There is considerable interest within the design research domain in the possible cognitive functions and actions as ‘design thinking’ is used. This proposal commences with reference to Senge who suggests, “Truly creative people use the gap between vision and current reality to generate energy for change”. He drew from the musician Fritz, who proposed, “It’s not what the vision is but what the vision does,” (1990, p.153). The imagined ideal in a vision seems to act like a spike setting off self-urging creative intuitions and insights and instinctive reactions. A conceptual series of diagrams will develop these insights where an imagined ideal is to be set up as the vision as the anticipated experience of a ‘best-possible-self’ with success, where emergent ‘ideas-of-best-fit’ closely match the designer’s goals and desires. The triggering mental actions required are similar in form to De Bono’s technique based on ‘Six Colored Hats’ (1985). In this project, however, the practitioner adopts an overarching meaningful ideal for a ‘hat’ in the form of an experiential clear sense of success as motivating ideations emerge, such that these closely match their goals and desires as a ‘best-possible-fit’. The model is also potentially transformative as the visioning ideal could be framed such that any emergent effects of encoded formed bias or a self-limiting psychology could be effectively reduced or eliminated through the applied created differential as a ‘generative gap’ for the self. This paper will further suggest how this envisaged ideal of success could be experientially explored through co-creative action cycles of research in different design-thinking domains.
Identifying Infants can be harder than it seems. Particularly in remote and limited resources settings, rapid and accurate identification of infants presents an unsolved complex sociotechnical problem. Imagine a long line of caregivers, each carrying several children, waiting outside in heat and humidity for required vaccinations. Caregivers may only know the infant's given names: how can the they be identified for record keeping?
Vaccination cards are notoriously unreliably and easily lost, mistakes abound. Recent technologycentered attempts th
In order to develop a new, infant-centered solution from the ground up, we assembled a diverse team of engineers, clinicians, ethnographers and designers and followed a Human Centered Design (HCD) approach of ethnography, rapid prototyping and testing. We examined all common modalities used in adult biometrics-- ear, iris, retina, face, foot, palm and finger recognition and compared technical feasibility, usability and acceptability for the infant use case. We prototyped many infant-centric devices and arrived at lead candidates using modified contact vs non contact palm and finger scanning. Frequent design-test cycles were critical as the complexity and changing nature of infant physiology, behavior and caregiver dynamics could not be predicted, only tested with subjects. This was compounded by moving targets of evolving infant-centric software, hardware and device design.
In summary, we report here an HCD based approach to infant biometrics. We developed and tested robust, socially acceptable technologies that adapt to the tiny, sensitive yet changing fingers of very young infants.
As society shifts towards an increasingly sustainable future, high-performance buildings can provide a means to meet sustainability and energy efficiency goals. Occupants in high-performance buildings are often expected to interact with building systems to maintain individual levels of comfort and productivity. However, the critical role of the human-building interface is often ignored (Day & Heschong, 2016). Too often, building controls are not intuitive and poorly understood by typical users. Conversely, some buildings rely on entirely automated building systems (e.g. lighting, shading, HVAC systems), which take control away from occupants. This approach is largely unpopular with building occupants. The literature suggests people desire and prefer control of their interior environments (e.g., Escuyer & Fontoynont, 2001). Designing a high-performance building that effectively engages users presents a more complex problem than most designers are prepared to handle.
Design teams require an ability to see the whole situation—from how the parts of the system work to how users will engage and adapt the system. This ability relies on systematic efforts to understand broad swaths of human behavior and design research, which go beyond computation or modeling (e.g., Huppatz, 2015; Rittel & Webber, 1973). In this context, design and design research supports third order (activities and processes) and fourth order (environments, organizations, and systems) design problems (Buchanan, 1999). Creating design teams, who can comprehend a whole situation, requires reframing how clients and designers understand design problems. This draft paper links theory about design problems with practical processes for using design research to improve the human-building interface.
Carnegie Mellon University's School of Design partnered with Cognizant Technology Solutions on a design project for a semester-long elective course called UX Design Tools. The intent was broad in its inception: identify emergent opportunities where technology will play a significant role in people's interactions and experiences. What is the future of physical space? How are advancements in IoT, augmented reality, and telematics influencing how we experience environments?
Students were asked to anchor their problem solving in evolving human needs and to understand the role technology plays. Cognizant's human-centered development approach relies primarily on ethnographic inquiry. This evidenced through integrating their anthropologists from acquired firm Idea Couture, and associates from strategic partner ReD Associates. The interdisciplinary majors from upper-level undergraduate to graduate level students learned to use and create multi- method research approaches to identify unique opportunities.
Seven teams created future scenarios with newly developed physical product designs, digital interfaces, and new service strategies utilizing various technologies. Three case studies highlight a trio of observed emotional themes in relation to how people utilize technology to benefit their daily life or work: self-
election, introduction-exchange, and co-dependency.
This poster presentation will showcase three projects that will serve as examples of how industry and academia act as research and development entities; how to approach research as a
fundamental tenet for innovation and design; and show how breadth and depth of interdisciplinary skills and experience is a necessity in an ever expanding climate of technology push.
Smart home is becoming a focus in both literature and product development practices. The current study employed a human-centered design approach to understand users desires and expectations from their living context. Six critical themes were developed via in-deep interview, field observation, and data analysis. They are house as a supportive friend, atmosphere generator, theme songs for every moment, coordinator and reminder, life memory collector, and routine builder for young generations. Those concepts were partially integrated to define the value proposition for the target user group of parents with young children. This guides the design ideation and video prototyping to illustrator the user experiences. Through a focus group discussion, the design concepts were validated with six potential customers. The results also show that the design concept has the potential to motivate children’s behaviors, help to build their routine, and has the flexibility to fulfill different needs toward the changes of the family’s life cycle.
The deterioration of linguistic abilities is a natural phenomenon along with aging. Therefore, various assessment tools have been developed to measure linguistic abilities of seniors and diagnose
degenerative diseases such as dementia. Although most of the tools are composed of images, there are not many studies focusing on the visual design, which could significantly affect performance of the subject. In this regard, this research aims to suggest a design guideline for linguistic ability assessment tools concerning the key characteristics of the elderly, focusing on visual contents and interface.
Existing related researches were mostly conducted in English speaking countries. In order to assess the language processing abilities of Korean-speaking elders more accurately, it is necessary to develop language processing assessment tools that reflect the unique linguistic features and structure of the Korean language. Regarding the existing tools, there is a lack of research on aging, focusing on ‘verb naming.
In the literature review section, the paper investigated the physical, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the elderly and extracted the key elements to consider when designing for the elderly. Also, design principles were found based on case studies and problem analysis of the existing assessment tools for language processing abilities. Lastly, we created a prototype model using ‘verb naming.’ Using the model, we have conducted an experiment and comparative analysis between different age groups to verify the validity of contents.
In conclusion, we provided a design guideline for visual contents and interface of linguistic assessment tools, focusing on elderly users.
Western cultures focus on salient objects and use categorization for purposes of organizing the environment (an analytic view), whereas, East Asians cultures focus more holistically on relationships and similarities among objects when organizing the environment (a holistic view). Previous research has shown that cognitive approaches differ between cultures: European Americans prefer an analytic style, and East Asians tend to use a holistic style. However, little is known about how cultural differences in cognition relate to aesthetic preferences. In this paper, we explored whether cultural differences arise in preferences for products set in matching vs. mismatching contexts. Participants in a laboratory experiment included European Americans and East Asians. Individually, they viewed images of a variety of furniture products (chairs, coffee tables, and floor lamps) and rated their aesthetic appeal. Each product type appeared in three different contexts: matching (target product shown in its usual in-home context); mismatched (target product shown in an unusual in-home context), and neutral (the target product shown on a white background). For both cultural groups, products were judged to be more aesthetically pleasing in the matching than in the mismatched context. However, ratings for products in mismatching contexts were significantly higher among East Asians. Our findings suggest that those with holistic views (East Asians) are more tolerant of mismatches than are those with more analytic views (European Americans). The implications for product and marketing design include greater attention to context presentation.
Learning pressure affects students’ learning process and performance. Industrial design education emphasizes that operations on real design problems that have heavy working loads may cause learning pressure. The purpose of this study is to explore the issues causing learning pressure and the pressure management strategies of undergraduate industrial design students. There were 297 students who participated in the questionnaire survey. The main findings are as follows: First, learning pressure includes academic pressure, peer pressure, self-expectations, time pressure, financial pressure, pressure from instructors, external pressure, future career, pressure from parents, resource pressure, achievement, and situational pressure. In addition, the main learning pressure is caused by finance, time, resources, external issues, and future career. Second, the pressure management strategies include problem solving, procrastination and escape, help seeking, leisure, emotional management, and self-adjustment. The most useful strategy for managing pressure is leisure, and procrastination and escape is the least useful strategy. Third, all learning pressures are significantly correlated with procrastination and escape strategy, but the coefficients are low. The results can be a reference for industrial design education and related research.
Designing successful products and services that people like, requires an understanding of the context and the aspirations of those people. Over the past decade, a range of methods has been developed to help designers gain such empathy. These have worked well when designer and target user share a cultural context. However, designers often find it difficult to empathize with the user insights of individuals from a culture beyond their first-hand experience. To help designers step beyond this limitation, those user insights need to be placed in a larger understanding of the cultural context. In this paper, we present Cultura: a toolkit that uses nine cultural aspects based on cultural models, informing designers about user insights in a broader cultural context. The toolkit was evaluated in design sessions with four design teams. The findings indicate that Cultura provides inspiration and motivation for designers to gain empathic insights into users beyond their own cultural boundaries and to make effective designs for people.
Developing successful RNPs can bring competitive advantages for companies. However, the success rate of RNPs are relatively low because consumers often feel resistant to adopt
them. One reason for consumers’ resistance is their lack of comprehension of RNPs. To facilitate consumers’ comprehension, this paper conceptually discusses the opportunities related to designing the appearances of RNPs. More specifically, to facilitate consumers’ internal and external learning, this paper explores four underlying mechanisms: 1) product appearance as a visual cue to trigger category-based knowledge transfer, 2) to trigger analogy-based knowledge transfer, 3) product appearance as an information carrier to communicate innovative functionality directly, and 4) product appearance as a way to trigger congruity with innovative functionality of RNPs. The rationales for each underlying
mechanism are conceptually discussed, supported with relevant empirical evidence and examples found in the markets.
High-stakes testing that became the norm after the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 helped condition students to strive for correct answers for clear problems, all on the first try. However, the iterative process inherent in designing requires risk-taking to conduct a trial-and-error process of defining problems and exploring possible solutions. This design research project was operated with Miami University Graphic Design students to test their willingness to take risks in their coursework to achieve their self-defined measures of success. Students identified that improving their skills was how they defined success. An interaction design assignment involving front-end coding was modified to test students’ comfort taking risks to grow their skills. Most students took risks in the assignment to grow their interaction design skills. The project revealed that closer attention to student motivation when developing learning experiences could help students make the transition to practicing design as an iterative process fraught with risk.
Behaviour insights have been extensively applied to public policy and service design. The potential for an expanded use of behaviour change to healthcare quality improvement has been underlined in the England’s National Health Service Five-Year Forward View report, in which staff behaviour is connected to the quality of care delivered to patients and better clinical practice (NHS, 2014). Improving the quality of healthcare service delivery involves adopting improvement cycles that are conducted by multiple agents through systematic processes of change and evaluation (Scoville et al., 2016). Despite the recognition that some of the recurring challenges to improve healthcare services are behavioural in essence, there is insufficient evidence about how behavioural insights can be successfully applied to quality improvement in healthcare. Simultaneously, the discussion on how to better engage participants in intervention design, and how to better enable participation are not seen as fundamental components of behaviour change frameworks. This paper presents an integrative approach, stemming from comprehensive literature review and an ongoing case study, in which participatory design is used as the conduit to activate stakeholder engagement in the application of a behaviour change framework, aiming to improve the processes of diagnosing and managing urinary tract infection in the emergency department of a hospital in England. Preliminary findings show positive results regarding the combined use of participatory design and behaviour change tools in the development of a shared-vision of the challenges in question, and the collaborative establishment of priorities of action, potential solution routes and evaluation strategies.
This paper will address some design concerns relating to philosopher Étienne Souriau’s work Les différents modes d’existence (2009). This has important bearings upon design because, first, this philosophical attitude thinks of designing not as an act of forming objects with identity and meaning, but rather as a process of delivering things that allow for a multiplicity of creative remodulation of our very existences. Secondly, Souriau unpicks the concept of a being existing as a unified identity and redefines existence as a creative act of nonstop production of a variety of modes of existence. In doing this he not only moves ontological considerations to the fore of philosophical discussions away from epistemological ones, but does so in such a way as to align with attitudes to ethics that relate it to ontology – notably the work of Spinoza. (This places Souriau in a philosophical lineage that leads back, for example, to Nietzsche and Whitehead, and forward (from his era) to Deleuze and Guattari.) In thinking both ontology and ethics together, this paper will introduce a different approach to the ethics of design.
Throughout the history of design teaching in Higher Education, there has been an assumption that students need to physically encounter objects to fully understand and appreciate them.
However, in this digital age, the physical encounter has been superseded by the myriad detailed images and information that is readily available on-line and in print.
This concern drew together a museum curator and a 3D Design educator. One was concerned that the digital experience lacked the visceral and emotional experience of engaging with physical objects, and highlighted a difficulty of facilitating access to meaningful, contemporary, objects. The other, whose largely historic collections were increasingly considered “irrelevant” to contemporary design practice, understood the value of materiality as fundamental to a museum’s existence, and its role in teaching and research.
The result was the establishment in 2013 of the “Material & Process Innovation Collection”, a museum quality collection, comprised of objects that are cutting-edge in terms of their material and process-led approaches to making, manufacture and distribution. The collection is driven not only by curatorial concerns, but by teaching and research, challenging the conservatism of museum collecting by taking innovative objects of untested materials and unknown makers, and hands the responsibility of collections development to non-curators.
The research presents an analysis and reflection on bringing the physical back into the classroom, the value of this experience within teaching, learning and research, and reveals if there is merit in the assumption that sensory engagement with physical objects is of greater value than the digital experience.
From the 1980s, design thinking has emerged in companies as a method for practical and creative problem solving, based on designers’ way of thinking, integrated into a rational and iterative model to accompany the process. In companies, design thinking helped valuing creative teamwork, though not necessarily professional designers’ expertise. By pointing out two blind spots in design thinking models, as currently understood and implemented, this paper aims at shedding light on two rarely described traits of designers’ self. The first relies in problem framing, a breaking point that deeply escapes determinism. The second blind spot questions the post project process. We thus seek to portray designers’ singularity, in order to stimulate critical reflection and encourage the opening-up to design culture. Companies and organizations willing to make the most of designers’ expertise would gain acknowledging their critical heteronomy to foster innovation based on strong and disruptive visions, beyond an out-of-date problem solving approach to design.
Solution-generation design behavior in general, and "reflection-in-action" in particular, can serve to differentiate designers, recognizing their personal reflecting when designing. In psychology, reflection is found a more robust tool to enhance task performance after feedback from a personal "device" that generates the process itself while interacting with visual representation. Differences among students' interior design processes appear in their solution-generation design behavior. A “think aloud” experiment identified solution-generation behavior profiles. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies showed how design characteristics unite, forming patterns of design behavior. A comprehensive picture of designers’ differences emerged.
The research aimed:
to identify individual design students’ solution-generation profiles based on design characteristics.
to show how reflection-in-action appearing in the profiles can serve to predict how novice designers learn and act when solving a design problem.
to enhance the uniqueness of reflection-in-action for designers as distinct from reflection in other fields.
Four distinct solution-generation profiles emerged, each showing a different type of reflective acts. Identifying reflection-in-action type can robustly predict how designers develop design solutions and help develop pedagogical concepts, strategies and tools.
In the past decades, universities’ involvement in socio-economic development, which goes along with their teaching and researching activities, has defined a new role for them in society’s ecosystem. This new role is often referred with the term of “entrepreneurial” university, whose objectives are positive societal, economic and environmental impacts. In order to fulfil such objectives, entrepreneurial universities might engage in cross-sector collaborations with external organisations. Despite the great contributions that cross-sector collaboration can give to the partners involved, the outcome is mostly unfocussed and rarely embedded. This paper explores the outcome embedding in the cross-sector collaboration between entrepreneurial universities and the private sector. To this end, we provide the case of the collaboration between a Dutch airline company and four Dutch entrepreneurial research and teaching institutions. We aim to uncover hindering and enabling factors to the outcome embedding in order to design an interaction platform, design it together. This platform will be a tool to encourage the outcome embedding, moving from being inspired by to the actual implementation of the cross-sector collaboration. In order to fulfill this goal, this study employs a research through design methodology. This approach is a generative process, where cyclic loops of iterations and evaluations with stakeholders tend to the research goal. The solution is a digital platform, co-created with all stakeholders. This study can inspire practitioners and future research on the problem of unsuccessful cross-sector collaborations, between entrepreneurial universities and external organisations, with more emphasis on the value of embedding and translating the outcomes.
The purpose of Experience Group Sessions is to identify the health and lifestyle challenges that make it difficult for patients and families to manage chronic medical conditions. The Innovation Engine at Carolinas HealthCare System worked with pediatricians to identify and recruit patients with chronic asthma. Experience Group Sessions were a way for families and patients to share their experiences managing asthma and allowed facilitators to gather insights about what does and does not happen in their daily lives. The key themes and quotes collected from the Experience Group Sessions were grouped into three categories of outcomes that define success with health: capability, comfort and calm. The results of the analysis were shared with the workgroup to inform the design and strategy for an integrated practice unit. Integrated practice units are intended to bring together a full range of providers and services to specifically address a certain medical condition, in this case, pediatric asthma at Carolinas HealthCare System. This integrated practice model will be reorganized around patient-centered care and value to improve overall health for children with asthma.
Effective university-industry collaboration has become a major focus for governments in recent years. Universities are increasingly expected to play a greater role in the innovation system and evidence their contribution to economic development. At the same time, the growth in research quality assessment exercises makes it imperative that the excellence of research conducted in commercially-driven activities can be appropriately evaluated. This paper explores the challenge of reconciling commercially-focused activity and research quality assessment in design. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with thirteen experts including representatives from the design discipline, other applied academic disciplines, research quality assessment leaders and commercial designers. The interviews identified a number of barriers to demonstrating research excellence in commercially-driven projects. These were classified as barriers resulting from: the nature of industry/academic relationships; the nature of the project; and the nature of the research quality assessment. It is concluded that there is a need to build a simple, easily usable framework for assessing the research potential of commercially-driven design projects from the outset to ensure that the appropriate processes are put in place to communicate research conducted within them.
Living in a modern society is becoming more complex, so in order to keep up with, a person should accomplish various kinds of task at once. Daily life requirements, obligations and the capacity of human memory lead us to collect and control our behaviors, bodies and lives through self-tracking devices. Aim of this paper analysis of emerging digitalized self-tracking trend through content analysis of Wired Magazine. Wired Magazine, both in printed and online, monthly, publish technology related articles how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy and politics. It reaches more than 30 million people each month through wired.com, digital edition. Since the term 'quantified self' emerged for the first time in Wired Magazine, for this reason Wired Magazine is one of the most important sources to be used for content analysis. This present study carries out a content analysis of all the issues until December 2016 through 'self-tracking' and two other related terms: 'quantified self' and 'lifelogging'. The usage period and popularity of these terms and, the relation network with the main topics and the subtopics are examined. As a result, it is possible to define wired magazine as a medium in which industry-academia and users come together and, feed each other reciprocally. Wired Magazine have contributed significantly and continues to contribute to the development of the digitalized self-tracking trend in terms of its content.