The present study examined acoustic, aerodynamic, and videostroboscopic measures of voice production following BOTOX injections in 4 patients with Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia. Videostroboscopic measures showed a return to some normal aspects of vocal fold vibration 1 month post-injection. Several subjects exhibited suggested meaningful differences both one week and one month post-injection for acoustic and aerodynamic measures; however, results were highly variable and often did not bring the subjects' values into the normal range.
Compared to other drugs of abuse, studies of the effects of nicotine on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) are few in number. Since the effect of nicotine on reward is not well established, one goal of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of nicotine-induced changes in brain stimulation reward using a rigorously validated, rate-free and reward-selective procedure. Once established, the second goal was to assess the ability of specific dopamine (sulpiride), serotonin (MDL 26,508), and mixed dopamine/serotonin (MDL 28,133A) antagonists to modify nicotine's effects.
Filtration theory was developed by engineers to model the removal of particulate matter from industrial gases. Recently, it has been used by biologists and paleo-biologists to model the capture of food particles by filter feeding organisms. The purpose of this study was to test paleosynecologic (biofacies-level) and paleoautecologic (species-level) models of crinoid distribution utilizing filtration theory. These models were tested by analyzing the crinoid faunas of three transgressive-regressive sequences from the Upper Pennsylvanian Lansing Group of midcontinent North America.
Stratigraphic, sedimentologic and petrographic studies of the Lower and Upper Cretaceous in northwest Sonora show that deposition of the Bisbee Group occurred at the northern margin of a back-arc marine basin, and of the El Chanate Group and El Charro volcanic complex in a closed continental foreland basin. This study also finds that the Proterozoic-Paleozoic formations in northwest Sonora (Caborca terrane) were not part of the Cretaceous landscape, thus raising doubts about the existence of the Mojave-Sonora megashear.