Design is gaining popularity as a way to address complex social problems in various fields of practices. Strangely, public health which, by nature, is concerned by such kinds of problems, remains foreign to this way of thinking. Building on the increasing popularity of design in policy making, we stress that public health could also benefit from this conceptual yet pragmatic framework. To open a critical perspective about the potential of design for public health, we examine four design projects that address social determinants of health and whose outcomes promotes healthy living habits. Finally, we argue that the interest of design for public health lies on its concern for the users’ æsthetic experience emerging of its encounter with the touchpoints that embody health policies. This contribution ought to act as a stepping stone to open a debate about design as offering a critical perspective for the practice and study of public health.
We developed an art program that connects rehabilitation exercises with the creation of art. The quality and level of rehabilitation exercise achieved in the outcome of the resulting artwork is reflected as feedback to encourage patients to perform their rehabilitation exercises. The art program is called “Let’s stand up and draw art in the sky!” and utilizes a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display device to create a landscape image in the device’s display area, through the movements of sitting down and standing up. To replicate the rehabilitation movement of standing then sitting on a chair, a squat exercise experiment was conducted with and without the art program, using university student subjects, and the results were compared between the two trials. When the subjects used the program they reported a significant increase in the "Level of Vitality" and the "Level of Pleasure", compared to when they performed the exercises without the art program.
Contemporary research in business strategy, new product development, and design management has suggested that cross-functional collaboration within team-based environments is critical to successful product development processes. However, scholars have also demonstrated that the mere presence of inter-functional structures does not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Indeed, the very differences which cause cross-disciplinary teams to result in improved design processes may also lead to friction as team members’ backgrounds, orientations, and training often cause them to have different perspectives on what information is important to the product design process and to solve development-related problems. Improved understanding how to integrate information from differing functional areas is a clear emphasis of research, yet very few empirical studies have precisely defined the units of knowledge flowing through NPD projects, differences in importance of information elements by functional area, or the structures which may facilitate the sharing of information within NPD. This study presents an investigation of product design briefs as knowledge-based artifacts of cross-functional collaboration within NPD. Drawing on a proprietary sample of 68 briefs analyzed through an expert rating procedure alongside survey questionnaire of 153 product development managers our results define 51 information elements commonly shared between functional areas during an NPD project. We organize these information elements as eight factors, categorize the “importance” of each element to NPD success, and describe differences in evaluation from across three primary functional domains of NPD: (a) Design, (b) Marketing, and (c) Engineering/ R&D/ Development.
Learning pressure affects students’ learning process and performance. Industrial design education emphasizes that operations on real design problems that have heavy working loads may cause learning pressure. The purpose of this study is to explore the issues causing learning pressure and the pressure management strategies of undergraduate industrial design students. There were 297 students who participated in the questionnaire survey. The main findings are as follows: First, learning pressure includes academic pressure, peer pressure, self-expectations, time pressure, financial pressure, pressure from instructors, external pressure, future career, pressure from parents, resource pressure, achievement, and situational pressure. In addition, the main learning pressure is caused by finance, time, resources, external issues, and future career. Second, the pressure management strategies include problem solving, procrastination and escape, help seeking, leisure, emotional management, and self-adjustment. The most useful strategy for managing pressure is leisure, and procrastination and escape is the least useful strategy. Third, all learning pressures are significantly correlated with procrastination and escape strategy, but the coefficients are low. The results can be a reference for industrial design education and related research.
Two German pioneers of sensory development education, Christof Drexel (1886-1979) and Hugo Kükelhaus (1900-1984) pursued methodical investigations into perceptual principles of cognition and design in order to discover the ways in which aesthetic principles can develop and guide sensory response. Drexel and Kükelhaus traveled parallel investigative paths, both merging formal aesthetic practices with perceptual psychology. It was not until 1950, when these visionary thinkers finally met in person, that they joined forces to present their discoveries which determined that experiences are momentary intersections between internal and external realities, and are intrinsically intertwined in the deepest levels of consciousness, publicly. Both Drexel and Kükelhaus believed in the value of using the senses as pedagogy and that they should be integrated into every level of education. Correspondence between Drexel and Kükelhaus after 1950 illuminates the theoretical paths and applicative forms generated through the interplay of experimental psychology and applied aesthetic practice. This paper provides insights into the artistic and scientific dynamics based on Drexel’s examination of archetypical imagery and the psychic line, and the sensory development applications designed by Kükelhaus.
To prepare students to imagine desirable futures amidst current planetary level challenges, design educators must think and act in new ways. In this paper, we describe a pilot study that illustrates how educators might teach K-12 students and university design students to situate their making within transitional times in a volatile and exponentially changing world. We describe how to best situate students to align design thinking and learning with future foresight. Here we present a pilot test and evaluate how a university-level Dexign Futures course content, approach, and scaffolded instructional materials – can be adapted for use in K-12 Design Learning Challenges. We describe the K-12 design-based learning challenges/experiences developed and implemented by the Design Learning Network (DLN). The Dexign Futures course we describe in this paper is a required course for third year undergraduate students in the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University. The “x” signifies a different type of design that aligns short-term action with long-term goals. The course integrates design thinking and learning with long-horizon future scenario foresight. Broadly speaking, we ask how might portions of a design course be taught and experienced by teachers and students of two different demographics: within the university (Design Undergraduates) and in K-12 (via DLN). This pilot study is descriptive in nature; in future work, we seek to assess learning outcomes across university and K-12 courses. We believe the approach described is relevant for lifelong learners (e.g., post- graduate-level, career development, transitional adult education).
The growing speed with which consumers discard artifacts is a significant but regrettable part of the capitalist economy. High consumption rates are accelerated by contemporary society,
which is based on a model of values that link the notion of well being to profit generation and consumption of material goods. This exacerbated consumption cycle perpetuates environmental
damage. In this context, proposing sustainable solutions involves new ways of thinking and doing that are distant from the practices of the current model of consumer society. This paper
reflects on the necessity to implement changes into the design process, production, and consumption modalities. These changes propose a “new” role for designers as professionals, and
as individuals in society at large. This research connects the concepts of metadesign and opens design- enabling system awareness. Metadesign can be considered critical and reflexive thinking about the boundaries and scope of design, but also, as the prefix “meta” implies, it can be understood as the design of the design process, in a critical and reflective way. Open design
implies the openness of the design project for multiple actors (including consumers), information sharing, and building knowledge between them. As a result, design can lead to
consumption modalities situated in slow culture, transforming the relationship between users and artifacts.
In this paper we report on new challenges when teaching UX students how to sketch and prototype their designs. We argue that UX students sketch and prototype differently than other design students, and we discuss how changes in the field necessitate a response in education. We describe sketching and prototyping as a continuum that students successfully traverse when they follow a process of ‘double loop learning’. We highlight three new challenges: (1) New computational design materials, (2) new maker tools, and (3) changes within the tech industry. We explore these three challenges through examples from our students, and we outline strategies for sketching and prototyping in this new reality. We conclude that this is a starting point for further work on keeping education up to speed with practice.
Over the last two decades, for-profit and non-for-profit organizations have increasingly adopted open collaboration, such as open innovation and crowdsourcing, as a strategy for innovation. Information and communication technology (ICT) has played a major role in forming open collaboration communities, but organizational design also needs to be considered to encourage the active participation and collaboration of actors. Nonetheless, organizational design aspect has seldom been addressed in developing open collaboration platforms. In this research, an organizational design framework for open collaboration was developed through a nature-inspired design approach. This framework suggests that the self-organization mechanism of social insects provides inspirations for the design of the platform, especially in terms of setting simple rules to induce behaviors of the actors and facilitating interactions among them. Since the open collaboration strategy depends on external actors who are not in employment relationship, an organization cannot force their contribution. Accordingly, the organization’s capability to induce the spontaneous participation of actors is essential, and it implies the potential role of designers in platform design based on a thorough understanding of actors. We thus claim that designers can bring a new perspective to organizational design. Open collaboration platforms serve as an exemplar in which designers contribute to the design of an organizational environment that fosters collaboration.
The field of graphic design has continually evolved to encompass a wide scope of skills. From designing graphics to designing business strategies, graphic designers can be incorporated into all stages of industry projects. For some graphic designers around the world, broad uses of design practices are recognised as significant and are being applied to a breadth of large scale business and community sector frameworks. However, these skills are frequently underutilised and their value overlooked among small business projects. Perth-based design jobs, for example, are commonly outcome-driven and graphic designers are typically hired by clients at the end stage of business projects to only make project artefacts such as websites, business cards or brochures. Gjoko Muratovski, Director of The Myron E. Ullman, Jr. School of Design at DAAP, University of Cincinnati, puts forth that big businesses has benefitted greatly from integrating design’s intrinsic methods into all aspects of product and service development. In his paper titled Paradigm Shift: Report on the New Role of Design in Business and Society he states that “With the growing reputation of design as a catalyst for business innovation, designers are being invited to take on executive roles. Jonathan Ive (Apple, Inc.), Mark Parker (Nike, Inc.), David Butler (The Coca-Cola Company), and Todd Simmons (IBM Corporation) are perhaps the most notable examples of this emerging trend” (2015, p. 121). Literary statements such as this one, depict the rise of design using corporate giants as example. A discussion about the expansion of design amongst smaller business sectors, however, appears to be lacking. This report looks to explore this as the broad idea of my PhD. My paper views that there is gap in Perth local graphic design profession – graphic designers are not engaging with broader and more holistic design strategies such as those employed in service design. As part of my PhD project, this paper will discuss the literature review, research methods and design philosophy relevant to design strategies and processes used in graphic designers in Perth.
Due to the intuitive controllability and easy to learn the tablet is a very popular nowadays. Many touch gestures are introduced to enhance the convenience usage on the tablet.
However, how these gestures match with the tasks? Are they understood by the “technological alienation” of the elderly users? Is there difference existing between the elderly and younger people? This study aims to answer these questions. Seven basic gestures and their correspondent tasks were selected from top 3 operation systems. Thirty mid-older subjects including 15 expert users and 15 novice tablet users and thirty young subjects were recruited to do matching test. As a result, we found that the correct rate of the mid-older is significantly lower than the young. Experience in using might affect the correct rate. Certain intuitive gestures including Tap, Swipe, Pinch and Rotation had higher correct rate were considered to be acceptable for both mid-older and young subjects according to the ISO standard. However, only the Pinch gesture for novice mid-older is acceptable. The research suggests that more coaching might be needed for novice mid-older adults on the use of gestures.
How can design orient people to an expanded sense of future possibility? Design researchers are beginning to recognize design’s potential role not solely in producing products, services and strategies but, instead, in shifting mindsets and behaviors. This shift requires a different view of the design practice, from engaging users to gather insights to be implemented, to that process as the actual material of the design. Borrowing from the framework of practice-oriented design, a first step in these processes is expanding participants’ understanding of future possibilities. In opening future possibilities, one recognizes an expanded range of futures and, ideally, engages in dialog with other people and their range of possibilities. This paper introduces mapping activities that are intended to reframe participants’ perception of possible futures. This study conducted pilot workshops with participants who were downsizing their home and struggling with decisions about their things and spaces. This paper argues that working with people already engaged in life transitions such as downsizing presents a rich opportunity for these futuring methods, as they are already beginning to grapple with designing for possible futures. These methods provide a stake in the ground for future exploration of potential methods to engender mindsets of possibility and engage in trialing methods like living labs.
How can students at a federally-designated Hispanic-serving institution understand and express culture and diversity through art and design? In order to address this inquiry and to exemplify a method that introduces students to critical thinking in the context of design, I am presenting a case study based on the primary results of a project implemented at an introductory graphic design class, which is part of a multidisciplinary arts program. In this project, students learn basics of design research and auto ethnography in a studio setting, in order to explore heritage and culture, their context of living, family history, and personal connections with their past, present, and future. Results from this discovery stage inform brainstorming, sketching, design, and production of a book that contains multiple visual explorations on “Heritage.” Some of the most memorable and productive conversations and interactions between students took place not only during the development of the project, but at the final project presentation, which exposed their capacity to develop greater tolerance and a more empathic view of the other, to be open to reanalyze their context and personal interactions, to better evaluate the design abilities of their peers as they respond to their own individual approach to the topic, and to develop a better and safer sense of place in the classroom.
Different associations are important for regulating and promoting good practices of sustainable product development. On the case of children products, there are many considerations to take, such as mental and physical development or safety. Knowing this broad challenge, how can associations better aid on the development of Design Guidelines for children? In Japan, the country’s context and challenges have led to the development of the Kids Design Association, or KDA, a Non-Profit organization dedicated on the achievement of three missions: “Contribute to children’s safety”; “Develop children’s capabilities, encouraging creativity and sensitivity”; and “Support caregivers during pregnancy, birth and child raising”. Based on an investigation period, the following paper is a case study of the Kids Design Association, exposing its story, goals, relation with society, growth, and performed activities, especially the “Kids Design Award”, a commendation program for acknowledging design practices that takes children needs and standpoints in consideration. We aimed to observe design trends and challenges regarding both Japanese Society and the association. As results, although some of the procedures are oriented exclusively for Japan, we found that the KDA approach could effectively bridge companies with academic knowledge and social demands.
Design is essential in product development but several small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) relatively capable of manufacturing are suffered from lack of in-house design ability. For new product design, these SMEs typically employ external designers. In this clientdesigner interaction, designers propose design solution alternatives to their clients, which clients may accept or reject. In some cases, clients provide designers further design requirements. A study on how interactions are performed and what effects these interactions have on the results of product development is essential to determine what is needed to achieve successful collaborative relationships. Thus, this study analyzed three design development cases that were previously performed to understand how interactions work between clients and designers and its effect on the outcomes. In all cases, the design team developed designs for the clients based on their technological requirements. This study focused on the effect of client stance on the process and deliverables. Clients usually take various actions that accept or reject design solutions or give additional demands. This is because clients take initiative in decision making. Clients' stance was divided into receptive and expressive stances. As a result, a receptive stance ensured the design capabilities of design consultants, whereas expressive stance confined design capabilities to some extent but a new design direction may be proposed based on a client's knowledge, information, and judgment.
With the enhancement of medical technology and human living standards, the world is showing a trajectory towards an aging society. The elders generally suffer from degeneration, which may cause problems in their daily lives. Aging has since become a major issue of scientific researches.
Elders in Taiwan mostly live alone or with a partner. Because eating out is not a habit, cooking often plays an important role in their lives. Due to the degeneration happening to their bodies, the danger during cooking activities increases. Therefore, it is necessary for them to seek help from assistive devices.
In this research, we will make assistive design models that help elders use woks. The designs are for the task we have chosen from our investigation. We will also evaluate the effect of the aids objectively using the EMG system, and collect the iEMG value for evaluation. The iEMG values were collected from four muscles (FDC, FCR, Biceps and Deltoids). Eight middle-aged participants who will become elders in the near future were invited to participate in the experiment. Four design solutions were chosen from seven working models. The design solutions were all helpful to the task, and the performances of the stove design solutions are significantly better than the original wok. The degrees of hand trembling while performing tasks were also measured, however the differences were not significant.
The purpose of this research was to utilize co-design thinking to investigate and understand the experiences of veteran students entering into college at The Ohio State University (OSU) after military service, and to assist the university in improving those transition experiences. The research significance is that an increasing number of post 9/11 era veterans are utilizing the educational benefits earned through their service. Many of these service members have spent years inside a military culture, which has inadequately prepared them for a transition to the civilian and academic environments.
It has been found that veteran students often self-segregate due to age differences, and their experiences gained through military service. Additionally, while OSU’s Office of Military and Veteran Services (OMVS) has been doing incredible things to help veteran students transition away from the military and into OSU, many of their practices tend to promote self-segregation rather than integration.
Although it is not true across the entire population of veteran students, the research conducted showed that many sought opportunities for improved social integration programs. Opportunities lie in finding a balance between the culture that veteran students share, and integration into the civilian culture they are now part of. Additionally, veteran students could benefit from additional support in regards to academics and logistics when navigating through OSU.
The study conducted was comprised of preliminary interviews with a director of the OMVS, an initial survey, four co-design sessions with volunteer veteran students, and an evaluative survey to gain deeper insight into the possible new service concepts generated during the co-design sessions. Based on the research results, proposed new services and improvements to existing ones were presented to OSU’s OMVS.
This study hypothesized that humans give priority perception to product shapes that possess topological structures. Three experiments confirmed the proposition accordingly. The first experiment selected existing products that grab people’s attention within the prescribed time, with the experimental objects selected according to degree of topological properties and structure complexity. The results showed that visual topological properties in the products had strong visual appeal. The second experiment determined the visual prominence of freely designed and redesigned chairs according to the rating of non-expert users. The results demonstrated that products whose shape adopted topological structures were given priority attention. The third experiment intended to prove the practical value of visual topological features from a direction opposite to that of the second experiment; that is, from topological structures to deconstruction of topological structures. All three experiments showed as well that there are many cognitive limitations in the recognition of topological structures in product shapes. These unexpected problems, such as the contradiction between topological structure and habitual cognition, are discussed. The results of the study and the effects of topological properties on development are also discussed.
Student life at a large institution like University of California, Berkeley, is challenging in many ways. Along with the often extreme academic demands, students must discover and navigate numerous services while simultaneously integrating themselves into formal and informal campus communities. Historically, core student services were delivered in a piecemeal and disjointed way via a dozen or more websites. A large investment in a Student Information Systems (SIS) replacement project has since unified these service experiences through CalCentral, a Berkeley-developed service portal, and created with a significant focus on user experience design.
While significant strides have been made to improve and simplify how services are delivered to students, the design team has been challenged to push their vision of the service ecosystem further, to “humanize the institution.” The vision goes through the SIS project and beyond, by first switching mindsets from service producers to service providers, and second by looking at how deeper relationships can be created digitally between students and the institution. The research, with students and different stakeholder groups, shows that beyond usability and learnability, there are greater opportunities through service design to contribute to students’ senses of agency, inclusion, connectedness and wellbeing. The design team is codifying new design principles and developing prototype experiences that look more closely at tone, behavior and contributing to a positive emotional state of mind. The service delivery through CalCentral is humanized and augmented in affirming ways, to use language that is accessible, and to guide students through complex paths.