The latter constitute the current standard for diagnosing LN, providing a direct assessment of the presence, severity and activity of LN, and the degree of renal damage (2). Due to the invasive nature of kidney biopsies, clinicians base LN activity and its therapy on the results of urinary protein excretion, urinary sediment, creatinine clearance and serum albumin. These traditional markers are not accurate in assessing whether active LN is present or not, and none of them is predictive, i.e. can anticipate the course of LN.
Using Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) technology, we previously identified a LN urinary protein signature (PS), consisting of eight candidate biomarkers at the mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 2.763, 22, 23, 44, 56, 79, 100, and 133 kDa (3).
In this study, we present the identification of the specific proteins contained in this PS of children with LN. We further assayed plasma and urine samples of SLE patients and controls with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to investigate the concurrent and predictive validity of the PS-proteins to serve as biomarkers of LN activity.
Background: Acid -glucosidase is trafficked to the lysosome by LIMP-2.
Results: A unique 11-amino acid sequence on acid -glucosidase was critical for its LIMP-2-dependent targeting to the lysosome.
Conclusion: This sequence is essential for oligosaccharide-independent targeting of synthesized acid -glucosidase to the lysosome.
Significance: Modification of this sequence has basic/therapeutic implications for Gaucher disease and its comorbidities (e.g. Parkinson disease).