Increasing interest is seen at the intersection of architecture and health. The built environment has become associated with a number of negative health outcomes including obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Engaging design students in these inquiries surrounding health is integral in preparing them for future practice. This paper reviews the conceptual development and tested implementation of an interdisciplinary course focusing on the wellbeing and overall health of the occupant, using primary and secondary framework structures in the vein of Groat and Wang’s logical argumentation. The reviewed course engages interdisciplinary teams composed of students from the School of Architecture, the College of Engineering, and the College of Natural Resources, with private practice. The course puts forth an effort to break out of the conventional pedagogical structure found in architectural education, primarily the studio and large lecture spaces. The course has been specifically designed to: (1) establish a framework for common content relating to health in the built environment across disciplinary boundaries; (2) build meaningful partnerships between interdisciplinary student groups; and (3) establish a common vocabulary between architectural education and aligned disciplines regarding health and the built environment. The course structure, activities, and assessments are reviewed, proposing a solid framework for including integrated design and themes of health in architectural education.
This paper engages with the literature to present different perspectives between forecasting
and foresight in strategic design, while drawing insights derived from futures studies that
can be applied in form of a design-inspired foresight approach for designers and
interdisciplinary innovation teams increasingly called upon to help envisage preferable
futures. Demonstrating this process in applied research, relevant examples are drawn from
a 2016 Financial Services industry futures study to the year 2030. While the financial
services industry exemplifies an ideal case for design-inspired foresight, the aims of this
paper are primarily to establish the peculiarities between traditional forecasting
applications and a design-inspired foresight visioning approach as strategic design
activities for selecting preferable futures. Underlining the contribution of this paper is the
value of design futures thinking as a creative and divergent thought process, which has the
potential to respond to the much broader organizational reforms needed to sustain in
today’s rapidly evolving business environment (Buchanan, 2015; Irmak, 2005; Muratovski,
Developing successful RNPs can bring competitive advantages for companies. However, the success rate of RNPs are relatively low because consumers often feel resistant to adopt
them. One reason for consumers’ resistance is their lack of comprehension of RNPs. To facilitate consumers’ comprehension, this paper conceptually discusses the opportunities related to designing the appearances of RNPs. More specifically, to facilitate consumers’ internal and external learning, this paper explores four underlying mechanisms: 1) product appearance as a visual cue to trigger category-based knowledge transfer, 2) to trigger analogy-based knowledge transfer, 3) product appearance as an information carrier to communicate innovative functionality directly, and 4) product appearance as a way to trigger congruity with innovative functionality of RNPs. The rationales for each underlying
mechanism are conceptually discussed, supported with relevant empirical evidence and examples found in the markets.
The number of migrant workers in South Korea is on the rise, but their inadequate Korean language skills prevent them from being promoted at work, or fairly treated as respected members of the society. In this study, in collaboration with a government-authorized language educational facility for immigrants, the authors investigated (a) challenges in migrant workers’ Korean as a second language learning, and (b) design principles of lessons and learning materials specifically targeted to their needs. Student and teacher interview data confirmed that the workers’ limited time for study, weak motivation, Korean colleagues’ indifferent attitude, and limited teaching resources at educational facilities are major barriers to achieving higher levels of linguistic skills. From the data, the authors identified four design principles: personalized content, community participation, portability of materials, and micro learning modules. Informal lessons via Facebook, factory safety signs, and portable writing drill booklets are designed as on-going experimentations of the principles.
Light in photography is considered by most practitioners as one of the most important
visual element since through it the human is able to recognize shapes, texture, color depth and even create diverse moods in the images. In food photography, light settings also imply the creation of several forms of shadows which become a secondary visual
element. Thus, the effects of different types of shadows on food photos can generate
different perceptions of the food creating either a positive or negative impression on
This paper aims to explore the usage of cast shadow on food photography in order to open a new discussion in this topic. The main approach was to create and survey food images with several cast shadow composition; evaluate them and determine if the difference of cast shadows has an impact on how food images are perceived.
As a result, the experiment showed that different cast shadows affect not only the mood in which food is perceived but also the taste of the food. These findings can be useful to
explain how cast shadows are also a key visual element in the decision making process
or human behavior when choosing what to eat from a group of food images.
This paper reports on the development of a mindful interdisciplinary design methodology in the context of the MinD project research into designing for and with people with dementia, which takes the particular focus on supporting the subjective well-being and self-empowerment of people with early to mid stage dementia in social context.
Existing research is for the most part focussed on functional support and safe-keeping from the perspective of the carer. References to decision-making and empowerment are predominantly related to action planning for dementia care or advance care planning. References to care and social interaction show that caregivers tend to take a deficit-oriented perspective, and occupation of people with dementia is often associated with doing ‘something’ with little focus on the meaningfulness of the activity. Furthermore, caregivers and people with dementia tend to differ in their perspectives, e.g. on assistive devices, which might offer support.
The MinD project, has therefore developed an interdisciplinary co-design methodology in which the voices to people with dementia contribute to better understanding and developing mindful design solutions that support people with dementia with regard to their the subjective well-being and self-empowerment a well as meaningful and equitable social engagement.
This paper discussed the design methodological framework and methods developed for the data collection and design development phases of the project, and their rationale. It thus makes a contribution to interdisciplinary methodologies in the area of design for health.
There is a growing need for sustainable fashion since the 2010s. As artists and designers explore the potential use of innovative materials developed by synthetic biology and DIY bio-hacking (Myers, 2010), recent practice-led research in fashion design aims at building the better relationship between ecological sustainability and biotechnology to cope with the limited resources available on the earth (Fletcher, 2008). Based on this issue on the material sustainability, this practice-led research analyzes the current production processes of the fashion industry to propose possible solutions by incorporating emerging biotechnology and fashion design in the context of sustainable design. As the methodology, the authors adopt two processes to make bio-garment. First, the experiment of DIY bio has been conducted for culturing ecological bio-material SCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast) that produces bacterial cellulose. The material has similar properties to leather. Second, designing the garment through 3D modeling has been tackled because we aim to make the bio-materials grow onto a 3D printed mold as ‘zero waste method’ (Rissanen; Mcquillan, 2016) , which can eliminate textile waste at the design stage. By the application of biological materials in the process of dressmaking, this practice led research has been analyzing the production line of the fashion industry and trying to propose sustainable solutions. Also the research aims to combine emerging biotechnology and sustainable fashion in order to establish the design process as an alternative design process to the polluting industry.
Contemporary research in business strategy, new product development, and design management has suggested that cross-functional collaboration within team-based environments is critical to successful product development processes. However, scholars have also demonstrated that the mere presence of inter-functional structures does not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Indeed, the very differences which cause cross-disciplinary teams to result in improved design processes may also lead to friction as team members’ backgrounds, orientations, and training often cause them to have different perspectives on what information is important to the product design process and to solve development-related problems. Improved understanding how to integrate information from differing functional areas is a clear emphasis of research, yet very few empirical studies have precisely defined the units of knowledge flowing through NPD projects, differences in importance of information elements by functional area, or the structures which may facilitate the sharing of information within NPD. This study presents an investigation of product design briefs as knowledge-based artifacts of cross-functional collaboration within NPD. Drawing on a proprietary sample of 68 briefs analyzed through an expert rating procedure alongside survey questionnaire of 153 product development managers our results define 51 information elements commonly shared between functional areas during an NPD project. We organize these information elements as eight factors, categorize the “importance” of each element to NPD success, and describe differences in evaluation from across three primary functional domains of NPD: (a) Design, (b) Marketing, and (c) Engineering/ R&D/ Development.
Motion graphic design is a branch of information visual design.Based on questionnaires and the factor analysis of Statistics,this paper evaluated the hierarchy elements of motion graphic design through the cognitive performance of the three elected types of videos (from 9 selected sample). Furthermore, analysis of the design categories based on users' perspective; the weight ratio of each factor of design details in the cognitive process,and Set up visual data chart.The research is to provide a quantitative evaluation of motion graphic design methods and help to realize the value of cognitive analysis.
From the 1980s, design thinking has emerged in companies as a method for practical and creative problem solving, based on designers’ way of thinking, integrated into a rational and iterative model to accompany the process. In companies, design thinking helped valuing creative teamwork, though not necessarily professional designers’ expertise. By pointing out two blind spots in design thinking models, as currently understood and implemented, this paper aims at shedding light on two rarely described traits of designers’ self. The first relies in problem framing, a breaking point that deeply escapes determinism. The second blind spot questions the post project process. We thus seek to portray designers’ singularity, in order to stimulate critical reflection and encourage the opening-up to design culture. Companies and organizations willing to make the most of designers’ expertise would gain acknowledging their critical heteronomy to foster innovation based on strong and disruptive visions, beyond an out-of-date problem solving approach to design.
In this paper we report on new challenges when teaching UX students how to sketch and prototype their designs. We argue that UX students sketch and prototype differently than other design students, and we discuss how changes in the field necessitate a response in education. We describe sketching and prototyping as a continuum that students successfully traverse when they follow a process of ‘double loop learning’. We highlight three new challenges: (1) New computational design materials, (2) new maker tools, and (3) changes within the tech industry. We explore these three challenges through examples from our students, and we outline strategies for sketching and prototyping in this new reality. We conclude that this is a starting point for further work on keeping education up to speed with practice.
This paper presents the main process of a graduate course entitled ‘Generative Design Research for Sustainability’ offered in the Department of Industrial Design at Middle East Technical University in the spring semester of 2015/2016 through exemplary design research cases conducted by the graduate students at the doctoral level. These cases focus on the adaptation of the generative tool and the method, namely Experience Chart (EC) Guide tool (Kulaksız, 2016) and Experience Reflection Modelling (ERM) method (Turhan, 2013), in line with the graduate students’ particular research topics. First, the paper provides the course objectives, outcomes and process, then, it explains the EC Guide tool and the ERM method to be adapted and implemented within the context of the course. Then, these generative tool and method, and their adaptations are demonstrated through the exemplary cases (i.e. efficient use of working environment in design studios, lighting practices in kitchen environment, and interactive prototyping practice) selected from the submitted assignments considering their quality, originality and comprehensiveness. The main emphasis of this paper is on the adaptation and implementation of the EC Guide tool and the ERM method through providing the experiences, insights and suggestions of the graduate students who are also the co-authors of the paper. Based on that review, major conclusions and findings are presented through comparing and contrasting these cases for the future development of the course.
Designing successful products and services that people like, requires an understanding of the context and the aspirations of those people. Over the past decade, a range of methods has been developed to help designers gain such empathy. These have worked well when designer and target user share a cultural context. However, designers often find it difficult to empathize with the user insights of individuals from a culture beyond their first-hand experience. To help designers step beyond this limitation, those user insights need to be placed in a larger understanding of the cultural context. In this paper, we present Cultura: a toolkit that uses nine cultural aspects based on cultural models, informing designers about user insights in a broader cultural context. The toolkit was evaluated in design sessions with four design teams. The findings indicate that Cultura provides inspiration and motivation for designers to gain empathic insights into users beyond their own cultural boundaries and to make effective designs for people.
This article concerns the use of critical design practices within the context of commercial semiotics, arguing that incorporating practices from a critical design approach is valuable for client brands, but also an important means with which to incite brands to consider more deeply their role in shaping the future. As an alternative to the oppositional approach frequently taken by critical design practitioners, working through design practices collaboratively alongside client brands creates potential for the radical changes sought by many of the movement’s vanguard. A case study of recent work with a corporate client demonstrates the practical effects of using critical design practice within a commercial setting, proving the complementarity between critical design practice and commercial semiotics – where the confluence of the thinking brought new value to improve product design for example – and points to the value of using current leading edge thinking within the design community.
Two German pioneers of sensory development education, Christof Drexel (1886-1979) and Hugo Kükelhaus (1900-1984) pursued methodical investigations into perceptual principles of cognition and design in order to discover the ways in which aesthetic principles can develop and guide sensory response. Drexel and Kükelhaus traveled parallel investigative paths, both merging formal aesthetic practices with perceptual psychology. It was not until 1950, when these visionary thinkers finally met in person, that they joined forces to present their discoveries which determined that experiences are momentary intersections between internal and external realities, and are intrinsically intertwined in the deepest levels of consciousness, publicly. Both Drexel and Kükelhaus believed in the value of using the senses as pedagogy and that they should be integrated into every level of education. Correspondence between Drexel and Kükelhaus after 1950 illuminates the theoretical paths and applicative forms generated through the interplay of experimental psychology and applied aesthetic practice. This paper provides insights into the artistic and scientific dynamics based on Drexel’s examination of archetypical imagery and the psychic line, and the sensory development applications designed by Kükelhaus.
As society shifts towards an increasingly sustainable future, high-performance buildings can provide a means to meet sustainability and energy efficiency goals. Occupants in high-performance buildings are often expected to interact with building systems to maintain individual levels of comfort and productivity. However, the critical role of the human-building interface is often ignored (Day & Heschong, 2016). Too often, building controls are not intuitive and poorly understood by typical users. Conversely, some buildings rely on entirely automated building systems (e.g. lighting, shading, HVAC systems), which take control away from occupants. This approach is largely unpopular with building occupants. The literature suggests people desire and prefer control of their interior environments (e.g., Escuyer & Fontoynont, 2001). Designing a high-performance building that effectively engages users presents a more complex problem than most designers are prepared to handle.
Design teams require an ability to see the whole situation—from how the parts of the system work to how users will engage and adapt the system. This ability relies on systematic efforts to understand broad swaths of human behavior and design research, which go beyond computation or modeling (e.g., Huppatz, 2015; Rittel & Webber, 1973). In this context, design and design research supports third order (activities and processes) and fourth order (environments, organizations, and systems) design problems (Buchanan, 1999). Creating design teams, who can comprehend a whole situation, requires reframing how clients and designers understand design problems. This draft paper links theory about design problems with practical processes for using design research to improve the human-building interface.
In recent years, architecture culture study is a popular direction in traditional vernacular dwelling research of China. Architectural culture, as the metaphysical part of a building, not only influences the formation of the building in design period, but also dominates the usepattern of the building after construction. However most of studies started with material form of dwelling from architectonic prospective ignored that architecture is a phenomenon of culture. The study of vernacular dwelling from cultural and other related academic fields is very necessary. Bei-nong is a transportation space in traditional vernacular dwelling of Jiangnan area in China. This paper tried to use the methods of urban history research to investigate this space. First of all, the particular time and region of bei-nong appearance has been observed and defined from historical and cultural background. Then, appearance reasons have been analyzed based on the social context and mainstream philosophy during the scope of time and region. In the end, the physical and social functions and the architecture construction of bei-nong have been summarized and ratiocinated from the former conclusions according to inductive reasoning theory. A real and comprehensive bei-nong is showed in the result of research, not only the physical form and history of architecture but also a history story about that place and time.
In this paper, we present results from a collaborative research between academic institutions and industry partners in the UK, which aimed to understand the experience of rail passengers and to identify how the design of technology can improve this experience. Travelling by train can often provide passengers with negative experiences. New technologies give the opportunity to design new interactions that support the creation of positive experiences, but the design should be based on solid understanding of user and their needs. We conducted in-depth, face-to-face semi-structured interviews and used additional questionnaires given to passengers on board of trains to collect the data presented on this paper. A customer journey map was produced to illustrate the passengers’ experiences at diverse touchpoints with the rail system. The positive and negative aspects of each touchpoint are plotted over the course of a ‘typical’ journey, followed by the explanations for these ratings. Results indicate how the design of technological innovations can enhance the passenger experience, especially at the problematic touchpoints, e.g. when collecting tickets, navigating to the platform, boarding the train and finding a seat. We finalise this paper pointing towards requirements for future technological innovations to improve the passenger experience.
It is common to see graphic design copies of foreign models or other Chinese designers. These designers are apathetic toward the work and neglect its ongoing challenges, including the need for constant innovation. In contrast, there are masters who use Chinese culture in creative ways and achieve outstanding reputations all over the world. The reasons design masters choose Chinese culture as a theme for their graphic work and the unique ways in which they symbolise cultural resources and knowledge are explored and explained in this study. This study also illustrates how traditional culture can become a potential innovative strategy by applying a systematic and culture-based methodology. The case studies presented concern the first generation of graphic designers in Hong Kong: Henry Steiner and KAN Tai Keung. The preliminary results of the two case studies show very positive outcomes for cultural interpretation becoming a new innovative stream of graphic design.
When design works with industry it tries to sell two things, first, selling design as an agent of transformation, and second, selling design as a skill. Whilst historically design has been successful in the latter, it is the former that is more challenging, making it a necessity for design to work in none design contexts in order to build trust and credibility. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the ways in which design interacts with industry, and how these interactions enable design to establish longer term relationships.
This investigation set out to answer the question, what design specific characteristics are applied to establish successful longer-term relationships between design and industry? The paper aims to illustrate the intrinsic factors that enable design to get access, and designers to get authority to play a significant role in organisations. Five well-established relationships between design and industry have been used to analyse to find correlations.
The investigation identifies three stages of collaboration between design and industry, namely, involvement, collaboration and partnerships, contrary to Cahill’s (1965) theoretical model, which claimed four stages to long lasting partnerships. Also, the case studies confirm three stages of trust and credibility as factors that help in strengthening a relationship between design and industry. Finally, several intrinsic factors that are unique to design have been identified, which are seen to have helped design in building high levels of trust and credibility.
This study hypothesized that humans give priority perception to product shapes that possess topological structures. Three experiments confirmed the proposition accordingly. The first experiment selected existing products that grab people’s attention within the prescribed time, with the experimental objects selected according to degree of topological properties and structure complexity. The results showed that visual topological properties in the products had strong visual appeal. The second experiment determined the visual prominence of freely designed and redesigned chairs according to the rating of non-expert users. The results demonstrated that products whose shape adopted topological structures were given priority attention. The third experiment intended to prove the practical value of visual topological features from a direction opposite to that of the second experiment; that is, from topological structures to deconstruction of topological structures. All three experiments showed as well that there are many cognitive limitations in the recognition of topological structures in product shapes. These unexpected problems, such as the contradiction between topological structure and habitual cognition, are discussed. The results of the study and the effects of topological properties on development are also discussed.
Learning a new competence and attempting to perform it within an organization not only takes time, but it is heavily influenced by the real-world context of day-to-day work culture and individual perceptions. The little-understood world of learning Human- Centered Design (HCD) within an organization is studied over one year in inside of a group of healthcare organizations through a training and mentoring program called the "Innovation Catalyst Program."
Deep insights and personal narratives are gathered by studying learners and their coaches in real-time observations and conversations. A dynamic story unfolds as those who are learning creative approaches for organizational innovation are coached by those with many years of experience on the topic. These same participants provide feedback on the frameworks generated.
The result of this Longitudinal Grounded Theory field study is a new actionable model for understanding experiences and approaches to learning HCD within the context of an organization, a novel approach to assessing development, and ultimately, a way to empower individuals with the mindsets and skillsets of HCD for real-world challenges.
Flexible interaction technology became a one of key technology in nowadays. On the other hand, there are relatively little works has been done to understand how it should be designed especially for feedback of it. In this study, we investigate the guidelines for design feedback to flexible interaction systems through based on user’s expectation on them. We conducted user participated design workshop to collect user’s perspectives about feedback when they use flexible interactions. We gave 8 sets of actions which are generally used in flexible interaction and let 6 participants to generated ideas about visual, sound, and haptic feedback of them. From discussion session in the design workshop, we found out key factors about feedbacks. As a result of design workshop, we build guidelines of designing feedbacks for flexible interactions. This result will lead system designers to build flexible interaction to create flexible interaction which can improve the user experience.
This paper presents the results of a research based Living Lab experience, where people participate together as users, researchers, stakeholders and collaborators working to effect change to improve social inclusion and social participation for persons with functional difficulties. The Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall (RehabMall) transforms an urban shopping mall into an interdisciplinary, multi-sectorial research platform that supports multiple projects investigating what constitutes an accessible and inclusive environment for people with physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities. We present an overview of the RehabMALL Living Lab, the contexts of the project and the project meta-analysis to present the salient issues emerging from the projects that were done. Grounded in a design research approach, and inspired by the Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner (1979), the investigations conducted focus on subjective and inter-subjective experiences within understanding obstacles and facilitators that frame how people experience going to the mall, and how the physical, cognitive and virtual environments that support these activities might be better served. Disability is defined within the framework of the “World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning (WHO, 2003). The overview of the project is presented with particular attention to the various collaborations and partnerships created alongside the issues that emerge in terms of results, and how people might be better served when public spaces are designed with their input and within a perspective of universal design.
Learning pressure affects students’ learning process and performance. Industrial design education emphasizes that operations on real design problems that have heavy working loads may cause learning pressure. The purpose of this study is to explore the issues causing learning pressure and the pressure management strategies of undergraduate industrial design students. There were 297 students who participated in the questionnaire survey. The main findings are as follows: First, learning pressure includes academic pressure, peer pressure, self-expectations, time pressure, financial pressure, pressure from instructors, external pressure, future career, pressure from parents, resource pressure, achievement, and situational pressure. In addition, the main learning pressure is caused by finance, time, resources, external issues, and future career. Second, the pressure management strategies include problem solving, procrastination and escape, help seeking, leisure, emotional management, and self-adjustment. The most useful strategy for managing pressure is leisure, and procrastination and escape is the least useful strategy. Third, all learning pressures are significantly correlated with procrastination and escape strategy, but the coefficients are low. The results can be a reference for industrial design education and related research.
Design education opportunities for non-designers are abundant and growing, many offered as rapid sprints through executive education style workshops or online courses. While these quick immersions may serve to infuse design thinking into the work processes of other disciplines, there is a risk of oversimplification. How can courses impart an appropriate sense of design without minimizing its complexity? What are the essential components of design, and optimal timing and formats needed for meaningful delivery? On the other hand, how can we educate those who seek a robust design complement to their existing professions, and those seeking a full transition of their careers into design practice? This study looks at the inception and early iterations of a one-year degree program providing an in-depth education to non-designers seeking a complementary education to other credentials or a full conversion to design through modular degree options. The first years of the program suggest several findings. For example, interdisciplinary cohorts introduce a mix of rational and intuitive approaches. Students need mentorship into design processes and practices, such as subjectivity in assessments and feedback through critique. Educators are challenged to acknowledge the past education and professional backgrounds of students, capitalizing on their unique strengths rather than homogenizing all students into a singular version of design. Students need tools to assess their professional identity during their transition to design. This work in progress will examine the spectrum of design education opportunities for non-designers, including key factors differentiating a degree program from the proliferation of short course exposures.
Due to the intuitive controllability and easy to learn the tablet is a very popular nowadays. Many touch gestures are introduced to enhance the convenience usage on the tablet.
However, how these gestures match with the tasks? Are they understood by the “technological alienation” of the elderly users? Is there difference existing between the elderly and younger people? This study aims to answer these questions. Seven basic gestures and their correspondent tasks were selected from top 3 operation systems. Thirty mid-older subjects including 15 expert users and 15 novice tablet users and thirty young subjects were recruited to do matching test. As a result, we found that the correct rate of the mid-older is significantly lower than the young. Experience in using might affect the correct rate. Certain intuitive gestures including Tap, Swipe, Pinch and Rotation had higher correct rate were considered to be acceptable for both mid-older and young subjects according to the ISO standard. However, only the Pinch gesture for novice mid-older is acceptable. The research suggests that more coaching might be needed for novice mid-older adults on the use of gestures.
Futures techniques have long been used in large enterprises as designerly means to explore the future and guide innovation. In the automotive industry, for instance, the development of concept cars is a technique which has repeatedly proven its value. However, while big companies have broadly embraced futures techniques, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have lagged behind in applying them, largely because they are too resource- intensive and poorly suited to the SMEs’ needs and idiosyncrasies. To address this issue, we developed DIVE: Design, Innovation, Vision, and Exploration, a design-led futures technique for SMEs. Its development began with an inquiry into concept cars in the automotive industry and concept products and services in other industries. We then combined the insights derived from these design practices with elements of the existing techniques of critical design and design fiction into the creation of DIVE’s preliminary first version, which was then applied and evaluated in two iterations with SMEs, resulting in DIVE’s alpha version. After both iterations in context, it seems that DIVE suits the SMEs because of its compact and inexpensive activities which emphasize making and storytelling. Although the results of these activities might be less flashy than concept cars, these simple prototypes and videos help SMEs internalize and share a clear image of a preferable future, commonly known as vision. Developing DIVE thus helped us explore how design can support SMEs in envisioning the future in the context of innovation.
The field of graphic design has continually evolved to encompass a wide scope of skills. From designing graphics to designing business strategies, graphic designers can be incorporated into all stages of industry projects. For some graphic designers around the world, broad uses of design practices are recognised as significant and are being applied to a breadth of large scale business and community sector frameworks. However, these skills are frequently underutilised and their value overlooked among small business projects. Perth-based design jobs, for example, are commonly outcome-driven and graphic designers are typically hired by clients at the end stage of business projects to only make project artefacts such as websites, business cards or brochures. Gjoko Muratovski, Director of The Myron E. Ullman, Jr. School of Design at DAAP, University of Cincinnati, puts forth that big businesses has benefitted greatly from integrating design’s intrinsic methods into all aspects of product and service development. In his paper titled Paradigm Shift: Report on the New Role of Design in Business and Society he states that “With the growing reputation of design as a catalyst for business innovation, designers are being invited to take on executive roles. Jonathan Ive (Apple, Inc.), Mark Parker (Nike, Inc.), David Butler (The Coca-Cola Company), and Todd Simmons (IBM Corporation) are perhaps the most notable examples of this emerging trend” (2015, p. 121). Literary statements such as this one, depict the rise of design using corporate giants as example. A discussion about the expansion of design amongst smaller business sectors, however, appears to be lacking. This report looks to explore this as the broad idea of my PhD. My paper views that there is gap in Perth local graphic design profession – graphic designers are not engaging with broader and more holistic design strategies such as those employed in service design. As part of my PhD project, this paper will discuss the literature review, research methods and design philosophy relevant to design strategies and processes used in graphic designers in Perth.
This paper reviews contemporary communication design practice in Australia through a series of interviews with practitioners, conducted to better understand the place of sustainability in contemporary practice. It is especially concerned with the expectations and experience of designers, and their attitudes towards sustainability in practice, and the contrast between designing ‘greener things’ and establishing more sustainable outcomes for their clients through deeper collaboration. The paper is part of a larger PhD project attempting to establish ways of expanding the understanding of sustainability for communication designers.
Different associations are important for regulating and promoting good practices of sustainable product development. On the case of children products, there are many considerations to take, such as mental and physical development or safety. Knowing this broad challenge, how can associations better aid on the development of Design Guidelines for children? In Japan, the country’s context and challenges have led to the development of the Kids Design Association, or KDA, a Non-Profit organization dedicated on the achievement of three missions: “Contribute to children’s safety”; “Develop children’s capabilities, encouraging creativity and sensitivity”; and “Support caregivers during pregnancy, birth and child raising”. Based on an investigation period, the following paper is a case study of the Kids Design Association, exposing its story, goals, relation with society, growth, and performed activities, especially the “Kids Design Award”, a commendation program for acknowledging design practices that takes children needs and standpoints in consideration. We aimed to observe design trends and challenges regarding both Japanese Society and the association. As results, although some of the procedures are oriented exclusively for Japan, we found that the KDA approach could effectively bridge companies with academic knowledge and social demands.
Today, while profit maximization is still the bedrock of the capitalist model, people have embraced the idea of social contribution as a useful strategy in businesses. In this recent movement, Creating Shared Value (CSV) strives for a win-win solution that creates both social and business value. While in its early stage, CSV is showing promise and potential; society is witnessing a paradigm shift from practices of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) to CSV which is more sustainable and effective approach. Since Porter and Kramer originally introduced the concept in 2011, CSV’s application has expanded to many areas of business management, but it has not been discussed comprehensively in design research as of yet.
The title of this paper, “Designerly Way of Creating Shared Value” (DCSV) is inspired by Nigel Cross’s famous book, Designerly Way of Knowing (2006). ‘Designerly’ is an adjective describing ‘how’ designers think and behave that is different from professionals in scientific disciplines. The aim of this paper is to propose a new matrix illustrating the link between creating shared value and design, and to systemically describe the existing examples of DCSV (Cross, 2016). The paper will begin with an introduction to the concept of CSV followed by a brief literature review on CSV in design research. The second part will focus on demonstrating the new DCSV matrix by illustrating the four examples that exemplify it.
Western cultures focus on salient objects and use categorization for purposes of organizing the environment (an analytic view), whereas, East Asians cultures focus more holistically on relationships and similarities among objects when organizing the environment (a holistic view). Previous research has shown that cognitive approaches differ between cultures: European Americans prefer an analytic style, and East Asians tend to use a holistic style. However, little is known about how cultural differences in cognition relate to aesthetic preferences. In this paper, we explored whether cultural differences arise in preferences for products set in matching vs. mismatching contexts. Participants in a laboratory experiment included European Americans and East Asians. Individually, they viewed images of a variety of furniture products (chairs, coffee tables, and floor lamps) and rated their aesthetic appeal. Each product type appeared in three different contexts: matching (target product shown in its usual in-home context); mismatched (target product shown in an unusual in-home context), and neutral (the target product shown on a white background). For both cultural groups, products were judged to be more aesthetically pleasing in the matching than in the mismatched context. However, ratings for products in mismatching contexts were significantly higher among East Asians. Our findings suggest that those with holistic views (East Asians) are more tolerant of mismatches than are those with more analytic views (European Americans). The implications for product and marketing design include greater attention to context presentation.
The political rhetoric of today economy has framed innovation as reproduced and reserved by specific people in specific locations. This framing has shaped the discourse of who is deserving and who is not deserving and gradually sets the foundation of social discrimination, inequality, and exploitation as part of the neoliberal economy. Given the claim that entrepreneurs are inventing the future, this paper envisions alternative futures in which performing economy contributes to socio-technical transformation. To that end, this paper focuses on two community- based initiatives in Chicago that their contribution to economy is not recognized due to incompatibility with mainstream narrative. In these counter-hegemonic exemplars, different but potentially related future-making practices occur; they are shifting the emphasize from individual entrepreneur to a collective economic development and moving forward the discussion of entrepreneurship to the kind of society and the kinds of citizens that it is creating. By conducting ethnographic study on these exemplars, patterns have emerged that are informative to design strategies for infrastructuring and socio-material negotiations.
The challenges facing many small nonprofit organizations are increasing at a greater rate than the internal capacities of many within this sector are able to address effectively. This situation has small nonprofits questioning their sustainability and ability to deliver their services in the long term. Often these small nonprofit organizations are working within a business model and communications paradigm that has remained unchanged for decades and one which is proving no longer effective in attracting awareness, engagement, and support. Many of these organizations are facing a critical failure requiring significant business model innovation to achieve both their short-, mid- and long-term goals. Design thinking is an avenue for nonprofits to achieve business model innovation by developing new, unique concepts supporting an organization’s viability and the processes for bringing those concepts to fruition. This case study outlines the design thinking process applied to business model innovation for a small, 22-year old, nonprofit approaching critical business failure.
To prepare students to imagine desirable futures amidst current planetary level challenges, design educators must think and act in new ways. In this paper, we describe a pilot study that illustrates how educators might teach K-12 students and university design students to situate their making within transitional times in a volatile and exponentially changing world. We describe how to best situate students to align design thinking and learning with future foresight. Here we present a pilot test and evaluate how a university-level Dexign Futures course content, approach, and scaffolded instructional materials – can be adapted for use in K-12 Design Learning Challenges. We describe the K-12 design-based learning challenges/experiences developed and implemented by the Design Learning Network (DLN). The Dexign Futures course we describe in this paper is a required course for third year undergraduate students in the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University. The “x” signifies a different type of design that aligns short-term action with long-term goals. The course integrates design thinking and learning with long-horizon future scenario foresight. Broadly speaking, we ask how might portions of a design course be taught and experienced by teachers and students of two different demographics: within the university (Design Undergraduates) and in K-12 (via DLN). This pilot study is descriptive in nature; in future work, we seek to assess learning outcomes across university and K-12 courses. We believe the approach described is relevant for lifelong learners (e.g., post- graduate-level, career development, transitional adult education).
Increasingly universities are adopting a collaborative approach to ensure research outcomes have industry-relevant impact. This collaboration has known challenges given the complexity of the process which requires successful negotiation across the needs of various stakeholders, disciplinary knowledges and cultural contexts. A co-creation approach in collaborative research can assist in navigating these challenges by empowering all stakeholders including industry, the academy and the community. This paper presents a case study of an industry engaged research project that employed this approach. Partnering with a northern European international airline and universities from Australia and Singapore, the project investigated opportunities for innovation around the ageing population’s user experience with in-flight packaging. Applying case study method, data collected included in-flight observations, expert interviews, co-creation workshops and prototyping. Challenges as well as opportunities are identified around how the co-creation approach supported the industry relevant outcomes of the project. The findings suggest that co-creation supports better outcomes for collaboration across the complexity of industry engaged cross-cultural research projects.
This paper details the evaluation process undertaken to create criteria for the development of an iPad stand for elderly users. Emphasis is on the requirements elicitation stage with end users in the field. 32 elderly participants taking part in the activity group as part of the Ageing-Well program of a City Council in a cosmopolitan area in Australia were part of an evaluation in which three existing iPad stands were trialled. While commercially available stands are abundant, specific problems such as reduced grip, basic technical understanding of the stand, and concerns surrounding stability were encountered within the group. Observation and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the cohort to determine factors surrounding the suitability and uptake of these stands by elderly users – most of them with some disabilities - with findings suggesting that current tablet stands require fine levels of dexterity, which may not be appropriate for elderly users where such a device is needed. While usability in setting up the stand and use is a strong factor, aesthetics and material qualities are equally important for enjoyable use. In addition, the use of iPads in social activities between two or more older adults has specific demands in terms of visibility of screen, sturdiness and easy movement that is not considered by current tablet stands. The paper ends with proposing design recommendations. Further research is required to develop a suitable solution and refines these
Identifying Infants can be harder than it seems. Particularly in remote and limited resources settings, rapid and accurate identification of infants presents an unsolved complex sociotechnical problem. Imagine a long line of caregivers, each carrying several children, waiting outside in heat and humidity for required vaccinations. Caregivers may only know the infant's given names: how can the they be identified for record keeping?
Vaccination cards are notoriously unreliably and easily lost, mistakes abound. Recent technologycentered attempts th
In order to develop a new, infant-centered solution from the ground up, we assembled a diverse team of engineers, clinicians, ethnographers and designers and followed a Human Centered Design (HCD) approach of ethnography, rapid prototyping and testing. We examined all common modalities used in adult biometrics-- ear, iris, retina, face, foot, palm and finger recognition and compared technical feasibility, usability and acceptability for the infant use case. We prototyped many infant-centric devices and arrived at lead candidates using modified contact vs non contact palm and finger scanning. Frequent design-test cycles were critical as the complexity and changing nature of infant physiology, behavior and caregiver dynamics could not be predicted, only tested with subjects. This was compounded by moving targets of evolving infant-centric software, hardware and device design.
In summary, we report here an HCD based approach to infant biometrics. We developed and tested robust, socially acceptable technologies that adapt to the tiny, sensitive yet changing fingers of very young infants.
Effective university-industry collaboration has become a major focus for governments in recent years. Universities are increasingly expected to play a greater role in the innovation system and evidence their contribution to economic development. At the same time, the growth in research quality assessment exercises makes it imperative that the excellence of research conducted in commercially-driven activities can be appropriately evaluated. This paper explores the challenge of reconciling commercially-focused activity and research quality assessment in design. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with thirteen experts including representatives from the design discipline, other applied academic disciplines, research quality assessment leaders and commercial designers. The interviews identified a number of barriers to demonstrating research excellence in commercially-driven projects. These were classified as barriers resulting from: the nature of industry/academic relationships; the nature of the project; and the nature of the research quality assessment. It is concluded that there is a need to build a simple, easily usable framework for assessing the research potential of commercially-driven design projects from the outset to ensure that the appropriate processes are put in place to communicate research conducted within them.
The “Safety Grand Challenge” is a collaborative research project between the Royal College of Art (RCA) School of Design, and the Lloyd's Register Foundation (LRF). The maritime industry is dominated by “grandfathering” leading to a slow-pace of adopting innovations that can reduce risk and save lives at sea. We describe how impact was achieved through collaboration and design innovations that bridged the risk gap between technologies and human behaviours. Starting from the project brief we designed a collaborative platform that supported a constructive dialogue between academia and partner organisations that aimed to foster innovative design approaches to risk and safety. The project generated an engaged community with diverse expertise that influenced the outcomes which included seven prototypes designed by a group of thirty students from across the RCA. Throughout the course of the project the network extended to other partners beyond the initial ones that included the RCA, LRF and Royal National Lifeboat Institution. The “Safety Grand Challenge” demonstrates how research can be an explorative platform that offers opportunities to analyse and design solutions to real life safety problems in mature industries through the prototypes that reflect the sophistication of the project’s collaborations. Our conclusions support how design research helped identify the value of design for safety in tackling complex issues that intertwine human, environmental and commercial views and can shape new forms of collaborative research between academia and industrial partners.
Over the last two decades, for-profit and non-for-profit organizations have increasingly adopted open collaboration, such as open innovation and crowdsourcing, as a strategy for innovation. Information and communication technology (ICT) has played a major role in forming open collaboration communities, but organizational design also needs to be considered to encourage the active participation and collaboration of actors. Nonetheless, organizational design aspect has seldom been addressed in developing open collaboration platforms. In this research, an organizational design framework for open collaboration was developed through a nature-inspired design approach. This framework suggests that the self-organization mechanism of social insects provides inspirations for the design of the platform, especially in terms of setting simple rules to induce behaviors of the actors and facilitating interactions among them. Since the open collaboration strategy depends on external actors who are not in employment relationship, an organization cannot force their contribution. Accordingly, the organization’s capability to induce the spontaneous participation of actors is essential, and it implies the potential role of designers in platform design based on a thorough understanding of actors. We thus claim that designers can bring a new perspective to organizational design. Open collaboration platforms serve as an exemplar in which designers contribute to the design of an organizational environment that fosters collaboration.
Design is essential in product development but several small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) relatively capable of manufacturing are suffered from lack of in-house design ability. For new product design, these SMEs typically employ external designers. In this clientdesigner interaction, designers propose design solution alternatives to their clients, which clients may accept or reject. In some cases, clients provide designers further design requirements. A study on how interactions are performed and what effects these interactions have on the results of product development is essential to determine what is needed to achieve successful collaborative relationships. Thus, this study analyzed three design development cases that were previously performed to understand how interactions work between clients and designers and its effect on the outcomes. In all cases, the design team developed designs for the clients based on their technological requirements. This study focused on the effect of client stance on the process and deliverables. Clients usually take various actions that accept or reject design solutions or give additional demands. This is because clients take initiative in decision making. Clients' stance was divided into receptive and expressive stances. As a result, a receptive stance ensured the design capabilities of design consultants, whereas expressive stance confined design capabilities to some extent but a new design direction may be proposed based on a client's knowledge, information, and judgment.
As humans’ information processing abilities, have become more and more disconnected from their senses due to an increasing quantity of abstract information, so have design processes. There is a demand for designers to include human sensation as part of engaging product forms and experiences. This qualitative case study explores the role of senses and their potential use in design ideation. A literature review of related theoretical and pragmatic perspectives and a survey of 15-20 product examples that provide unique sensory experiences are analyzed and sorted through four sensory design strategies: Sensory Augmentation, Conversion, Transition and Isolation. Using the four strategies as core concepts, a Sensory Reflective Framework with a mindful focus on sensory appreciation and translation is proposed to support designers’ ideation in creating unique product forms and experiences. The paper reports the process and findings of a sensory ideation workshop which was conducted based on the framework, and further discusses the development and implications of the framework in supporting designers’ sensory ideation.
Low-seated chairs for tatami mats that are characteristic of Japanese-style interior appeared after late 1940s. This article focuses on the ambivalence between Western lifestyles and Japanese lifestyles by tracing the comments of designers, critics, magazines, and so forth to clarify a background of them. The introduction of chairs in Japan was actually involved, by definition, in a dichotomy between sitting on the floor and in chairs, which therefore was far from the domestic practicality of lifestyles among the public. Then we have to observe the two points for the introduction of chairs to break through this rigid situation: (1) how did the public establish definition of chairs outside the Westernization? This article grasps the fact that the artisans and early designers accumulated their experience of producing chairs from scratch, through trial and error. (2) How did the relation between sitting on the floor and in chairs break out of the dichotomy, through ambivalence? This article focuses on the fact that the public enjoyed the physical relaxation offered by the mix of sitting on the floor and in chairs. This constituted the domestic practicality of chairs for the Japanese. Therefore, such experiences of making and using chairs can be summarized as the awakening of a universe in the distance between the floor and the seat-height of Western chairs. It was a new frontier for Japanese designers, and low-seated chairs were born in this space. This article concludes that it marked the transition from Westernization to Japanese modern design.
The deterioration of linguistic abilities is a natural phenomenon along with aging. Therefore, various assessment tools have been developed to measure linguistic abilities of seniors and diagnose
degenerative diseases such as dementia. Although most of the tools are composed of images, there are not many studies focusing on the visual design, which could significantly affect performance of the subject. In this regard, this research aims to suggest a design guideline for linguistic ability assessment tools concerning the key characteristics of the elderly, focusing on visual contents and interface.
Existing related researches were mostly conducted in English speaking countries. In order to assess the language processing abilities of Korean-speaking elders more accurately, it is necessary to develop language processing assessment tools that reflect the unique linguistic features and structure of the Korean language. Regarding the existing tools, there is a lack of research on aging, focusing on ‘verb naming.
In the literature review section, the paper investigated the physical, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the elderly and extracted the key elements to consider when designing for the elderly. Also, design principles were found based on case studies and problem analysis of the existing assessment tools for language processing abilities. Lastly, we created a prototype model using ‘verb naming.’ Using the model, we have conducted an experiment and comparative analysis between different age groups to verify the validity of contents.
In conclusion, we provided a design guideline for visual contents and interface of linguistic assessment tools, focusing on elderly users.
We analyze life in urban district on the outskirts of Tokyo by ANT. This research is used to identify social and technological elements that are regarded as essential in the modern day and to develop methods that will link to a practical approach. Our presentation describes these methods in detail. We believe that it may be possible to identify particularly important elements in design methods that respond to the complications of the modern day in early modern wisdom and customs, which until now have been overlooked. Today, as the foundations of social norms and traditions that have previously been regarded as self-evident are swaying and the risk society is advancing, these new design methods can be used to respond to an array of issues with a high degree of complication, such as the deterioration of the mental environment and environmental problems without any discernible solution. Since the modern era began, design has solved social problems through the development of objects and systems. However, in terms of the problems stated above, it can also be pointed out that design is both unable to suggest basic solutions and, in addition, forms a part of the social structures that cause these problems. Approaches that follow laws of causality tied to modern methodology cannot be applied to complicated problems where the relationship between cause and effect is unclear. The use of new design methods makes it possible to decipher complicated relationships and apply pre-modern systems to modern life.
Design is gaining popularity as a way to address complex social problems in various fields of practices. Strangely, public health which, by nature, is concerned by such kinds of problems, remains foreign to this way of thinking. Building on the increasing popularity of design in policy making, we stress that public health could also benefit from this conceptual yet pragmatic framework. To open a critical perspective about the potential of design for public health, we examine four design projects that address social determinants of health and whose outcomes promotes healthy living habits. Finally, we argue that the interest of design for public health lies on its concern for the users’ æsthetic experience emerging of its encounter with the touchpoints that embody health policies. This contribution ought to act as a stepping stone to open a debate about design as offering a critical perspective for the practice and study of public health.
How can design orient people to an expanded sense of future possibility? Design researchers are beginning to recognize design’s potential role not solely in producing products, services and strategies but, instead, in shifting mindsets and behaviors. This shift requires a different view of the design practice, from engaging users to gather insights to be implemented, to that process as the actual material of the design. Borrowing from the framework of practice-oriented design, a first step in these processes is expanding participants’ understanding of future possibilities. In opening future possibilities, one recognizes an expanded range of futures and, ideally, engages in dialog with other people and their range of possibilities. This paper introduces mapping activities that are intended to reframe participants’ perception of possible futures. This study conducted pilot workshops with participants who were downsizing their home and struggling with decisions about their things and spaces. This paper argues that working with people already engaged in life transitions such as downsizing presents a rich opportunity for these futuring methods, as they are already beginning to grapple with designing for possible futures. These methods provide a stake in the ground for future exploration of potential methods to engender mindsets of possibility and engage in trialing methods like living labs.
The purpose of Experience Group Sessions is to identify the health and lifestyle challenges that make it difficult for patients and families to manage chronic medical conditions. The Innovation Engine at Carolinas HealthCare System worked with pediatricians to identify and recruit patients with chronic asthma. Experience Group Sessions were a way for families and patients to share their experiences managing asthma and allowed facilitators to gather insights about what does and does not happen in their daily lives. The key themes and quotes collected from the Experience Group Sessions were grouped into three categories of outcomes that define success with health: capability, comfort and calm. The results of the analysis were shared with the workgroup to inform the design and strategy for an integrated practice unit. Integrated practice units are intended to bring together a full range of providers and services to specifically address a certain medical condition, in this case, pediatric asthma at Carolinas HealthCare System. This integrated practice model will be reorganized around patient-centered care and value to improve overall health for children with asthma.
The growing speed with which consumers discard artifacts is a significant but regrettable part of the capitalist economy. High consumption rates are accelerated by contemporary society,
which is based on a model of values that link the notion of well being to profit generation and consumption of material goods. This exacerbated consumption cycle perpetuates environmental
damage. In this context, proposing sustainable solutions involves new ways of thinking and doing that are distant from the practices of the current model of consumer society. This paper
reflects on the necessity to implement changes into the design process, production, and consumption modalities. These changes propose a “new” role for designers as professionals, and
as individuals in society at large. This research connects the concepts of metadesign and opens design- enabling system awareness. Metadesign can be considered critical and reflexive thinking about the boundaries and scope of design, but also, as the prefix “meta” implies, it can be understood as the design of the design process, in a critical and reflective way. Open design
implies the openness of the design project for multiple actors (including consumers), information sharing, and building knowledge between them. As a result, design can lead to
consumption modalities situated in slow culture, transforming the relationship between users and artifacts.
The more society gets complicated and developed, the more demand for various products. As a result, we are living in a flood of various products. However, considering how people consume and use products in their daily life, it is not difficult to find people transforming, changing the original purpose or adding value to existing products instead of buying new ones. This phenomenon has been defined as everyday design. In a sense that everyday design provides a better understanding of actual uses in real context, it deserves to be studied. Therefore, this paper attempts to figure out an underlying mechanism of everyday design. For this, a conceptual framework was developed, whose focus was on what triggers everyday design, what goals are set, and how a product is transformed. The conceptual framework was validated with a photographic inventory of users’ everyday design in our daily life. The conceptual framework could provide a better understanding of everyday design in a systematic way. If it is considered in the product development process, it could contribute to an increase of use satisfaction as well as sustainable design. The limitations and a further study are discussed at the end of the paper.
Student life at a large institution like University of California, Berkeley, is challenging in many ways. Along with the often extreme academic demands, students must discover and navigate numerous services while simultaneously integrating themselves into formal and informal campus communities. Historically, core student services were delivered in a piecemeal and disjointed way via a dozen or more websites. A large investment in a Student Information Systems (SIS) replacement project has since unified these service experiences through CalCentral, a Berkeley-developed service portal, and created with a significant focus on user experience design.
While significant strides have been made to improve and simplify how services are delivered to students, the design team has been challenged to push their vision of the service ecosystem further, to “humanize the institution.” The vision goes through the SIS project and beyond, by first switching mindsets from service producers to service providers, and second by looking at how deeper relationships can be created digitally between students and the institution. The research, with students and different stakeholder groups, shows that beyond usability and learnability, there are greater opportunities through service design to contribute to students’ senses of agency, inclusion, connectedness and wellbeing. The design team is codifying new design principles and developing prototype experiences that look more closely at tone, behavior and contributing to a positive emotional state of mind. The service delivery through CalCentral is humanized and augmented in affirming ways, to use language that is accessible, and to guide students through complex paths.
The design of meaningful graphical objects to represent collection items must balance the following: amount of useful information that can be communicated through the object’s graphical form, meaningful graphical difference between individual items or groups of items, and restraint in form complexity to allow for the simultaneous display of numerous collection items at a small size. How the user interprets difference and sameness and, more importantly, whether the user attaches hierarchical value to the emergent categories, may play a significant role in determining whether that user focusses attention on one set of data over another, on one set of processes over another, and ultimately, on one set of tasks over another. This paper examines the significant consequences for the understanding of the user resulting from representation of data, files, and other objects in a human-computer interface (HCI), and proposes that new approaches may be indicated, given the growing complexity of what is being represented and how what is represented can be used.
Smart home is becoming a focus in both literature and product development practices. The current study employed a human-centered design approach to understand users desires and expectations from their living context. Six critical themes were developed via in-deep interview, field observation, and data analysis. They are house as a supportive friend, atmosphere generator, theme songs for every moment, coordinator and reminder, life memory collector, and routine builder for young generations. Those concepts were partially integrated to define the value proposition for the target user group of parents with young children. This guides the design ideation and video prototyping to illustrator the user experiences. Through a focus group discussion, the design concepts were validated with six potential customers. The results also show that the design concept has the potential to motivate children’s behaviors, help to build their routine, and has the flexibility to fulfill different needs toward the changes of the family’s life cycle.
The term “slow fashion” was coined by Kate Fletcher to counter the growing trend of the “fast fashion” industry. In recent years, the clothing industry has been dominated by fast fashion that has spurred overconsumption whereby people buy more than they need.
This study aims to develop a critical-creative thinking framework based on the understandings and insights of how Millennials view apparel consumption. Lynda Grose and Kate Fletcher’s chapter “Transforming Fashion Product” from their book Fashion & Sustainability: Design for Change (2012) provided useful information regarding the fashion process, helping to reveal new patterns to frame how participants of this study view apparel consumption. This research investigated the way in which consumers viewed material, consumer care, and disposal of their clothing.
In order to understand the Millennial mindset with regard to apparel consumption, responses were collected from over a hundred Millennials through an online survey (Phase One), where they discussed their reasons for placing themselves along a scale from slow to fast fashion. The findings uncovered a new group of consumers, the undecided+exploring, who identified with both slow and fast fashion. Valuable insights extracted from the survey informed the development of a research toolkit for a series of participatory workshops (Phase Two) with the goal to construct a conceptual model of Millennial apparel consumption.
Further understanding of slow fashion, as seen through the Millennial mindset, will inspire and guide designers, manufacturers, and consumers to make more sustainable decision when developing, selling, and buying clothing items.
While it is common for landscaped and well-marked urban streets to have sufficient identification signs, which display place or street names, they often face issues regarding the provision of information (e.g., in sign placement) and inadequate orientation signs, which play an indispensable role in facilitating pedestrian movement. Insufficient signage can be partially addressed by supplementing signs with non-informational urban elements, such as streetlights or other urban features that provide different sorts of information. In order to result in smooth urban pedestrian movement, public signage systems require a balance between districts and streets and a system for presenting linked information. This study proposes that an urban element design system can be applied to the construction of public signage systems for pedestrians. There are several methods by which to accomplish this; each fulfills the needs of different districts and streets. For example, some strategies suggest ways to integrate information in areas with many urban elements, such as public signage, while others offer strategies for adding pedestrian signs and other elements alongside vehicular signs in areas with insufficient information. This article proposes a distribution graph of public signage as a concrete method for organizing the construction of public signage. Such a distribution graph is a way to visualize different distributions of sign type, and see clusters of street patterns. It is an effective way not only to planning new pedestrian signage systems, but also for revising plans with biased or insufficient signage distribution.
This paper presents a case study analysing the interactions of nine security officers during the mandatory passenger screening process at an Australian international Airport. Eye-tracking glasses were used to observe the visual, physical and verbal interactions of security officers while they performed the x-ray task. Stationary video recording devices were used to record physical and verbal interactions performed by security officers during the load, search and metal detector tasks. Six taxonomic groups were developed that define the different types of interactions performed by security officers during each task. Each taxonomic group is comprised of several discrete interactions specific to each of the tasks observed. Through analysing the composition of interactions and the relationships between interactions in different tasks, this paper highlights the prominence of interactions that security officers perform with passengers and their belongings. These interactions play an important role in the first and last stages of the passenger screening process, as well as influence the functioning of the overall passenger screening process. Due to this, they have substantial effect on passenger experience, throughput efficiency and security efficacy. In response to these findings, we draw from emerging security technologies and persuasive design principles to present potential design solutions for optimising the passenger screening process. These are presented in the context of a preliminary framework with which to inform the design of current and future passenger screening processes.
Most academic methodologies are developed from a prescribed methodological process that is limited to a specific area of study. However, the disciplinary landscape in which the knowledge is established is being rapidly reconfigured. Given the vast varieties of practices and knowledge base required from information designers, it is even more crucial for them to look outside of the traditional visual design fields and seek diversities for better research and creation methods.
The two disciplines, software engineering and information design, are often perceived as one provides technical solutions to the other. This essay intends to move beyond the common perception, and identify relevant issues in software engineering design that resonate with the information design process. The issues include the multi-component planning approach; the human-oriented agile method; design concepts such as abstraction, decomposition, component modularity, hierarchical relationship, and extensibility. The perspectives from software engineering design and information design is examined through units of analysis, terminology explanations, and forms of communications. The collective design methods and principles provide a systematic framework to the methodological thinking in information design. The discussion serves the purpose of encouraging more conceptual-based conversations between information design and other disciplines, especially in the fields of science and technology.
There is considerable interest within the design research domain in the possible cognitive functions and actions as ‘design thinking’ is used. This proposal commences with reference to Senge who suggests, “Truly creative people use the gap between vision and current reality to generate energy for change”. He drew from the musician Fritz, who proposed, “It’s not what the vision is but what the vision does,” (1990, p.153). The imagined ideal in a vision seems to act like a spike setting off self-urging creative intuitions and insights and instinctive reactions. A conceptual series of diagrams will develop these insights where an imagined ideal is to be set up as the vision as the anticipated experience of a ‘best-possible-self’ with success, where emergent ‘ideas-of-best-fit’ closely match the designer’s goals and desires. The triggering mental actions required are similar in form to De Bono’s technique based on ‘Six Colored Hats’ (1985). In this project, however, the practitioner adopts an overarching meaningful ideal for a ‘hat’ in the form of an experiential clear sense of success as motivating ideations emerge, such that these closely match their goals and desires as a ‘best-possible-fit’. The model is also potentially transformative as the visioning ideal could be framed such that any emergent effects of encoded formed bias or a self-limiting psychology could be effectively reduced or eliminated through the applied created differential as a ‘generative gap’ for the self. This paper will further suggest how this envisaged ideal of success could be experientially explored through co-creative action cycles of research in different design-thinking domains.
Sketchnoting, if seen as a methodology, exhibits potential for systematic and methodical
research. It provides a framework to communicate visually through simple shapes,
breaking complex forms down into combinations of dots, lines, squares, triangles, and
circles. Situated at the lower end of the visualization spectrum, which ranges from napkin
style sketching to photo-realistic rendering, it has low barriers to putting pen on paper.
In the context of an industrial design graduate course originally introduced as a gateway
to traditional visualization in design, sketchnoting exhibited greater potential to not only
lower the threshold of sketching, but in addition, to foster creative, and in some cases,
even boost design confidence. These anecdotal observations revealed several overarching
opportunities for a larger, cross-disciplinary research, which would begin with exploring
the ability to foster creative confidence through lowering the inhibition threshold to
drawing for designers and non-designers alike. Proceeding to explore the potential of
sketchnoting (due to its dual coding nature) becoming an entry point to employing all
modes of thought processing, deductive, inductive and abductive logic as they pertain to
divergent and convergent thinking. Ideally setting up this framework to be investigated as
a means to improve student engagement and general learning behaviors. The long-term
and underlying goal is to change how people see and solve problems and to diversify
stakeholders involved in the development processes. This paper discusses the underlying
concept as well as the originally observations, closing with the above-mentioned series of
Commercial products specially designed for the elderly have assumption of user disability and focus on assistive tools design. However, recent studies show aged people gradually stay healthy condition because of modern advanced medical technology and service. There so- called “platinum society” that describes a group of aged people live in a community where they have to take care of themselves under healthy condition. To respond to above situation, this study applies service design model to explore daily life requirement of the elderly and proposes a new transportation assistive device design located aside the bus station. From empathy map analysis, point of view definition, requirement-and-function deployment, to service model construction, real daily life activity and movement of the elderly are collected and analyzed. A participative design approach is applied to involve senior citizen participation that is helpful to retrieve their intangible needs. In this proposed design, it includes an information interface and an exercise assistive device for the elderly to use during the waiting period when they stay at the bus station. It provides required information for transportation purpose as well as simple exercise movement that make it form an area of social connection. Instead of boring waiting time wasted at the station, it enhances interaction between the elderly through uncomplicated stretch movement and conversation. A scaled prototype is implemented to simulate and test the scenario and interview is executed to collect feedback from the elderly. Ongoing progress show a feasible application can be achieved by integrating with current environment.
In the past decades, universities’ involvement in socio-economic development, which goes along with their teaching and researching activities, has defined a new role for them in society’s ecosystem. This new role is often referred with the term of “entrepreneurial” university, whose objectives are positive societal, economic and environmental impacts. In order to fulfil such objectives, entrepreneurial universities might engage in cross-sector collaborations with external organisations. Despite the great contributions that cross-sector collaboration can give to the partners involved, the outcome is mostly unfocussed and rarely embedded. This paper explores the outcome embedding in the cross-sector collaboration between entrepreneurial universities and the private sector. To this end, we provide the case of the collaboration between a Dutch airline company and four Dutch entrepreneurial research and teaching institutions. We aim to uncover hindering and enabling factors to the outcome embedding in order to design an interaction platform, design it together. This platform will be a tool to encourage the outcome embedding, moving from being inspired by to the actual implementation of the cross-sector collaboration. In order to fulfill this goal, this study employs a research through design methodology. This approach is a generative process, where cyclic loops of iterations and evaluations with stakeholders tend to the research goal. The solution is a digital platform, co-created with all stakeholders. This study can inspire practitioners and future research on the problem of unsuccessful cross-sector collaborations, between entrepreneurial universities and external organisations, with more emphasis on the value of embedding and translating the outcomes.
With the enhancement of medical technology and human living standards, the world is showing a trajectory towards an aging society. The elders generally suffer from degeneration, which may cause problems in their daily lives. Aging has since become a major issue of scientific researches.
Elders in Taiwan mostly live alone or with a partner. Because eating out is not a habit, cooking often plays an important role in their lives. Due to the degeneration happening to their bodies, the danger during cooking activities increases. Therefore, it is necessary for them to seek help from assistive devices.
In this research, we will make assistive design models that help elders use woks. The designs are for the task we have chosen from our investigation. We will also evaluate the effect of the aids objectively using the EMG system, and collect the iEMG value for evaluation. The iEMG values were collected from four muscles (FDC, FCR, Biceps and Deltoids). Eight middle-aged participants who will become elders in the near future were invited to participate in the experiment. Four design solutions were chosen from seven working models. The design solutions were all helpful to the task, and the performances of the stove design solutions are significantly better than the original wok. The degrees of hand trembling while performing tasks were also measured, however the differences were not significant.
This research aims to investigate how Korean digital agencies practice design thinking for their website innovation. Based on a literature review on the design- thinking-driven web development process, multiple case studies of award-winning website projects were undertook. Through analyses of these cases, the following challenges and lessons were disclosed: (1) challenges – building a long-term, playful partnership with clients, leveraging decision-making executives’ design thinking awareness, and coping with limited resources (design thinking practitioners, budgets, and schedules) and (2) lessons – cross-functional collaboration, agile mobile-first development process, powerful visual storytelling, and compelling UX strategies and UI guidelines. Moreover, distinct approaches of design thinking practices were identified according to two website types: a brand promotion website – killer branding content-driven approach, and a service channel website – better UI/UXdriven approach.
In this study, based on the perception of older adults, fuzzy positioning of healthcare wearables and impacts of differentiated product positioning on human considerations and design communication strategies are studied. Empirical researches are performed by adopting both quantitative research (248 questionnaires for clustering and regression analysis) and qualitative research (15 cases for in- depth interview). The perceptions of older adults on product positioning are divided into three types: Tech-Aid, Fash-Acc, and Fash-Tech. Results indicate that the influential human considerations for each positioning were different from each other. Through coding and storyline analysis, diverse communication strategies are found for each positioning. The outcomes for each type are as follows. For Tech-Aid, wherein older adults lay emphasis on usefulness, ease of use, and privacy, the designers can adopt a calm communication strategy by giving priority to older adults’ control power, fitting symptoms, user-friendly, and cautious interconnection. For Fash-Acc, wherein older adults focus on personal image, aesthetic appearance, and ease of use, an active communication strategy for modeling a style for elderly fashion that agrees with aesthetic appreciation and simplified operation can be adopted. For Fash-Tech, wherein older adults require to integrate usefulness, ease of use, aesthetic appearance, comfort, privacy, and self-image, a persuasive communication strategy can be used, through which designers can offer older adults more data insights and entertainment, along with data association, and in the meantime, reduce data interferences and pay attention to style modality and appropriate display with context fusion and contact comfort.
This study suggests that student reflection on academic and industry collaborative projects can enhance student’s understanding on the design process to solve live industry problems. It contributes to the body of design literature to support students learning of explicit and implicit knowledge (Boling et al., 2016; Land et al., 2016; Salama, 2015). A 2017 learning- by-making (LBM) unit in the School of Architecture and Design, at the University of Tasmania, Australia, developed a unit for students to collaborate with Neville Smith Forest Products Pty. Ltd. (NSFP). NSFP is a local Tasmanian timber product manufacturer who currently stockpiles out-of-grade timber that has limited market applications. Undergraduate design students from second and third year Furniture, Interior and Architecture degrees collaborated with NSFP to value-add to their out-of-grade resource in the LBM unit. A series of design challenges, observations of industry practice and access to out-of-grade timber from NSFP exposed students to live industry problems and provided them the opportunity to build professional design skills. Students reflected on the collaborative LBM unit in a reflection journal, which was used to provide evidence of their learning experiences. The collaborative environment between academia and industry allowed students to acquire an understanding of timber product manufacturing that helped them develop empathy towards the industry problem and influence the development of new products. This study presents how student reflections influenced a change in their design process as they progressed through sequential design challenges to address an industry problem by adopting Valkenburg and Dorst (1998) reflective learning framework.
Carnegie Mellon University's School of Design partnered with Cognizant Technology Solutions on a design project for a semester-long elective course called UX Design Tools. The intent was broad in its inception: identify emergent opportunities where technology will play a significant role in people's interactions and experiences. What is the future of physical space? How are advancements in IoT, augmented reality, and telematics influencing how we experience environments?
Students were asked to anchor their problem solving in evolving human needs and to understand the role technology plays. Cognizant's human-centered development approach relies primarily on ethnographic inquiry. This evidenced through integrating their anthropologists from acquired firm Idea Couture, and associates from strategic partner ReD Associates. The interdisciplinary majors from upper-level undergraduate to graduate level students learned to use and create multi- method research approaches to identify unique opportunities.
Seven teams created future scenarios with newly developed physical product designs, digital interfaces, and new service strategies utilizing various technologies. Three case studies highlight a trio of observed emotional themes in relation to how people utilize technology to benefit their daily life or work: self-
election, introduction-exchange, and co-dependency.
This poster presentation will showcase three projects that will serve as examples of how industry and academia act as research and development entities; how to approach research as a
fundamental tenet for innovation and design; and show how breadth and depth of interdisciplinary skills and experience is a necessity in an ever expanding climate of technology push.
How can students at a federally-designated Hispanic-serving institution understand and express culture and diversity through art and design? In order to address this inquiry and to exemplify a method that introduces students to critical thinking in the context of design, I am presenting a case study based on the primary results of a project implemented at an introductory graphic design class, which is part of a multidisciplinary arts program. In this project, students learn basics of design research and auto ethnography in a studio setting, in order to explore heritage and culture, their context of living, family history, and personal connections with their past, present, and future. Results from this discovery stage inform brainstorming, sketching, design, and production of a book that contains multiple visual explorations on “Heritage.” Some of the most memorable and productive conversations and interactions between students took place not only during the development of the project, but at the final project presentation, which exposed their capacity to develop greater tolerance and a more empathic view of the other, to be open to reanalyze their context and personal interactions, to better evaluate the design abilities of their peers as they respond to their own individual approach to the topic, and to develop a better and safer sense of place in the classroom.
The ethical dimensions of basing a typeface on existing faces are unclear. Commentary about “clones” from critics and type designers alike are confused and contradictory. Few writers consider the issues systematically. Misunderstanding of copyright law and unreflective versions of moral rights claims dominate discussion. Open discussion of the models for a type design avoid claims of plagiarism and also affect the reception of the new typeface.
Today’s design pedagogies lack the characteristics for redressing the nature of the ‘wicked problems’ they attempt to solve, such as sustainability. We argue it is not fair for future generations to suffer the systemic effects of our unsustainable consumer culture, partly resulting from today’s design professionals’ decisions, which ensue because design is an amoral discipline lacking a systemic perspective.
To rectify design’s characteristic failings, as part of a PhD study, we report a new pedagogical architecture founded as the synthesis of the practices of design and civics, forming the relationship design-as-civics (DaC): a practical philosophy. We position DaC as a reflexive, systemic radical political praxis for every citizen, possessing the explicit teleological goal to achieve the ‘good life’ for all.
DaC takes a transdisciplinary approach. It integrates the discoveries of cognitive science and linguistics to expose how we construct our understanding of the world interpreting metaphors and frames, which we utilise to ‘aim’ DaC. Alongside shared social practice theory (SSP) and insights from developmental psychology that reveal the distinctly human capacity of “shared intentionality” engendering humankind’s willingness for cooperation and empathy for fairness. That living in a fairer society is desired by people from rival political perspectives, with egalitarian societies reporting lower environmental impact lifestyles and more willingness for transitioning towards sustainment.
Thus, it is humankind’s cooperative behaviour and aligning values that provides the foundational rationale of DaC’s SSP goal to achieve the ‘good life’ through the ongoing critical examination of its ‘aim’ of resolving ‘fairness between citizens.’
Since the 1800’s, England became an industrialised country and experienced extensive urban growth, so sales associates chose this location to establish large stores. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the aim was to create the stores to entice customers through space, impressive architecture, interior design and the elegant display of merchandise. At the same time, the display techniques were growing to promote sales. Therefore, more retail equipment manufactured and supplied for displaying products in the stores. This significant variation led the retail industry as that goods could be touched by the customers and they were not accessible only through retail assistant anymore (Whitaker, 2011). Since then due to this new differentiation, retailers have been experiencing a significant change in their customer’s behaviour. Now the retailers are trying to give a brilliant shopping experience to their customers with more reason to increase the sale (Ebster, Garaus 2011). However, there are some restrictions to this strategy that afford excellent opportunities for shoplifters and opportunist criminals. Store design can be a fantastic and efficient tool to increase sales. Also, it could significantly increase the chance of retail crime. This paper examines how to minimise criminal activity in retail environments to reduce loss prevention and retail shrinkage by raising awareness through design thinking. Therefore, interviews, observation and exploration were done based on the experience of employees and customers in ‘The High Street Retailer’. The research project outcome included as over, a creative retail crime learning package and a digital platform to raise awareness and improve communication.
We developed an art program that connects rehabilitation exercises with the creation of art. The quality and level of rehabilitation exercise achieved in the outcome of the resulting artwork is reflected as feedback to encourage patients to perform their rehabilitation exercises. The art program is called “Let’s stand up and draw art in the sky!” and utilizes a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display device to create a landscape image in the device’s display area, through the movements of sitting down and standing up. To replicate the rehabilitation movement of standing then sitting on a chair, a squat exercise experiment was conducted with and without the art program, using university student subjects, and the results were compared between the two trials. When the subjects used the program they reported a significant increase in the "Level of Vitality" and the "Level of Pleasure", compared to when they performed the exercises without the art program.
Traditional Industrial Design sponsored studios (when a corporation partners with a student design studio) can quickly become design for hire studios which limit student learning outcomes as well as successful outcomes for the Sponsor. In assessing instruction practices in sponsored studios, traditionally success is limited to products moving directly into production. By reframing the studio into an incubator and in-line studio setting students could work in the same fashion as an in-house design studio, with mass diminutive ideation focusing on performance initially rather than aesthetics causing an increased standard for success. Because students would be concentrating on editing down a mass amount of variables with swift precision using raw but effective mockups, time would not be wasted on improving the craft of an initial, potentially ill- developed concept, leading to more risk projects with market disrupting potential rather than just an aesthetic or materials update going into production.
In a multi-disciplinary studio setting students from Industrial Design, Apparel Merchandising and Design, and Kinesiology, partnered with a corporate sponsored studio instructed in the framework premised above. The outcomes were a success with the studio functioning beyond a studio for hire scenario to learning objectives being met as well as aspects of projects moving forward into to development and projects moving directly into production as well as applications for patents. This paper investigates how studio culture can be reframed to create a diverse range of success as well as what specific instruction techniques, making techniques, and studio culture lead to this success.
High-stakes testing that became the norm after the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 helped condition students to strive for correct answers for clear problems, all on the first try. However, the iterative process inherent in designing requires risk-taking to conduct a trial-and-error process of defining problems and exploring possible solutions. This design research project was operated with Miami University Graphic Design students to test their willingness to take risks in their coursework to achieve their self-defined measures of success. Students identified that improving their skills was how they defined success. An interaction design assignment involving front-end coding was modified to test students’ comfort taking risks to grow their skills. Most students took risks in the assignment to grow their interaction design skills. The project revealed that closer attention to student motivation when developing learning experiences could help students make the transition to practicing design as an iterative process fraught with risk.
Case studies are discussed, from Northumbria University’s practice-led Centre for Design Research (CfDR) that demonstrate how visualising concepts and designs through digital animation can enable effective communication of ideas and interactions, which in turn enables creative leaps in thinking, understanding and decision-making. Animation is a tool that can unlock the comprehension into what is and what could be. This paper reflects on a number of collaborative projects between the CfDR and several scientific communities, demonstrating and focusing in particular on the process of visualisation, designing digital animations to communicate complex processes, ideas and interactions. An approach and understanding has been developed about how to effectively communicate potentially complex, scientific and technical concepts for the benefit of the client and the end user, in particular the lay audience whose knowledge of the subject may be limited or non-existing.
Findings indicate that the process of constructing simple digital animated stories becomes a learning process for both designer and client. Critical discussions during collaborative meetings develop shared understandings: helping clients to think more creatively about communication (appreciating the benefits of manipulating a truth to position to waylay contextual confusion), and making implicit knowledge belonging to the client explicit to the designer. It is important to state that this negotiation is more effective when the designer is a layperson with respect to the complex implicit knowledge of the client. During these collaborative conditions the untangling of complex ideas have achieve the a-ha moments in the animations’ audiences.
This paper demonstrates how Goffman’s frame analysis is applied in a research on designers’ experience with Cloud based digital tools. At the base of Goffman’s structure is the ‘primary frame’ - in this case designers’ experience with computer based digital tools. These tools’ transition to the Cloud initiated by businesses are called ‘fabrications’. Goffman’s ‘structural issues in fabrication’ such as ‘retransformations’ and the ‘nature of recontainment’ are also discussed through contemporary examples. These fabrications are used or ‘keyed’ by ‘active agents’ from various design fields. The data collected showed different levels of understanding of Cloud technology and the application of various tools in everyday design practices. Thus, the interviewees were clustered into three groups - designers, developers and artists. Their experiences form the creative, technology and experimental frame derived from keying of the primary frame. Design researchers can selectively borrow elements from frame analysis’ complex structure to build an effective user experience narrative.
The purpose of this research was to utilize co-design thinking to investigate and understand the experiences of veteran students entering into college at The Ohio State University (OSU) after military service, and to assist the university in improving those transition experiences. The research significance is that an increasing number of post 9/11 era veterans are utilizing the educational benefits earned through their service. Many of these service members have spent years inside a military culture, which has inadequately prepared them for a transition to the civilian and academic environments.
It has been found that veteran students often self-segregate due to age differences, and their experiences gained through military service. Additionally, while OSU’s Office of Military and Veteran Services (OMVS) has been doing incredible things to help veteran students transition away from the military and into OSU, many of their practices tend to promote self-segregation rather than integration.
Although it is not true across the entire population of veteran students, the research conducted showed that many sought opportunities for improved social integration programs. Opportunities lie in finding a balance between the culture that veteran students share, and integration into the civilian culture they are now part of. Additionally, veteran students could benefit from additional support in regards to academics and logistics when navigating through OSU.
The study conducted was comprised of preliminary interviews with a director of the OMVS, an initial survey, four co-design sessions with volunteer veteran students, and an evaluative survey to gain deeper insight into the possible new service concepts generated during the co-design sessions. Based on the research results, proposed new services and improvements to existing ones were presented to OSU’s OMVS.
Despite the increased popularity of online tools for remote teamwork and meetings, moderated collaborative activities between multiple users in early conceptual design stages, such as brainstorming sessions, are yet not well supported. In this paper, we introduce All4One, a networked system that enables multiple remote users to participate in a moderated visual sketching session. Each participant can independently draw and share sketches using a tablet, and a moderator uses a set of tangible tools to arrange and manipulate sketches that are displayed in real-time on a whiteboard. We present our prototype in detail and the results from a workshop study simulating a brainstorming session with designers who tested the system in practice. Results show several usage patterns and the potential of All4One for use in early design stages, and the importance of the role of the moderator as the facilitator of the design process. The paper concludes by identifying weaknesses and strengths of the current system and possible directions for future work.