A new formula has been developed that determines the passage of time. In the paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity.
Additionally, using the previous equation, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed.
Moreover, and based on all of the above, a different way of understanding mass and space is proposed. Which ultimately implies an alternative expression that relates mass and energy.
The development of complex and dependable systems like autonomous vehicles relies increasingly on the use of systems modeling language (SysML). In fact, SysML has become a de facto standard for systems engineering. With model-driven engineering, a SysML model serves as a reference for the early defect detection of the system under design: the earlier the errors are detected, the less is the cost of handling the errors. Mutation testing is a fault-based technique that has recently seen its applications to SysML behavioral models (e.g., state machine diagrams). Specifically, a system's state-transition design can be fed to a model checker where mutants are automatically generated and then killed against the desired design specifications (e.g., safety properties). In this paper, we present a novel approach based on process mining to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the SysML mutation testing based on model checking. In our approach, the mutation operators are applied directly to the state machine diagram. These mutants are then fed as traces into a process mining tool and checked according to the event logs. Our initial results indicates that the process mining approach kills more mutants faster than the model checking method.
Shortly after the comparative analysis of Codding et al. was published, I prepared a comment on the article that I submitted for publication. In response to feedback from the editors, I eventually revised the manuscript substantially. That revised version has now been published. In this paper, I share the original submission of the comment, which focuses on important considerations for future studies of risk-‐ sensitive foraging. Meanwhile, Codding and his colleagues have published a response to my comment. They exhibit some confusion about my position, which they describe as “paradoxical.” In a reply to their response, I have therefore added some clarifying remarks at the end of this paper
This paper presents a prime aspect of Augmented and Virtual Reality development in the field of healthcare. We explored several recent works and articles and a comparison between generic application development and immersive technology-based application is included. The paper talks about more practical approaches that can be taken to enhance the effectiveness of the application.
The resources (infrastructure) to complete this study are provided by the University of Cincinnati’s Center for Simulation and Virtual Environment Research (UCSIM). And several experiments and projects in the field of health care are used as a reference to make conclusions.
Traditional craft has been relegated to the margins in modern culture, being perceived as out step with technological, economic and societal progress. However, emergent research is rediscovering the nature of craft and its potential for contributing to design practice in conjunction with developments in science and technology. Through the analyses of craft and sustainability, strong connections are revealed as well as some incompatibilities. The contribution of this paper is to a) map a systemic view of craft and b) establish a theoretical understanding of the relationship between craft and a holistic understanding of sustainability. Drawing on recent research that proposes three areas of leverage for sustainability, we argue that craft, as a system of making, knowing and being, has significant potential to contribute actively and tangibly to the transitional conditions, thereby serving as an agency for sustainable transformation.
Japan has become a super-aging society, with the number of older people (over the age of 65) at a historical high both in absolute numbers (33 million) and as a proportion of the total population (26.0%). Walking is known to be associated with positive psychological improvements such as in subjective sense of wellbeing, life satisfaction, and a sense of purpose in life, as well as improvements in physical and mental function, such as arm/leg muscle strength and standing balance. In this study, we focus on information about functions for assisting walking, comparing and contrasting the information provided by existing products that support walking with the goal of clarifying issues from an information-provision viewpoint. We conducted interviews with eight older people who go for walks on a daily basis, asking about their thoughts before, during, and after walking. From 110 total comments, we obtained 30 comments relating to the action of walking. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of 11 devices and 20 applications that support walking, and from 24 functions, we focused on 20 functions relating to the action of walking. By comparing and contrasting the twin perspectives of “information items” and “information content” with visualization levels identified in the field of management, we clarified issues relating to devices and applications for supporting walking among older users, from the viewpoint of information provision.
In the field of information technology, virtual reality and simulation learning have become huge trends, not only in gaming and entertainment, but also in academic fields such as medicine. In the past, medical training has always been costly in providing tools and resources for entry-level medical students to acquire proper training. Medical training conducted in a virtual environment has not only yielded higher success rates, but has also reduced resource costs overall. However, with no standardized guidelines for conducting certain training regimens and learning skills, there are still studies that show some medical training programs do not produce the best results. This research focuses on analyzing the usage of virtual reality in current medical training programs to design a medical, virtual reality, training program. This program will revolve around entry-level medical students who will be attending the University of Cincinnati’s College of Medicine. This research proposal will not only examine previous research on the utilization of virtual reality in various types of medical training, but also discuss the potential benefits of developing this training program at UC.
How do arts-based writing endeavors catalyze generative thinking and support research development in design students’ thesis endeavors? This paper offers reflections from an industrial design masters student, a graphic design masters student, and their arts education professor in a School of Design at a Research I institution. Informed by theoretical and historical contexts of the design discipline and perspectives from composition studies and fine arts practice, we explore the potential of arts-based writing as an evocative, speculative tool and a distinctive form of reflective practice for the development of graduate design research. We suggest that arts-based writing’s iterative process, dialogic engagement, and speculative approach to knowledge-construction provide critical, reflective structures for working through uncertainties and thus are uniquely responsive to the evolving epistemologies of the transdisciplinary university. Three focal questions guide this reflection: What is arts-based writing? What role does arts-based writing play in students’ design research endeavors? How can arts-based writing practices support the growth of speculative and pragmatic design research?
Having observed that many industrial design projects are started with the wrong approach, producing loss of resources, time, and professional relationships, this article presents a set of three tools that enables a clearer view of the Fuzzy Front-end (Vogel, Cagan). The first tool helps to understand the design order (Buchanan) of the product to be developed, and to place it in the utilitarian product universe (practical and economically biased), the transitional-wholistic product universe (practical, economic, and emotionally balanced), or the emotional product universe (viscerally and symbolically biased). The second identifies a product’s global purpose composed by its practical, economic, and emotional purposes, as well as the value factors they include (practical and indicative function, usability, practical or emotional cost-benefit, visceral appeal, and symbolic meaning). The third tool involves the type of project to be undertaken (vision, new development, major enhancement, or minor enhancement). Applicable to all disciplines of design, the three tools comprise the product identity footprint, which helps inform the selection of appropriate strategies to start a project the right way. It can increase the efficiency of the product development process by providing an agreed view that can be shared with all the development team, from the project sponsor to the engineering, marketing, planning, and creative departments.
This submission reports a design-driven integrated innovation on EV mobility, EV 3.0, as a collaboration between design research institution and a small BEV company in China. The on-going project provides a novel vision and design strategies of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and mobility and has achieved a key technological performance on rapid charging of BEV. The current situation of BEV Industry and their recharging patterns show a big gap of new energy mobility. Key issues of BEV and mobility are defined by analysis of users’ need of mass market and a case study of a leading BEV. Usability of charging is identified as a bottleneck of BEV industry. Hence a new vision and scenario of rapid charging are defined, leading to respective design strategies and technological routines. With a long term investigation and iterative prototyping, an established prototype is developed and officially tested in the National Center of Supervision and Inspection on New Energy Motor Vehicle Products Quality in Shanghai. The test result indicates that the prototype has 431 km range in speed of 80km/h with only 15 minutes’ recharging, which provides a valid routine to break bottleneck of BEV industry .
Design processes are so complex that it is not easy to remember, reflect and record in detail after the actual processes are over. This paper proposes a notation to depict a design process as a whole while keeping its original complexity in terms of visual and structural aspects. The notion affords two types of structures to represent design processes, through activity units, a series of actions of the same kind, and design elements including ideas, prototypes and theories emerged, created, and applied during the design process. We use a design process of an actual design workshop as a case to derive the notation while using the online presentation tool “Prezi” as an interaction framework. We then investigated the depicted design process by re-experiencing the process as a first-person engagement using the designed notation. Prezi's animation mode allowed us designate a sequence along which viewers can experience the design process by zooming in some activity units and design elements, and its presentation mode allows us to look back the design process from the start to the end by following activity units arranged in the temporal order. Following the transitions among some design elements allows us to focus on essential objects in the design process. The depicted process illustrate that the two structures of activity units and design elements are not corresponding to but independent of each other.
Over the last two decades, constructive design research (CDR) — also known as Research through Design — has become an accepted mode of scholarly inquiry within the design research community. CDR is a broad term encompassing almost any kind of research that uses design action as a mode of inquiry. It has been described as having three distinct genres: lab, field, and showroom. The lab and field genres typically take a pragmatic stance, making things as a way of investigating what preferred futures might be. In contrast, research done following the showroom approach (more commonly known as critical design (CD), speculative design, or design fictions) offers a polemic and sometimes also a critique of the current state embodied in an artifact. Recently, we have observed a growing conflict within the design research community between pragmatic and critical researchers. To help reduce this conflict, we call for a divorce between CD and pragmatic CDR. We clarify how CDR and CD exist along a continuum. We conclude with suggestions for the design research community, about how each unique research approach can be used singly or in combination, and how they can push the boundaries of academic design research in new collaboration with different disciplines.
Understanding the user’s situation is very important in the design process. There are many ways to understand a user’s situation – a designer might observe a user’s situation or a user
might record their own situation in Human Centered Design (HCD) file. However, the latter of these methods has not been very popular mainly because of the burden it place on the users. This research proposes a new smartphone-based design support application, named “HN camera”, which can be used to record the users’ situation, without any additional burden on them. This application is based on the ‘Extended Alethic/Deontic/Temporal (ADT) model’ concept. A user or a designer can understand and record the user’s situation based on the Physical factor, the Kansei factor, and the Cultural factor using HN Camera. The application was used in visualizing and analyzing tourists’ travel as a service design. Through this, the effectiveness of the proposed application was clarified.
To limit the harm and damage caused by river flooding, signs to indicate dangerous water levels are placed along the river, particularly where there is a danger of overflow. However, the general level of awareness of such signs is low. In this study, we examined ways to efficiently convey information that people have little interest in and find difficult to understand.
Dangerous water levels are quantified and communicated using colors to indicate the degree of danger, and this information is conveyed to the public with signs on bridge piers and slopes. Various other measures are also employed, e.g., adding evacuation pictograms to signs, displaying signs separate from graduated water level indicators, and providing detailed information via the river office website. In addition to using Internet channels such as websites and Facebook, it is common to create and distribute pamphlets and other kinds of printed notifications to communicate such important information as widely as possible. Nevertheless, information that is essential in an emergency but unnecessary at ordinary times is difficult to communicate widely and effectively, even if all these measures are taken. This is because even if people accept that such information must be understood, they remain uninterested and find the information difficult to understand. To solve this problem, we created a story featuring mascot characters for each danger level. This story, presented as a picture book, overturns the conventional attitude toward such information. We thereby developed a medium for communicating important information in a way that better captures people’s interest.
The Japanese government has planned by 2020 to introduce the Finnish Neuvola System, a fundamental social childcare system that covers the period of pregnancy to child care. The purpose of this research is to clarify the conditions for high quality of Neuvola service, comparing childcare of Finland and Japan. First, the social systems of Finland and Japan, legal actions and other related social backgrounds are covered. Following this, the results are analyzed. Secondly, the results of interviews in Finland with Neuvola public health nurses and three typical Neuvola users, including a father, mother, and pregnant woman are presented. As a result of survey, six conditions were identified as the basis of Neuvola services: personal health checks, facility preparation, pleotropic care, communication through mutual dialogue, customized information and management of service provider quality. In a society where nuclear families are increasing, it is harder to care for children without someone’s support. In comparing Finnish and Japanese childcare systems, the Finnish system perceives childcare as a social matter. In the Neuvola System, people are always open to discuss about any worries or queries. In Japan, the system is closed toward personal matters and private treatment options are not adequate. This is a major factor in larger problems that exist in the Japanese system.
The results are discussed in relation to previous studies of participatory roles in social health care services in the Japanese government and users of these services, leading to the proposal of a Japanese childcare service design.
In an equally distressed and burgeoning community just outside of our major metropolitan city, there is a history of transformation efforts—from creative placemaking, to affordable housing initiatives, to economic re-development—which have all seemed to fall short in the area of community engagement.
From the creation of neighborhood festivals that have low resident turnout, to a backlash of discouraged citizens who feel unheard and uninformed, there was a need to re-consider how to involve this unique community—made up of four very distinct neighborhoods— in the imminent re-development of the area in which they live.
In the winter of 2016, our service design and creative strategy consultancy was brought in to a city-wide visionary community development project tied to our rapidly approaching bicentennial, in order to utilize service design methodologies as a way to engage communities and to design with organizations and community residents according to their needs and desires.
This short paper will highlight a case study of an ongoing collaboration between our consultancy; a non-profit organization dedicated to the growth of it’s community; a higher education institution with a legacy of community engagement; a local office of the country’s largest community development corporation focused on Creative Placemaking and community revitalization; and, most importantly, various residents and stakeholders.
The accompanying poster will visualize the process of engagement of various community stakeholders, tailored design research methods, and mechanisms for assessing short- and longterm
Intelligent Application if defined technically is a strategy that uses hyper-personalized mobile app experiences and services and knowledge-extraction processes to increases the user experience (Jessica Ekholm, 2017). In simple words, the applications that not only know how to support or enable key decisions but also continually learn from the user interactions to become even more relevant and valuable to those users, are known as Intelligent apps. Such applications are smart enough to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information with the help of AI algorithms. Moreover, these apps have the capability to ease the complex task into the as simple task as a single touch.
Industrial design education has existed for a long time as part of the university system, but the curriculum and contents of each subject vary considerably from school to school. In recent years, the introduction of new concepts that change the definition of design has blurred the boundaries of design, making the curriculum different. Establishing a standard curriculum to address these challenges is an important task, but it is necessary to fully understand how design education actually takes place and to share content with educators. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on industrial design education by fully disclosing the process and results of the first stage of industrial design education of a university by autobiographical method. The first course, Product Design Practice 1, is a studio class based on a task feedback iteration system. Students are required to submit assignments showing weekly progress. The instructor reviewed the assignments submitted before the class and gave written comments in class. In addition, details of the design process and method that are difficult to identify as novice students are learned through twelve case studies and applied to the project. This Task Feedback Repeating Class system gives students the opportunity to implement design ability while gaining detailed skills with a comprehensive view. Through this process, the researcher got a reflection on the class and implications for the improvement of the class.
The purpose of this study is to plan and operate design-workshops based on project-based learning (PBL), and examine their educational value for students. The PBL workshop encour- ages direct participation from students and produces educational value, and it is important to raise the interest level of workshops to elicit proactive participation. The workshop in this study was carried out over two weeks in January 2017 at Korea’s Yonsei University. The workshop was composed of eight teams of students from three countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, and the course was primarily divided into two sessions. The workshop participants examined in this thesis were notably satised with the elements of the course meant to garner interest. In the questionnaire results, participants also indicated that they obtained ample educational value through the workshop. An important element of the workshop was to connect the participants with businesses, which is also an important component of design education. Despite this, participants expressed a relatively lower level of satisfaction com- pared to other elements of the workshop. The results and analysis of this study will hopefully become a meaningful resource for educators when designing workshops in the future.
Decisions made by user interface designers play an influential role in how people interact with software, this is especially true when it comes to the creation of tools to support teaching. As technology continues to play a more prominent role in schools, it poses an important question about how the design of learning tools influence what teachers do in classrooms. Data analytics is one opportunity technology offers for teachers to foster collaboration in student groups. Data analytics have the potential to provide teachers with a live view of what students are doing when using technology, which research shows is challenging to implement in classrooms. This paper focuses on the process to design a tool that assists engineering discussion session teacher assistants (TAs) to monitor collaboration within groups. We report on findings from interviews with TAs on what they anticipate they would need in order to support group work, and discuss how their responses influenced the design of this tool.
Graphic design is often seen in the commercial context and is discussed through topics linked to software and technology. When we look around us we can realise that billboards, banners, posters and most of the print that surround us in the public space are delivering messages of marketing, corporations, consumerism and other commercially inclined narratives. This, however, is not the only way to comprehend the practice of a graphic designer. Graphic design can take a socio-pedagogical and historical role and distribute alternative messages in the society which are not linked to money and consumption, unless education, reading and studying are considered consumption of sorts.
It is obvious that graphic design is a powerful tool that shapes our understanding of reality. This happens through being exposed to the work. Posters are claimed to mirror societies by many theorists and most visual communication is mediated by a graphic designer. Thus, Bonsiepe stated already in 2005 in his speech Design and Democracy that there is an absence of questioning activities linked to design production. It is yet a relevant theme that research needs to approach; also in a post-colony where the printed poster is ubiquitous. A simple sheet of printed paper. A very simple but extremely complex and powerful. There lies an investigation that this paper will start. The outcome of this paper to share knowledge within the researchers about creating new meaningful pathways in understanding globally important practice of graphic design. Art and design are universally important.
Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity in adulthood and is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in China. It is necessary to develop an intervention project for preschool children. Based on a service design project aiming at the communication of balanced diet information to the preschool children in China, this paper discusses how to take advantage of the digital platform and game-based learning to empower the preschool children. It argues for the importance of the DIKW hierarchy for empowerment. It also proposes an innovative model to involve new stakeholders into the whole system and to improve the viability of the project.
It was late on a Friday evening. A great time to avoid crowds. Most people were dining and drinking, absorbing the city’s capacity for pleasure, or maybe relaxing at home. That left the supermarket to me and others whose lives are synchronized differently. But as I stumbled my way through those harshly lit corridors of obscene American consumption, I realized I was among some highly unusual company. In every aisle, there were people—people?—clad in blue uniforms with devices attached to their forearms and fingertips, cables and wires dangling, each methodically filling large specialized carts. These were not shoppers like me. They were employees of the grocery chain operating— operated by?—new software for online ordering and curbside pickup. Surely, this wasn’t such a strange scene in contemporary stores around the world. Yet, it did raise strange—radical? — possibilities: a specter of “before” for an unforeseeable and potentially unpleasant “after.” The unity of the human and the machine, not implanted but merged in the operation, made me wonder: Are they cyborgs? Incipient cyborgs? Is this still a supermarket? Or an altogether different kind of space? One in the process of becoming? But becoming what?
The image that flashed to mind was that of an Amazon fulfillment center: a million acres of non-stop conveyor belts with robots finding and retrieving machine-labeled products and filling yellow bins under the supervision of a handful of humans. Robotic automation creating efficiency while eliminating the unpredictable and unproductive complexities of human labor and interactions. Perhaps, supermarkets are undergoing a transformation from spaces where humans browse, compare, select, and purchase to cyborg-operated warehouses. Perhaps this rapid and fundamental revision of function is an inevitable result of the increasing rate of technical reformation of everyday life.
Then again, perhaps my lucid vision of this scene as a new-reality- becoming is an example of what has been called “dystopian imagination”—an imaginary projection of “ethical and political concern” [Baccolini & Moylan, 2]. Or maybe it’s only a personal paranoia about the brave new world unfolding.
The user experience difference between China and USA elderly people in using public space was discussed in this paper based on the questionnaire process. 1960 elderly people were selected from the four cities in Shanghai (China), Wuxi (China), New York City (USA), Cincinnati (USA) to complete the questionnaire, and the result shows the similarities and differences between the elderly people in China and USA. That is: The using frequency of the public space for the former is much higher than the later; the main purpose of the former in public space is sports and fitness, and relaxation is the chief choice of the later; weather condition and easy communication are the key factors for former to participate in public space, while timing is that for the later; all the elderly people in the two countries are favorite on the sports and fitness, but the party chatting is the feature of the former and the sightseeing is the feature of the later; the facility requirement is the most important attributes for the former to the public space, and the interaction design is the unique demands of the later, while the former had no interests on that demands. In the end, the reason for all the similarities and differences were analyzed in this paper, and the culture, the economics, as well as the politics factors were discussed in detail.
Design oriented educational institution around the world, project based learning is well practiced in local setting as well as global setting. Communication is one of the significant aspect in this learning settings. Currently, many design projects are implemented by members beyond their belonging organization, creating difficulties in face to face communication, especially when members are in different countries. This study proposes a new method for project-based learning in design education program implemented on international design workshop and discuss about outcome through empirical program.
This method is composed in three phases. First phase is online pre-workshop session using SLACK, where each member do their own researching and surveying on the specific topic related to the project, share and discuss them with other members. The second phase is face to face workshop, which all members gather in one place to work on the project intensively to make their group design proposal. The lastly in the post workshop phase, each member get back online to make reflection on the project, feedback them on the proposal, and make improvements. Also, compile and publish a project reports on the overall program for documentation. Through out the program, SLACK platform is used for basic communication and sharing data and information. S This program are operated in an international design workshop called “Global Design Workshop” of Chiba Institute of Technology(CIT, Chiba, Japan), with students from Chiba University(CU, Chiba, Japan) and Tunghai University(THU, Taichung, Taiwan) . The theme of the workshop was “New work place, space, style using IoT technologies.
Graphic design students require a foundation in understanding, utilizing and conducting research. The discipline would benefit from standards for quantitative, qualitative, mixedmethods and practical approaches to graphic design-specific research. This paper examines the role of graphic design research in college-level graphic design pedagogy. This study is motivated by two research questions:  what theoretical analysis and practical approaches to graphic design research are graphic design educators currently implementing?  How can college-level graphic design educators build a culture of research literacy in graphic design baccalaureate programs?
Literature describing the theoretical and practical instruction of graphic design research in college-level graphic design education is limited. The intention of this study is to advance the understanding of how graphic design educators define and implement graphic design research, first through qualitative analysis of a survey of four-year, graphic design degree program professors across the U.S. followed by in-depth interviews with published educators practicing research.
The study’s interviews elaborate on the specifics of graphic design research through the lenses of professors developing and implementing graphic design research in four-year undergraduate programs, in their own practices, and in the discipline-wide conversation and study of graphic design research itself. In the study’s conclusion, potential future research is discussed.
This paper studies a design workshop that investigates complex collaboration between fundamental physics and design. Our research focuses on how students create original artefacts that bridge the gap between disciplines that have very little in common. Our goal is to study the micro-evolutions of their projects. Elaborating first on Actor Network Theory (Latour, 1996; 2005) we study how students’ projects evolved over time and through a diversity of inputs and media. Throughout this longitudinal study, we use then a semiotic and pragmatic approach to observe three “aesthetical formations”: translation, composition, and stabilization. These formations suggest that the question of material agency developed in the field of archeology and cognitive science (Knappett & Malafouris, 2008) need to be considered in the design field (Renon, 2016) to explain metamorphoses from the brief to the final realizations.
Design is by nature an interdisciplinary, dynamic, and fluid discipline (Cross, 1982; Friedman, 2003). To define what design is has proved to be a very difficult—if not impossible and meaningless—exercise (Friedman, 2000), making also the understanding of the evolution of both the design discipline and practice a complex challenge. A rapidly changing technological landscape increases the breadth of design both in geographical terms and by extending to new domains, merging with different and new disciplines.
Communication Design especially, being closer to the information and the media spheres, is the most sensitive and receptive design area. Communication Design finds online a fertile ground for its growth and developments, thus the online environment and the Web especially can be explored, dug, and mapped as mirrors of that evolution. The aim of our research is to map through the Web the complexity of the intersections between design as a discipline and design as a field of practice. Our exploration and representation of the online design territory covered four online environments: Behance, Wikipedia, Google, and the websites of the top one hundred design universities. The study has been conducted by using digital, statistical, and visualization methods. This exploration seeks neither to confirm theories nor predict the future, rather, it wants to make explicit and observable what Communication Design has become today. It aims to screenshot the state of the art, the emerging paths, in order to understand where and how it is going to develop. The attempt is to make design as a complex phenomenon visible, through the construction of a set of maps and representations for professors, students, and associations. These representations are tools to trigger reflections on the discipline
This study introduces a new perspective on the design pedagogy in learning symbol design. A new experimental discipline implemented by the design methods demonstrates positive learning outcomes for students on the development of symbol study. Understanding denotative and connotative interpretation in visual literacy is essential in order to convey not only a clear message but also distinctive recognition as the nature of symbol quality. Students executed design experiments with design theories and methods for understanding design fundamentals of the denotative symbol and explored a matrix table for cultivating connotative symbols. This pedagogical strategy applied to the expansion of visual concepts with progressive experiments on each stage; 1) analyzing perceptive characteristics, 2) simplifying visual construction, 3) developing a visual concept with connotative meaning, and 4) configuring visual balance and enhanced quality based on design principles. With examples of student outcomes, this paper explains an analysis of functional expression and interpretation applied by design methods. This study discovered that earlier teaching of design fundamental disciplines with theories and methods in the graphic design major gave students better opportunities to pursue their further study more effectively and productively.
This paper explores the collaborative process of designing a physical object to support a National Science Foundation funded educational research project. Researchers involved with this project are exploring the ways in which gesture can aid in a explanations of science phenomena, particularly ones that have unseen structures and unobservable mechanisms. In order to manipulate the science simulations, a motion sensitive device captures students’ hand gestures. It can be difficult for students to know how to engage with this device, which impedes both student learning and associated research. In order to reduce usability challenges and enhance the connection between a student’s gestures and the scientific concepts presented on the simulation screen, a collaborative and iterative design process was conducted to create a designed form that would assist students in productively engaging with the simulations. The iterative development process of this project is an exemplar of how designed items can be developed to support multidisciplinary research projects, while also creating new fields of research. Future exploration of this device’s impact on student interaction and learning may bring to light how objects can change how people gesture in learning contexts, leaving a lasting imprint on their understanding and memory.
The term “community-based participatory design” (CBPD) recently emerged as a distinctive space in the Participatory Design tradition (DiSalvo, Clement & Pipek, 2013; LeDantec, 2016). This move marks a shift from treating the process of design primarily as a product development method, to one that builds social and technical capacities – or infrastructures – of individuals and communities (Björgvinsson, Ehn, & Hillgren 2010; Karasti 2014; LeDantec 2016). This paper describes participant gains from a design workshop conducted as part of a research collaboration involving a university-based research center, and four NGOs, the participatory design workshop aimed to: (1) build the capacities of young people; (2) guide young people in the creation of novel and locally relevant gender and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) solutions; and, (3) bring voices of young people into research and programmatic questions around gender and SRH in the public health domain. The workshop was conducted with 31 young people aged 15-25, over 2.5 weeks, in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The evaluation demonstrates that the workshop resulted in exposure to working in mixed-gender teams, developing problem-solving skills, and increasing SRH awareness and knowledge. The workshop produced six low-fidelity prototypes, five of which were subsequently refined and piloted by three Lucknow NGOs.
This paper engages with the literature to present different perspectives between forecasting and foresight in strategic design, while drawing insights derived from futures studies that can be applied in form of a design-inspired foresight approach for designers and interdisciplinary innovation teams increasingly called upon to help envisage preferable futures. Demonstrating this process in applied research, relevant examples are drawn from a 2016 Financial Services industry futures study to the year 2030. While the financial services industry exemplifies an ideal case for design-inspired foresight, the aims of this paper are primarily to establish the peculiarities between traditional forecasting applications and a design-inspired foresight visioning approach as strategic design activities for selecting preferable futures. Underlining the contribution of this paper is the
value of design futures thinking as a creative and divergent thought process, which has the potential to respond to the much broader organizational reforms needed to sustain in today’s rapidly evolving business environment (Buchanan, 2015; Irmak, 2005; Muratovski, 2016).
Eliciting multiple stakeholder narratives is a critical factor when designing systems, services or products. This research explores how the use of an analog tool (the picture postcard) in the digital age can be used to elicit socio-cultural stories to support design for ‘social practice’. The process combines people and things by using a participatory design approach and material culture studies to design, explore and analyze the complex nature of interactions between social ideals and the artefact.
The study emphasizes ‘slow immersion and design’ by creating prolonged interactions that allow people to sit with someone else’s perspective while also introspecting about their own. In an age of echo-chambers, the research examines the impact of reducing the risk of fragmentation (where people assign themselves into homogenous groups leading to an amplification of pre-existing views (Sunstein, 2001)) on participants’ ability to generate and sustain a healthy exchange of honest, social narratives.
The research findings reveal a deep bonding between participants and a reduction of implicit biases that initiates a broader range of discussions within a given socio-cultural topic. The space for ‘elastic interaction’ (articulation of ideas without fear of judgment; when and how they want it to be expressed) allows honest thoughts to manifest. The findings also reveal that this process slowly allows for an empathetic acceptance of another’s perspectives.
The poster illustrates the research through these various approaches: the process of slow immersion and design research with a combination of postcard exchanges, one-on-one interviews and participatory design research activities to help elicit the stories for a sociocultural co-design space.
A Design for Service (DfS) approach has been linked with impacts that significantly alter touchpoints, services and organisational culture. However, there is no model with which to assess the extent to which these impacts can be considered transformational. In the absence of such a model, the authors have reviewed literature on subjects including the transformational potential of design; characteristics of transformational design; transformational change; and organisational change. From this review, six indicators of transformational change in design projects have been identified: evidence of non-traditional transformative design objects; evidence of a new perspective; evidence of a community of advocates; evidence of design capability; evidence of new power dynamics; and evidence of new organisational standards. These indicators, along with an assessment scale, have been used to succesfully review the findings from a doctoral study exploring the impact of the DfS approach in Voluntary Community Sector (VCS) organisations. This paper presents this model as a first-step to establishing a method to helpfully gauge the extent of transformational impact in design projects.
We recognize our past—history and heritage—as crucial to who we are (Grenville, 2007; Lowenthal, 2008; Nietzsche, 1874/1980). Significant regulatory and popular effort is expended in protecting places, buildings, and behaviors that link us to this past. International governance organizations recognize free association with history as a fundamental human right (e.g., Blake, 2011). Tangible representations of the past (e.g., objects, buildings, landscapes) are preserved as reminders of this past. Given the broad agreement that connections to the past are important parts of human existence, what are the connections between individuals’ security in knowledge of their own history and measures of public health?
The literature connecting preservation and public health is neither direct nor voluminous. A search for literature revealed a gap in knowledge about ways that preservation and public health relate. While some literature demonstrates possible connections between the two fields, no identified articles argue for the connection. Two examples from the preservation literature (Appler, 2015; Kearney & Bradley, 2015) explain situations where preservation issues have affected public health concerns, but do not acknowledge public health as part of their discussion. This exploratory essay briefly outlines core principles of public health and a review of literature from the public health and preservation and heritage fields that aligns with these principles. The essay concludes targeted research into the relationship preservation-public health is needed.
The technique and philosophy of traditional crafts are relevant aspects of our culture that should be passed on to future generations. However, using traditional crafts in modern life in their original form can be a challenge. It is essential to reinterpret them in the modern context, keeping the essence of tradition. For this purpose, we conducted case studies of Koishiwara and Yame in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, where Japanese traditional crafts are still manufactured. We used Koishiwara Pottery and Yame-Fukushima Buddhist Altar manufacturing as our investigation objects, conducted studies on their historical background and performed detailed observations of manufacturing techniques and processes. Thereafter, we developed the concept of “KATA” in Japanese, generally translated as type or prototype. “KATA” has several other meanings; in this study, we subdivided the concept into three elements, namely, shape, pattern, and style. We used “KATA” to build a framework to be used as a scaffold to help analyze the techniques and background of traditional crafts and reinterpret them to design products in the modern context. Based on reinterpretations, we developed a series of prototypes of modern tableware with the essential techniques of traditional crafts to verify the usefulness of the framework.
Fundamental to design education is the creation and structure of curriculum. Neither the creation of design curriculum, nor the revaluation of existing curriculum is well documented. With no clear documentation of precedent, best practices are left open to debate. This paper and presentation will discuss the use of a survey as a research tool to assess existing curriculum at Iowa State University in the United States. This tool allowed the needs and perspectives of the program’s diverse stakeholders to be better understood. Utilizing survey methods, research revealed the convergence and divergence of stakeholders’ philosophies, theories and needs in relation to design curriculum.
Accreditation and professional licensing provide base level of guidelines for design curriculum in the United States. However, each program’s curricular structure beyond these guidelines is a complicated balance of resources, facilities, faculty, and the type of institution in which it is housed. Once established, a program’s curriculum is rarely reassessed as a whole, but instead updated with the hasty addition of classes upon an existing curricular structure. Curriculum is infrequently re-addressed, and when it is, it is typically based on the experience and opinions of a select group of faculty. This paper presents how a survey was developed to collect data to inform curricular decision- making, enabling the reduction of faculty bias and speculation in the process. Lessons learned from the development of this research tool will be shared so it might be replicated at other institutions, and be efficiently repeated periodically to ensure currency of a program’s curriculum.
Citizen science is a process in which ordinary citizens contribute to scientific research. How to create citizen science design framework to achieve better awareness, initiative and action is our research focus. This paper will explore citizen science design in the context of smart city, on the basis of activity theory and by means of digital social innovation. “Smart City” concept provides new elements including social communication, collaborative design and innovative community to citizen science. With the rapid development of science and information & communication technologies (ICTs) and with the arrival of Web 2.0, social innovation is endowed with digital factors so as to be evolved to digital social innovation (DSI) which gives various design perspectives on citizen science and also plays an important part in establishing citizen science evaluation model. In this paper, a citizen science design framework consisting of citizen science content model, design model and evaluation model is proposed by discussing related theories, models and citizen science cases. It acts as not only design lead to inspire two citizen science case practices, but also an evaluation term in the view of citizen science. The framework and models developed in this research will hopefully be leveraged and refined to support citizen science design in the future.
It is believed that secondary school students often define design problems in the design
coursework superficially due to various reasons such as lack of exposure, inexperience
and the lack of research skills. Questioning techniques have long been associated with
the development of critical thinking. Based on this context and assumption, the current
study aimed to explore the use of questioning techniques to enable pre-tertiary students
to improve their understanding of design problems by using questions to critique their
thinking and decision-making processes and in turn, generate more effective design
solutions. A qualitative approach is adopted in this study to identify the trajectories of
students during design problem identification and clarification process. Using student
design journals as a form of record for action and thoughts, they are analysed and
supplemented by hearing survey with the teacher-in-charge. From the study, the
following points can be concluded: 1) questions can be a useful tool to facilitate a
better understanding of the design problem. 2) The process of identification and
clarification of design problem is important in the development of critical thinking
skills and social-emotional skills of the students. 3) It is important that students are
given time and opportunity to find out the problems by themselves. 4) Teachers can be
important role models as students may pick up questioning techniques from teacher student discussions. 5) Departmental reviews and built-in professional development
time for weekly reviews on teaching and learning strategies are necessary for the
continual improvement D&T education.
The phenomenon of design entrepreneurship has received attention in the field of design. The trend of design entrepreneurship emerges in Taiwan and becoming a new career option for designers. Entrepreneurial activities can promote economic growth through innovation and knowledge spillovers. Studies on designer entrepreneurship are warranted because it proposes the possibility of entrepreneurial innovation, contributing to industrial and economic development. A multiple case study was employed, and seven design-led startups were selected as case study subjects to explore and conclude how these firms integrate their own profession and acquire resources to construct the value chain so as to keep the company operational and profitable. According to the results, the value chain of design-led startups is identified. The findings are further discussed to provide a better understanding of the entrepreneurial path of design-led startups in Taiwan.
Design argument and ability to recognize complex systems (Rittel & Webber, 1973) and find a way to modify them, has led other disciplines to try to understand design process and apply it to other areas of knowledge. Creative solutions and ability to innovate (Verganti, 2009) have made design a valuable resource on the contemporary economy. Nevertheless, there is still a polemic about the meaning and model of the process of academic research in the field of design (Muratovski, 2015), the ways in which design research should be conducted and the specific knowledge that is produced with the design research process.
This paper tries to recognize the prototype as a basic element of the process of design, since is connected to a specific type of knowledge and based on that; it also proposes a model of the
use of prototypes as a research tool based on four different theoretical concepts which importance in the field of design have been strongly stablished by different academic communities around the world.
This paper explores the findings of a study into the telecommunications environment in Mongolia. It was hoped that an effective self-learning resource for the prevention of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants for distribution to parents in that country could be created and evaluated using these findings. Based on a field survey conducted in Mongolia, the most effective format this resource should take was identified. A prototype was created that featured video taken from both a third-person and parent’s (first person) perspective. After further evaluation, this prototype is to undergo revisions that will be assessed in Japan and Mongolia before a final version is distributed utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT). It was found that a visual message that did not rely on written language was the most effective means of communicating the desired message. With input from nursing staff in Mongolia, the Sapporo City University School of Design and School of Nursing came to leverage their respective strengths to create an effective prototype that will be used as the basis for a resource for relaying this preventive information to the target audience.
In this project, two key elements of the development of technology, Facebook, a social media tool, and mobile phones, a portable communication/connectivity tool is brought together in an experiment that was started in 2009 as pilot and full scale since 2011 which continues to date. The objective of this research is document in real-time, how actual and possible uses of mobile phones, which has transcended from the rubber keypad versions to the smartphones of today, is extending beyond its first intentions. The idea came about on reading that people residing abroad bypass stringent laws, national and international, to transfer money to their homes in Africa through the purchase of prepaid cards and offering the ‘pre-paid’ time as ‘money equivalent’ to traders back home who then deliver real money to people in Africa. Today, there are official versions of this such as ‘Sente’ in that continent. With news and clippings appearing across the internet, through various means such as blogs, websites, newssites, etc., the author realised that all the information, news and bits about the emergence of new uses of mobile phones could be documented through a simple Facebook page. Titled ‘Unique Uses of the Mobile Phones’ the author has been collating information and news about the various ways and means by which smart phones have gone beyond their first incarnation as mobile or cell phones. As an on-going project, the author intends to harvest the data to present the findings in research papers and articles.
Typography is an important visible element of a cultural festival’s brand mark, yet is
overlooked within cultural festival research. An abundance of work has been published that
examines cultural festivals from cultural, economic, tourism, and place-making perspectives,
yet there is a shortfall in scholarly research addressing the key role typography performs to
engage audience participation through cultural festivals’ primary brand driver – the brand
mark. This paper critically considers triangulation as a constructive and effective research
framework for enquiry into typography deployed in the brand marks of cultural festivals and
provides a roadmap to further research. Offering an analysis of how and in what way
typography is being used in the brand marks for cultural festivals, this paper contributes a
discussion of appropriate research methods in the examination of this material. Triangulation
is engaged as a research technique combining the methods 1) content analysis, 2) case study
(text analysis) and 3) a semiotic analysis of typography as a framework to advantage three
perspectives on typography, capturing the complexities of the phenomenon. Through a pilot
study of 20 cultural festival brand marks from English speaking countries in 2016, the findings
show that triangulation of three methods is beneficial to uncovering a rich and nuanced
understanding of the role of typography in brand marks. Although many research methods are
available to design researchers, the authors argue that triangulation, is an appropriate method
to analyze typography used in the brand marks of cultural festivals as it allows for the
emergence of a heterogeneous understanding of the discipline.
CampusParc, the entity that manages and operates The Ohio State University’s parking assets under a long-term lease, engaged students and faculty in the university’s Department of Design to determine how its brand, services, and parking environments can contribute to a more positive parking experience in garages and surface lots–particularly for visitors to the main campus. This year-long collaboration involved multiple design-definition sessions between design faculty and a CampusParc design strategy team, an 8-week graduate/undergraduate design-led summer workshop, and a full semester Advanced Visual Communication Design Studio course. The outcomes included discovery themes, user journey maps, observation findings, problem statements, design opportunity proposals, and concept prototypes. Throughout this process, the students worked with, presented to, and received feedback from design faculty and CampusParc representatives. Students engaged stakeholders, university staff, and transient (visiting) parkers. By immersing students into a complex practice-based project, the students applied their design research and service design thinking in environmental graphics and branding. CampusParc is realizing new design opportunities, embracing proposed design themes and concepts, and shifting their role from a ‘utility’ to a ‘service’ provider. This new mindset is contributing to CampusParc’s interest in enhancing relationship building and crafting a friendly and approachable brand language that interjects a sense of delight. This paper captures this collaboration and presents the student-led design solutions as a case study that can serve as a model for future professional academic collaborations.
The authors performed a usability improvement study for a shoulder continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation device based on the usability engineering process of IEC 62366, a mandatory standard for the development of medical devices. To enhance the usability of the entire development process for a shoulder CPM device, the authors 1) performed user research to determine design requirements and 2) evaluated the usability of the device. Requirements for a shoulder CPM device were derived through rehabilitation device comparisons, functional analysis, context inquiry and observation, and interviews. The authors used expert reviews and comparison usability evaluation methods for shoulder CPM prototyping. The methods and techniques of these design researches were declared in IEC 62366, but IEC 62366 does not include any guideline in detail. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of a user interface that meets the level of usability standards required for medical devices.
The rapid development of IoT technology has accelerated the growth of smart services. Despite the proliferation of smart services, academic research is still in its early stage particularly in terms of service experience and service design. Concerning a service experience viewpoint, it is essential to consider the context and environment of smart services, namely “smart servicescape,” as this can influence users’ entire experience.
Moreover, the smart servicescape will have different characteristics due to the convergence of online and offline connected environments. With this background, this study aimed to propose a framework for the smart servicescape by identifying new dimensions that reflect the characteristics of smart services.
Accordingly, an initial analytic framework of service experience blueprint was established on the basis of the conventional servicescape and service blueprinting. Twenty movie clips on smart home services officially produced by ICT corporations were collected, were analyzed through grounded theory, and were classified according to the analytic framework. Through a series of qualitative analysis, the framework structure was improved to make it more suitable for the smart servicescape. Finally, this study proposed a framework for the smart servicescape derived from the smart home service experience blueprint. The values of this framework can be identified in two aspects: (1) by identifying new dimensions to reflect the characteristics of smart services such as Smart device, Datascape, and Connected scape; and
(2) by suggesting the structure of the service experience blueprint infused with the perspective of service experience, which consists of service encounters and the servicescape.
Lately, various kinds of intelligent products have been invented, and to play a part in the “intelligent” era, I designed an intelligent nursing bottle which can help a user when making up a bottle for a baby in middle of the night. The intelligent nursing bottle, Easybottle is a behaviour induce interaction product, which means that it motivates a user to do something with pleasure. As a mother of one year old, I learned that it is very important for a caregiver to feel satisfied in order to nurse a baby from the heart. Easybottle provides sound modality to notify the caregiver how much water she should pour when mixing powdered formula with water so she does not need to feel agitated to read bottle markings in middle of the night when her eyes are not fully awake.
The methodology that I applied is metaphor. As metaphors, I chose two different sounds to compare; sound of water pouring and sound of a car’s proximity sensor. The main goal was to define more useful interface for Easybottle.
I conducted quantitative within-participants experiment. This study explored whether lifelike sound works better or artificial sound works better as an indication interface. Participants evaluated the water pouring sound interface more positively than a car’s proximity sensor sound interface. Lifelike and hedonic factor appeared to be attractive to the participants and it implies that even though Easybottle is an electronic product, participants appreciate more when it reminds them of nature. Also, entertainment factor is important when doing a chore.
The deterioration of linguistic abilities is a natural phenomenon along with aging. Therefore, various assessment tools have been developed to measure linguistic abilities of seniors and diagnose degenerative diseases such as dementia. Although most of the tools are composed of images, there are not many studies focusing on the visual design, which could significantly affect performance of the subject. In this regard, this research aims to suggest a design guideline for linguistic ability assessment tools concerning the key characteristics of the elderly, focusing on visual contents and interface.
Existing related researches were mostly conducted in English-speaking countries. In order to assess the language processing abilities of Korean-speaking elders more accurately, it is necessary to develop language processing assessment tools that reflect the unique linguistic features and structure of the Korean language. Regarding the existing tools, there is a lack of research on aging, focusing
on ‘verb naming.
In the literature review section, the paper investigated the physical, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the elderly and extracted the key elements to consider when designing for the elderly. Also, design principles were found based on case studies and problem analysis of the existing assessment tools for language processing abilities. Lastly, we created a prototype model using ‘verb naming.’ Using the model, we have conducted an experiment and comparative analysis between different age groups to verify the validity of contents.
In conclusion, we provided a design guideline for visual contents and interface of linguistic assessment tools, focusing on elderly users.