There is considerable interest within the design research domain in the possible cognitive functions and actions as ‘design thinking’ is used. This proposal commences with reference to Senge who suggests, “Truly creative people use the gap between vision and current reality to generate energy for change”. He drew from the musician Fritz, who proposed, “It’s not what the vision is but what the vision does,” (1990, p.153). The imagined ideal in a vision seems to act like a spike setting off self-urging creative intuitions and insights and instinctive reactions. A conceptual series of diagrams will develop these insights where an imagined ideal is to be set up as the vision as the anticipated experience of a ‘best-possible-self’ with success, where emergent ‘ideas-of-best-fit’ closely match the designer’s goals and desires. The triggering mental actions required are similar in form to De Bono’s technique based on ‘Six Colored Hats’ (1985). In this project, however, the practitioner adopts an overarching meaningful ideal for a ‘hat’ in the form of an experiential clear sense of success as motivating ideations emerge, such that these closely match their goals and desires as a ‘best-possible-fit’. The model is also potentially transformative as the visioning ideal could be framed such that any emergent effects of encoded formed bias or a self-limiting psychology could be effectively reduced or eliminated through the applied created differential as a ‘generative gap’ for the self. This paper will further suggest how this envisaged ideal of success could be experientially explored through co-creative action cycles of research in different design-thinking domains.
Most academic methodologies are developed from a prescribed methodological process that is limited to a specific area of study. However, the disciplinary landscape in which the knowledge is established is being rapidly reconfigured. Given the vast varieties of practices and knowledge base required from information designers, it is even more crucial for them to look outside of the traditional visual design fields and seek diversities for better research and creation methods.
The two disciplines, software engineering and information design, are often perceived as one provides technical solutions to the other. This essay intends to move beyond the common perception, and identify relevant issues in software engineering design that resonate with the information design process. The issues include the multi-component planning approach; the human-oriented agile method; design concepts such as abstraction, decomposition, component modularity, hierarchical relationship, and extensibility. The perspectives from software engineering design and information design is examined through units of analysis, terminology explanations, and forms of communications. The collective design methods and principles provide a systematic framework to the methodological thinking in information design. The discussion serves the purpose of encouraging more conceptual-based conversations between information design and other disciplines, especially in the fields of science and technology.
This paper presents a case study analysing the interactions of nine security officers during the mandatory passenger screening process at an Australian international Airport. Eye-tracking glasses were used to observe the visual, physical and verbal interactions of security officers while they performed the x-ray task. Stationary video recording devices were used to record physical and verbal interactions performed by security officers during the load, search and metal detector tasks. Six taxonomic groups were developed that define the different types of interactions performed by security officers during each task. Each taxonomic group is comprised of several discrete interactions specific to each of the tasks observed. Through analysing the composition of interactions and the relationships between interactions in different tasks, this paper highlights the prominence of interactions that security officers perform with passengers and their belongings. These interactions play an important role in the first and last stages of the passenger screening process, as well as influence the functioning of the overall passenger screening process. Due to this, they have substantial effect on passenger experience, throughput efficiency and security efficacy. In response to these findings, we draw from emerging security technologies and persuasive design principles to present potential design solutions for optimising the passenger screening process. These are presented in the context of a preliminary framework with which to inform the design of current and future passenger screening processes.
While it is common for landscaped and well-marked urban streets to have sufficient identification signs, which display place or street names, they often face issues regarding the provision of information (e.g., in sign placement) and inadequate orientation signs, which play an indispensable role in facilitating pedestrian movement. Insufficient signage can be partially addressed by supplementing signs with non-informational urban elements, such as streetlights or other urban features that provide different sorts of information. In order to result in smooth urban pedestrian movement, public signage systems require a balance between districts and streets and a system for presenting linked information. This study proposes that an urban element design system can be applied to the construction of public signage systems for pedestrians. There are several methods by which to accomplish this; each fulfills the needs of different districts and streets. For example, some strategies suggest ways to integrate information in areas with many urban elements, such as public signage, while others offer strategies for adding pedestrian signs and other elements alongside vehicular signs in areas with insufficient information. This article proposes a distribution graph of public signage as a concrete method for organizing the construction of public signage. Such a distribution graph is a way to visualize different distributions of sign type, and see clusters of street patterns. It is an effective way not only to planning new pedestrian signage systems, but also for revising plans with biased or insufficient signage distribution.
The term “slow fashion” was coined by Kate Fletcher to counter the growing trend of the “fast fashion” industry. In recent years, the clothing industry has been dominated by fast fashion that has spurred overconsumption whereby people buy more than they need.
This study aims to develop a critical-creative thinking framework based on the understandings and insights of how Millennials view apparel consumption. Lynda Grose and Kate Fletcher’s chapter “Transforming Fashion Product” from their book Fashion & Sustainability: Design for Change (2012) provided useful information regarding the fashion process, helping to reveal new patterns to frame how participants of this study view apparel consumption. This research investigated the way in which consumers viewed material, consumer care, and disposal of their clothing.
In order to understand the Millennial mindset with regard to apparel consumption, responses were collected from over a hundred Millennials through an online survey (Phase One), where they discussed their reasons for placing themselves along a scale from slow to fast fashion. The findings uncovered a new group of consumers, the undecided+exploring, who identified with both slow and fast fashion. Valuable insights extracted from the survey informed the development of a research toolkit for a series of participatory workshops (Phase Two) with the goal to construct a conceptual model of Millennial apparel consumption.
Further understanding of slow fashion, as seen through the Millennial mindset, will inspire and guide designers, manufacturers, and consumers to make more sustainable decision when developing, selling, and buying clothing items.
Smart home is becoming a focus in both literature and product development practices. The current study employed a human-centered design approach to understand users desires and expectations from their living context. Six critical themes were developed via in-deep interview, field observation, and data analysis. They are house as a supportive friend, atmosphere generator, theme songs for every moment, coordinator and reminder, life memory collector, and routine builder for young generations. Those concepts were partially integrated to define the value proposition for the target user group of parents with young children. This guides the design ideation and video prototyping to illustrator the user experiences. Through a focus group discussion, the design concepts were validated with six potential customers. The results also show that the design concept has the potential to motivate children’s behaviors, help to build their routine, and has the flexibility to fulfill different needs toward the changes of the family’s life cycle.
The design of meaningful graphical objects to represent collection items must balance the following: amount of useful information that can be communicated through the object’s graphical form, meaningful graphical difference between individual items or groups of items, and restraint in form complexity to allow for the simultaneous display of numerous collection items at a small size. How the user interprets difference and sameness and, more importantly, whether the user attaches hierarchical value to the emergent categories, may play a significant role in determining whether that user focusses attention on one set of data over another, on one set of processes over another, and ultimately, on one set of tasks over another. This paper examines the significant consequences for the understanding of the user resulting from representation of data, files, and other objects in a human-computer interface (HCI), and proposes that new approaches may be indicated, given the growing complexity of what is being represented and how what is represented can be used.
Student life at a large institution like University of California, Berkeley, is challenging in many ways. Along with the often extreme academic demands, students must discover and navigate numerous services while simultaneously integrating themselves into formal and informal campus communities. Historically, core student services were delivered in a piecemeal and disjointed way via a dozen or more websites. A large investment in a Student Information Systems (SIS) replacement project has since unified these service experiences through CalCentral, a Berkeley-developed service portal, and created with a significant focus on user experience design.
While significant strides have been made to improve and simplify how services are delivered to students, the design team has been challenged to push their vision of the service ecosystem further, to “humanize the institution.” The vision goes through the SIS project and beyond, by first switching mindsets from service producers to service providers, and second by looking at how deeper relationships can be created digitally between students and the institution. The research, with students and different stakeholder groups, shows that beyond usability and learnability, there are greater opportunities through service design to contribute to students’ senses of agency, inclusion, connectedness and wellbeing. The design team is codifying new design principles and developing prototype experiences that look more closely at tone, behavior and contributing to a positive emotional state of mind. The service delivery through CalCentral is humanized and augmented in affirming ways, to use language that is accessible, and to guide students through complex paths.
Behaviour insights have been extensively applied to public policy and service design. The potential for an expanded use of behaviour change to healthcare quality improvement has been underlined in the England’s National Health Service Five-Year Forward View report, in which staff behaviour is connected to the quality of care delivered to patients and better clinical practice (NHS, 2014). Improving the quality of healthcare service delivery involves adopting improvement cycles that are conducted by multiple agents through systematic processes of change and evaluation (Scoville et al., 2016). Despite the recognition that some of the recurring challenges to improve healthcare services are behavioural in essence, there is insufficient evidence about how behavioural insights can be successfully applied to quality improvement in healthcare. Simultaneously, the discussion on how to better engage participants in intervention design, and how to better enable participation are not seen as fundamental components of behaviour change frameworks. This paper presents an integrative approach, stemming from comprehensive literature review and an ongoing case study, in which participatory design is used as the conduit to activate stakeholder engagement in the application of a behaviour change framework, aiming to improve the processes of diagnosing and managing urinary tract infection in the emergency department of a hospital in England. Preliminary findings show positive results regarding the combined use of participatory design and behaviour change tools in the development of a shared-vision of the challenges in question, and the collaborative establishment of priorities of action, potential solution routes and evaluation strategies.