This is part one of a mini-series attempting to grapple with US grand strategy and the potential need for its re-assessment. The goal of this series is to introduce readers to grand strategy, ideally prompting more to grapple with US grand strategy and grand strategy more broadly. The author is fleshing out their own ideas, so don’t take the work as gospel, but rather as a starting point for your own journey.
In part one, an overview of the current state of US grand strategy is given. In part two, grand strategy is defined as a concept, a more detailed argument for the need of reassessment is put forth, and resources on grand strategy are listed for interested readers. In part three, four typologies of US grand strategic thought are summarized and contrasted with what US grand strategy has arguably been since the end of WWII. In part four, some general thoughts on the means and ends of reassessing US grand strategy will be described. Additional articles on grand strategy may appear over time.
In the 1960"s and 1970', when most of these unfinished essays were written, I was a free thinking architecture student who perceived a fundamental disconnect within diverse institutions, including Architecture and Education and Money - Banking. I had an intuitive feeling that architecture is more than a visual aesthetic, rather a holistic social experience. The everyday objects with which we interact are an integral part of our social disposition and social wellbeing. The attempt is to develop a method for understanding some previously largely ignored aspects of environmental design – the role of Common Objects as a communication facilitator.- Eric M. Lee
This paper presents a prime aspect of Augmented and Virtual Reality development in the field of healthcare. We explored several recent works and articles and a comparison between generic application development and immersive technology-based application is included. The paper talks about more practical approaches that can be taken to enhance the effectiveness of the application.
The resources (infrastructure) to complete this study are provided by the University of Cincinnati’s Center for Simulation and Virtual Environment Research (UCSIM). And several experiments and projects in the field of health care are used as a reference to make conclusions.
The UK has created one of the best tools for mitigating Huawei’s risks. Whether or not the UK Huawei ban stands, its Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre should receive increased funding and support to protect and enhance its interests at home and abroad.
This analytical paper asks, does the One-China policy shape the People’s Republic of China’s foreign policy? This paper begins by briefly defining the One-China policy and situating it in the respective histories of China and its current incarnation as the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Then, after untangling the often muddled classifications of soft, sharp, and hard power, the question is interrogated in the context of each class of power (Nye, 2004; Nye, 2011; Nye, 2018; Raby, 2019; Walker & Ludwig, 2017). This analytical essay concludes that the PRC does employ predominantly sharp and hard power strategies that are heavily influenced by the One-China policy.
Shortly after the comparative analysis of Codding et al. was published, I prepared a comment on the article that I submitted for publication. In response to feedback from the editors, I eventually revised the manuscript substantially. That revised version has now been published. In this paper, I share the original submission of the comment, which focuses on important considerations for future studies of risk-‐ sensitive foraging. Meanwhile, Codding and his colleagues have published a response to my comment. They exhibit some confusion about my position, which they describe as “paradoxical.” In a reply to their response, I have therefore added some clarifying remarks at the end of this paper
This is an ongoing research project focused on creating a framework for capturing various artifacts concerning Internet of Things devices. Research has shown a severe lack of frameworks focusing on collecting data from and about IoT devices. Mozilla’s WebThings Gateway focuses on collecting this information from the devices. This project expects to find methods of IoT data collection through a proposed test-bed utilizing the WebThings Gateway.
With the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among young adult populations, adaptive and innovative treatment options
must be considered for the future. While there are various approaches to mental health treatment, art therapy is one traditional
method that has been used to treat the symptoms of mental health disorders across various health contexts and populations. Some art
therapists have even integrated information and communication technologies (ICTs) into their practices. With these factors in mind
and considering the prominence of ICTs use among student populations, this study seeks to understand how the immersion and
presence afforded by one such technology, virtual reality (VR), can impact the outcomes of art therapy practices. Through the use of
an arts-based VR application, Tilt Brush, this study compares traditional art therapy methods as they are employed in and outside of
VR. Through the comparison of self-reported measures, we can better understand the possibilities and effectiveness of art therapy
practices delivered via Tilt Brush VR.
Signature-based intrusion detection methods report high accuracy with a low false alarm rate. However, they do not perform well when faced with new or emerging threats. This work focuses on anomaly-based data driven methods to identify potential zero-day-attacks using a specific class of neural networks known as the autoencoder.
Cyberspace is one of the most complex systems ever built by humans. The utilization of cybertechnology resources are used ubiquitously by many, but sparsely understood by the majority of the users. In the past, cyberattacks were usually orchestrated in a random pattern of attack to lure unsuspecting targets. However, the cyber virtual environment is an ecosystem that provided a platform for an organized and sophisticated approach to launch an attack against a specific target group or organization by nefarious actors. In 2019, the average cost of cyber-attack in the US was about $1.6 million. This paper proposes a 3D framework to signal new threat alert before the actual occurrence of the threat on the surface web to alert cybersecurity experts and law enforcement agencies in preventive measures or means of mitigating the severity of damage caused by cyberattacks. The methodology combines information extracted from the deep web through a smart web crawler with socio-personal and technical indicators from twitter which is mapped with OTX (Open Threat Exchange). The OTX is an open-source cyber threat platform managed by security experts. The OTX endpoint security tool(OTX python SDK) will be used to identify a new type of cyber threats. The effectiveness of the framework will be tested using the machine learning algorithm precision-recall rate.
This research focuses on two fundamental aspects of hot spot policing that have been widely neglected by previous scholarly research. These aspects include the adequate concentration of crime at a smaller geographical unit to be considered a crime hot spot, and the cost-benefit implication of focusing limited police resources on such a smaller place in an effort to prevent criminal activities. Substantial limitations in call-t- service data from police departments raise concern on the purported concentration of crime at places that warrant such strategy in the first place. We will examine data from the Cincinnati Police Department and propose guidelines on adopting a threshold when designating places as crime hot spots, using time and cost-benefit analysis as key determinants.
The current rapid growth in the computer and internet development has ushered in numerous cybersecurity challenges which are constantly evolving with time. The current cybersecurity solutions are no longer optimal in tackling these emerging cyber threats and attacks. This paper proposes the creation of a cybersecurity dataset to be used for a hybrid machine learning (ML) approach of supervised and unsupervised learning for an effective intrusion detection system. The proposed model entails a five-stage process which starts at the setup of a simulated network environment of network attacks to generate a dataset which feeds into the data normalization stage and then to data dimension reduction stage using the principal component analysis as a feature extraction method after which the data of reduced dimension is clustered using the k-Means method to bring about a new data set with fewer features. This new dataset is afterward classified using the enhanced support vector machine (ESVM). The proposed model is expected to provide a high-quality dataset and an efficient intrusion detection system in terms of intrusion detection accuracy of 99.5%, short train time of 3seconds and a low false-positive rate of 0.4%.
Small office home office networks have become a target for many threat actors, hackers and cyber attackers and hence there is an urgent need to secure the network from such attackers. Most small office home office network users do not see the need to provide enough security to their networks because they assume no one is going to hack them forgetting that the biggest threat of our small home networks today comes from the outside. The challenge of misconfiguration of routers, firewalls and default configurations in our small home networks renders the network vulnerable to attacks such as DDos , phishing attacks , virus and other network attacks hence the need to implement a detection algorithm to help identify flaws in the pattern of the small office network. It turns out that about 75% of existing approaches focused on intrusion detection in 802.11 wireless networks of a SOHO and not the entire network. These approaches do not efficiently secure the network entirely leaving the rest prone to attacks can occur with or without the internet. This paper proposes to add another layer of security to the other preventive measures in a SOHO network by designing, implementing and testing a supervised neural network algorithm to identify attacks on the small home network and also to send a notification to users to keep them informed of the activities on their network. The supervised neural network algorithm will have a dataset representing both attacks and non-attacks which will be used in the training phase. The system should be able to detect and identify the various attacks and anomalies when they occur on the network and help keep the users informed.
In a world where technology continues to vastly grow and improve, IoT devices have increasingly become more and more a part of people’s everyday lives. Although that is the case there is a need to understand how to better use these devices for threat detection. This paper presents early work to understand gaps in this regard using a review of previously used techniques to identify known threats to households. Through the use of smart home device clusters we seek to effectively reduce the amount of false alarms and create a more reliable resource for home residents.
This paper looks at the opportunities and challenges of implementing blockchain technology across the medical sector and provides a clear view which can enable blockchain for more extents. After a notable research on underlying blockchain technology which offers distributed governance, immutable audit trail, provenance of data, robustness and privacy, we contrasted blockchain innovations and identified prominent applications of it in historically decentralized healthcare sectors. As the healthcare industry faces many challenges like unauthorised data sharing, lack of data transparency, ransomware, data breaches and cyber crimes, blockchain is one of the best ways to enhance data sharing and to mitigate prominent cyber crimes. By proper designing of a decentralized and immutable blockchain network where the data is dispersed among credentialed social insurance experts guarantees that cybercriminals cannot touch single patient’s confidential data, which facilitates encryption or cryptography of personal data where no patient’s emergency data is at extreme hazard. Blockchain trust-worthy cloud is one of the most powerful and secure ways of storing high confidential data. After analysing Blockchain implementations and identifying its potential in healthcare, we conclude with several promising directions for future research.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommends that organizations perform cyber risk assessments regularly to identify security vulnerabilities and to control levels of exposure to threats. We discuss a method to customize the ranking of cyber threats based on the organization’s maturity level of implementing NIST controls and we use FAIR model’s LEF component as a measure of the severity of cyber threats. The methodology integrates NIST maturity levels to calculate the resistance strength factor and produce the LEF values for each threat. The LEF value is then used to represent the severity level of the threat to the specific organization. This hybrid risk assessment approach will help stakeholders make data-informed decisions on improving security measures and provide accurate values that represent the current security state of their organization.
Previous studies have offered a variety of explanations on the relationship between democracy and the internet. Some argue that with free access to information, knowledge sharing without any constraint, and the spread of political knowledge, the internet will help change people’s political attitudes and spread democracy. Other studies found that authoritarian regimes by censoring the internet, tracking the political activist, prosecuting the dissidents, and using the internet to spread their propaganda limit the democratization. Also, some studies explored the effects of diffusion of false news through the internet and especially via social media. However, most of these studies concentrate on regions, specific states or authoritarian regimes. No study has investigated the influence of the internet in partly free countries defined by the Freedom House. Moreover, very little is known about the effects of online censorship on the development, stagnation, or decline of democracy. To fully understand the impact of the internet and online censorship on democratization in partly free countries, we must explore these relationships in these countries. Drawing upon the International Telecommunication Union, Freedom House, and World Bank reports and using machine learning methods, this study sheds new light on the effects of the internet on democratization in partly free countries. The findings suggest that internet penetration and online censorship both have a negative impact on democracy scores and the internet’s effect on democracy scores is conditioned by online censorship. Moreover, results from random forest suggest that online censorship is the most important variable followed by governance index and education on democracy scores.
The paper focuses on exploring the social networks of technology caregivers and caregivees and also work on learning their preferred mode of information exchange. Responses from the participants of the study will throw light on the relationships between different efficacies (discussed in detail in the paper) that may have an impact on an individual’s decision. Participant’s responses are recorded through well constructed surveys that have been distributed around by word of mouth or specific social media platforms which will also prove if being a power user has any effect on the end result. The responses will be analyzed and the various efficacy constructs such as self efficacy, community collective efficacy will be kept in mind.
This study proposes enhanced oversight of smart homes by leveraging the social networks of homeowners to co-monitor for emergencies, while being mindful of privacy preserving features necessary for adoption. A pilot co-design workshop was conducted to determine features for co-monitoring. A group of four participants provided early findings and informed modifications to study design, and new insights for user behavior were emphasized. By refining the study design, we hope to better target users’ tacit knowledge in future workshops. Early findings include the users’ need for more than simply sharing access to a camera during an emergency in the home; users desired control over the microphone, the camera video stream, and the length of time. We believe this work will contribute to a broader understanding of features that better meet the needs and goals of smart device owners to enable co-monitoring.
Open Government Data (OGD) promotes transparency, innovation, and value creation that makes information gathered by the government about the city and community open to all. The City of Cincinnati Open Government Data Portal allows citizens to access local data as part of a local OGD initiative. Although these datasets are available and are used by a broad audience, little is known about how users engage with this data and the general usability of the platforms. To learn more about this audience, this study is conducted in two steps 1)- a think-aloud activity and 2)- an online survey. Through these activities, we aim to gather information about how the users are interacting with the available data and for what purpose are they interacting with different sections of the portal. After gathering relevant data from the think-aloud activity, we aim to generate a questionnaire by analyzing all the information collected in the previous event at a larger scale. Using a web-based survey shared with individuals via Qualtrics, we will explore the use of the portal to gain more insight and knowledge on user requirements and their suggestions. The endpoint of this study is to develop insights that will help us understand user expectations and how changes could benefit the portal.
Internet of Things (IoT) enabled smart homes to have made our daily lives easier, but these conveniences have also introduced security concerns. IoT devices hold security risks as well as smart home hubs and gateways. Gateways present a centralized point of communication among devices that can create a backdoor into network data for hackers but also present a detection opportunity. Intrusion detection is a common way to detect anomalies in network traffic. This paper introduces early work on an intrusion detection system (IDS) by detecting anomalies in the smart home network using Extreme Learning Machine and Artificial Immune System (AIS ELM). AIS uses the clonal Algorithm for the optimization of the input parameters, and ELM analyzes the input parameter for better convergence in detecting anomalous activity. The larger goal of this work is to apply this approach to a smart home network gateway and combined it with a push notification system that will allow the homeowner to identify any abnormalities in the smart home network and take appropriate action.
Devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) have enhanced our ability to automate functions in smart homes and increased our ability to monitor day to day activities regardless of whether we are in our home. Despite these benefits of IoT devices, it is the case that notifications about threats to our home when we are away are typically only sent to one or two people within the home. We proposed enhanced monitoring of threats by allowing temporary access to IoT devices to extended networks of homeowners in situations where primary IoT device owners are not able to address a smartphone notification quickly.
As incessant cyber-attacks on organizations increase in complexity and destructiveness with the aim
to disrupt services and steal information, proactive measures are critically needed to mitigate these
attacks, cyber security risk assessment tops the list of measures. This study provides an overview of
cybersecurity risk assessment, various types of frameworks, and the difference between qualitative
and quantitative cybersecurity risk assessments. The aim of this early research is the creation of a
hybrid system which integrates an existing cybersecurity risk assessment system based on the NIST framework into the Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) model, an analytic risk assessment model that enables true quantitative measurement. In this study, we propose a hybrid-assessment tool which will be used to describe and compare the impact of using NIST driven values
as inputs for the resistance strength to determine the Loss Event Frequent (LEF) and Annual Loss
Expectancy (ALE) of a risk scenario as opposed to using experts’ opinion as user inputs for determination of the LEF and ALE values.
A great deal of data is generated every day on social media, although this information is used for marketing purposes regularly, it has the potential to serve other purposes, such as in crisis management. This study focuses on collecting data from social media, specifically Twitter, in order to help 911 telecommunicators (floor supervisors, call takers, and dispatchers) to 1) identify Twitter users requesting assistance during a crisis, 2) identify information that may be useful to incidents that were called into 911, and 3) pass the information to the first responders (police, fire, and emergency medical services). Previous research in this area can be summarized into three stages. First, a set of information requirements has been developed that must be satisfied to dispatch first responders and meet their immediate awareness needs. Second, a coding schema has been presented to identify six types of actionable information. Finally, it proposed automated methods based on previous literature which can be used to implement these methods in the future (Kropczynski et al. 2018). This research concentration is on refining social media data by starting with finding local tweets that contain this information and recognize patterns of how it is used. Next, patterns will be used in the development of automated methods in the future. The contribution of this work is extending the coding schema of the 6Ws and put it on an action, develop an interface to view the data of social media separated by the 6Ws. It will begin with just on of the six Ws (Weapons).
Depression is a common illness that negatively affects feelings, thoughts and behaviors and can harm regular activities like sleeping. It is a leading cause of disability and many other diseases (Choudhury, et al 2013, Mathur et al, 2016, Watkins et al, 2013). According to WHO (World Health Organization) 1 statistics, more than 300 million people over the world are affected in depression and in each country at least 10% are provided treatment. Poor recognition and treatment of depression may aggravate heart failure symptoms, precipitate functional decline, disrupt social and occupational functioning, and lead to an increased risk of mortality (Cully, et al 2009). Early detection of depression is thus necessary. Unfortunately the rates of detecting and treating depression among those with medical illness are quite low (Egede, 2007). This research proposes a solution of using random forest classifier algorithm to detect and predict detection. A mobile application will be developed in order to collect user data and make prediction.
Cloud computing has been one of the major disruptive technology of this century changing the entire face of IT infrastructure across all spectrum. This has led to tremendous development, improvement and cost efficient means of securing IT infrastructures. Virtualization is the backbone driving the numerous cloud solutions and also making them marketable in the pay-as-you-use mechanism for all kind of deployment. This research is focus on improving the security and performance of cloud storage, backup and disaster recovery by evaluating the possibility of eliminating the Recovery Point Objective (RPO) and Recovery Time Objective (RTO). A live synchronization between production and Disaster Recovery (DR) sites is presented. We considered the mechanism behind Virtual Machines (VM) and hypervisor interaction with physical memory on host computers and evaluated the ability of VM to read/write directly to a unified multiple storage locations. Dependencies, requirements and guidelines for implementing this solution would also be analyzed.
Shooting crime is a serious public health problem in the US. The analysis of any historical crime data reveals that crime is non-randomly distributed in time and space. Based on this notion, hot spots policing has gained its momentum to effectively predict future crime locations. Recent studies; however, pointed out that traditional hot spots policing occasionally predict rare crimes such as homicides and shootings due to their less frequent recurring counts in a given place and time (specifically for shorter time periods such as weeks and months). Given this context, we developed a new shooting prediction system (SHOPS) to explore whether recent dynamic/mobility activity patterns of known violent individuals increase the prediction of short-term fatal and non-fatal shootings compared to the traditional hot spots policing. Findings suggest that SHOPS predicts fatal and non-fatal shooting locations more precisely by identifying fewer hotspot locations. Policy implications of the study were discussed in the conclusion section.
The principles of minimalist design are evident in much of the technology we use today. This is especially the case with mobile applications. The most successful of which attempt to minimize the amount of user input needed to provide users with the information they are seeking. Although many mobile applications use data gathered by in-system activity such as a GPS to minimize input from users—some systems require user input, such is the case with roommate matching. This study utilizes the RoomUP mobile application as a testbed to define minimal criteria that can be used to gather user input and produce a compatible roommate match. Participatory design with prospective student users is used to reduce the number of variables and provide recommendations for a minimalistic user interface. The resulting prototype is then used to verify that it meets design goals and supports a satisfactory user experience.
The healthcare industry is thriving and the abundant amount of data involved raises call for help
relating to managing and maintaining them. It becomes a hassle to keep the data in it’s required
place and to pull and retrieve whenever necessary. The search for a proper data mining technique
to enhance the process is always appreciated and encouraged. Our era is controlled by the
upcoming technologies that are fast paced and yield great results. There is always a scope for
improvement and optimization. Every individual from every generation has been an avid user of
mobile phone and its applications. Healthcare facilities have slowly begun to depend on applications and technologies associated and supported by mobile phones and other networking platforms in order to have everyone within the facility and also the patients who have ties to the facility have access to the information that they are entitled to have.
Hypervisor-based hardware virtualization- also known as the first phase of virtualization uses Virtual Machines (VM) to provide better hardware resource utilization and application isolation. A VM provides some level of portability, but still requires a full operating system (OS) with all the binaries and libraries required to run the service it hosts. Therefore, moving an application from a development to a production environment for instance is no different than moving them between two Physical Machines (PM). Container-based virtualization-sometimes known as the next phase of virtualization addresses some of these limitations by providing virtualization at the OS level. Docker is an open source engine launched in 2013 by a company called Docker, Inc. Docker is used to manage the lifecycle of containers. Using containers, it is no longer necessary to dedicate an entire VM to an application in order to provide isolation, thus saving OS license costs. In this project we plan to formulate a generic model that can be used to fine tune a container-based setup for maximum performance benefit.
A new formula has been developed that determines the passage of time. In the paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity.
Additionally, using the previous equation, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed.
Moreover, and based on all of the above, a different way of understanding mass and space is proposed. Which ultimately implies an alternative expression that relates mass and energy.
The development of complex and dependable systems like autonomous vehicles relies increasingly on the use of systems modeling language (SysML). In fact, SysML has become a de facto standard for systems engineering. With model-driven engineering, a SysML model serves as a reference for the early defect detection of the system under design: the earlier the errors are detected, the less is the cost of handling the errors. Mutation testing is a fault-based technique that has recently seen its applications to SysML behavioral models (e.g., state machine diagrams). Specifically, a system's state-transition design can be fed to a model checker where mutants are automatically generated and then killed against the desired design specifications (e.g., safety properties). In this paper, we present a novel approach based on process mining to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the SysML mutation testing based on model checking. In our approach, the mutation operators are applied directly to the state machine diagram. These mutants are then fed as traces into a process mining tool and checked according to the event logs. Our initial results indicates that the process mining approach kills more mutants faster than the model checking method.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a cognitive science to enables human to explore many intelligent ways to model our sensing and reasoning processes. Industrial AI is a systematic discipline to enable engineers to systematically develop and deploy AI algorithms with repeating and consistent successes. In this paper, the key enablers for this transformative technology along with their significant advantages are discussed. In addition, this research explains Lighthouse Factories as an emerging status applying to the top manufacturers that have implemented Industrial AI in their manufacturing ecosystem and gained significant financial benefits. It is believed that this research will work as a guideline and roadmap for researchers and industries towards the real-world implementation of Industrial AI.
There has been a lot of discussion and application of social media marketing in libraries. Not surprisingly, many libraries manage multiple social media accounts on top of traditional marketing strategies. However, not many libraries have developed a strategic digital marketing strategy that synthesizes areas such as video marketing, email marketing, search engine optimization (SEO), mobile marketing, and even outreach through traditional marketing channels. These additional digital marketing channels are equally as important as social media, yet play different roles in attracting, retaining, and engaging users. As users spend an increasing amount of time online searching, it is essential for them to identify the right library resources in a search engine, find the right event in their email and social media, and develop a sense of loyalty through valuable content generated in videos and blogs. Planning for channel overlap as well as users that a campaign may have missed is an essential part of this strategy. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the multi-channel digital marketing landscape and its application in libraries. Recommended actions are provided as well.
Traditional craft has been relegated to the margins in modern culture, being perceived as out step with technological, economic and societal progress. However, emergent research is rediscovering the nature of craft and its potential for contributing to design practice in conjunction with developments in science and technology. Through the analyses of craft and sustainability, strong connections are revealed as well as some incompatibilities. The contribution of this paper is to a) map a systemic view of craft and b) establish a theoretical understanding of the relationship between craft and a holistic understanding of sustainability. Drawing on recent research that proposes three areas of leverage for sustainability, we argue that craft, as a system of making, knowing and being, has significant potential to contribute actively and tangibly to the transitional conditions, thereby serving as an agency for sustainable transformation.
Japan has become a super-aging society, with the number of older people (over the age of 65) at a historical high both in absolute numbers (33 million) and as a proportion of the total population (26.0%). Walking is known to be associated with positive psychological improvements such as in subjective sense of wellbeing, life satisfaction, and a sense of purpose in life, as well as improvements in physical and mental function, such as arm/leg muscle strength and standing balance. In this study, we focus on information about functions for assisting walking, comparing and contrasting the information provided by existing products that support walking with the goal of clarifying issues from an information-provision viewpoint. We conducted interviews with eight older people who go for walks on a daily basis, asking about their thoughts before, during, and after walking. From 110 total comments, we obtained 30 comments relating to the action of walking. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of 11 devices and 20 applications that support walking, and from 24 functions, we focused on 20 functions relating to the action of walking. By comparing and contrasting the twin perspectives of “information items” and “information content” with visualization levels identified in the field of management, we clarified issues relating to devices and applications for supporting walking among older users, from the viewpoint of information provision.
In the field of information technology, virtual reality and simulation learning have become huge trends, not only in gaming and entertainment, but also in academic fields such as medicine. In the past, medical training has always been costly in providing tools and resources for entry-level medical students to acquire proper training. Medical training conducted in a virtual environment has not only yielded higher success rates, but has also reduced resource costs overall. However, with no standardized guidelines for conducting certain training regimens and learning skills, there are still studies that show some medical training programs do not produce the best results. This research focuses on analyzing the usage of virtual reality in current medical training programs to design a medical, virtual reality, training program. This program will revolve around entry-level medical students who will be attending the University of Cincinnati’s College of Medicine. This research proposal will not only examine previous research on the utilization of virtual reality in various types of medical training, but also discuss the potential benefits of developing this training program at UC.
How do arts-based writing endeavors catalyze generative thinking and support research development in design students’ thesis endeavors? This paper offers reflections from an industrial design masters student, a graphic design masters student, and their arts education professor in a School of Design at a Research I institution. Informed by theoretical and historical contexts of the design discipline and perspectives from composition studies and fine arts practice, we explore the potential of arts-based writing as an evocative, speculative tool and a distinctive form of reflective practice for the development of graduate design research. We suggest that arts-based writing’s iterative process, dialogic engagement, and speculative approach to knowledge-construction provide critical, reflective structures for working through uncertainties and thus are uniquely responsive to the evolving epistemologies of the transdisciplinary university. Three focal questions guide this reflection: What is arts-based writing? What role does arts-based writing play in students’ design research endeavors? How can arts-based writing practices support the growth of speculative and pragmatic design research?
Having observed that many industrial design projects are started with the wrong approach, producing loss of resources, time, and professional relationships, this article presents a set of three tools that enables a clearer view of the Fuzzy Front-end (Vogel, Cagan). The first tool helps to understand the design order (Buchanan) of the product to be developed, and to place it in the utilitarian product universe (practical and economically biased), the transitional-wholistic product universe (practical, economic, and emotionally balanced), or the emotional product universe (viscerally and symbolically biased). The second identifies a product’s global purpose composed by its practical, economic, and emotional purposes, as well as the value factors they include (practical and indicative function, usability, practical or emotional cost-benefit, visceral appeal, and symbolic meaning). The third tool involves the type of project to be undertaken (vision, new development, major enhancement, or minor enhancement). Applicable to all disciplines of design, the three tools comprise the product identity footprint, which helps inform the selection of appropriate strategies to start a project the right way. It can increase the efficiency of the product development process by providing an agreed view that can be shared with all the development team, from the project sponsor to the engineering, marketing, planning, and creative departments.
This submission reports a design-driven integrated innovation on EV mobility, EV 3.0, as a collaboration between design research institution and a small BEV company in China. The on-going project provides a novel vision and design strategies of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and mobility and has achieved a key technological performance on rapid charging of BEV. The current situation of BEV Industry and their recharging patterns show a big gap of new energy mobility. Key issues of BEV and mobility are defined by analysis of users’ need of mass market and a case study of a leading BEV. Usability of charging is identified as a bottleneck of BEV industry. Hence a new vision and scenario of rapid charging are defined, leading to respective design strategies and technological routines. With a long term investigation and iterative prototyping, an established prototype is developed and officially tested in the National Center of Supervision and Inspection on New Energy Motor Vehicle Products Quality in Shanghai. The test result indicates that the prototype has 431 km range in speed of 80km/h with only 15 minutes’ recharging, which provides a valid routine to break bottleneck of BEV industry .
Design processes are so complex that it is not easy to remember, reflect and record in detail after the actual processes are over. This paper proposes a notation to depict a design process as a whole while keeping its original complexity in terms of visual and structural aspects. The notion affords two types of structures to represent design processes, through activity units, a series of actions of the same kind, and design elements including ideas, prototypes and theories emerged, created, and applied during the design process. We use a design process of an actual design workshop as a case to derive the notation while using the online presentation tool “Prezi” as an interaction framework. We then investigated the depicted design process by re-experiencing the process as a first-person engagement using the designed notation. Prezi's animation mode allowed us designate a sequence along which viewers can experience the design process by zooming in some activity units and design elements, and its presentation mode allows us to look back the design process from the start to the end by following activity units arranged in the temporal order. Following the transitions among some design elements allows us to focus on essential objects in the design process. The depicted process illustrate that the two structures of activity units and design elements are not corresponding to but independent of each other.
Over the last two decades, constructive design research (CDR) — also known as Research through Design — has become an accepted mode of scholarly inquiry within the design research community. CDR is a broad term encompassing almost any kind of research that uses design action as a mode of inquiry. It has been described as having three distinct genres: lab, field, and showroom. The lab and field genres typically take a pragmatic stance, making things as a way of investigating what preferred futures might be. In contrast, research done following the showroom approach (more commonly known as critical design (CD), speculative design, or design fictions) offers a polemic and sometimes also a critique of the current state embodied in an artifact. Recently, we have observed a growing conflict within the design research community between pragmatic and critical researchers. To help reduce this conflict, we call for a divorce between CD and pragmatic CDR. We clarify how CDR and CD exist along a continuum. We conclude with suggestions for the design research community, about how each unique research approach can be used singly or in combination, and how they can push the boundaries of academic design research in new collaboration with different disciplines.
Understanding the user’s situation is very important in the design process. There are many ways to understand a user’s situation – a designer might observe a user’s situation or a user
might record their own situation in Human Centered Design (HCD) file. However, the latter of these methods has not been very popular mainly because of the burden it place on the users. This research proposes a new smartphone-based design support application, named “HN camera”, which can be used to record the users’ situation, without any additional burden on them. This application is based on the ‘Extended Alethic/Deontic/Temporal (ADT) model’ concept. A user or a designer can understand and record the user’s situation based on the Physical factor, the Kansei factor, and the Cultural factor using HN Camera. The application was used in visualizing and analyzing tourists’ travel as a service design. Through this, the effectiveness of the proposed application was clarified.
To limit the harm and damage caused by river flooding, signs to indicate dangerous water levels are placed along the river, particularly where there is a danger of overflow. However, the general level of awareness of such signs is low. In this study, we examined ways to efficiently convey information that people have little interest in and find difficult to understand.
Dangerous water levels are quantified and communicated using colors to indicate the degree of danger, and this information is conveyed to the public with signs on bridge piers and slopes. Various other measures are also employed, e.g., adding evacuation pictograms to signs, displaying signs separate from graduated water level indicators, and providing detailed information via the river office website. In addition to using Internet channels such as websites and Facebook, it is common to create and distribute pamphlets and other kinds of printed notifications to communicate such important information as widely as possible. Nevertheless, information that is essential in an emergency but unnecessary at ordinary times is difficult to communicate widely and effectively, even if all these measures are taken. This is because even if people accept that such information must be understood, they remain uninterested and find the information difficult to understand. To solve this problem, we created a story featuring mascot characters for each danger level. This story, presented as a picture book, overturns the conventional attitude toward such information. We thereby developed a medium for communicating important information in a way that better captures people’s interest.
The Japanese government has planned by 2020 to introduce the Finnish Neuvola System, a fundamental social childcare system that covers the period of pregnancy to child care. The purpose of this research is to clarify the conditions for high quality of Neuvola service, comparing childcare of Finland and Japan. First, the social systems of Finland and Japan, legal actions and other related social backgrounds are covered. Following this, the results are analyzed. Secondly, the results of interviews in Finland with Neuvola public health nurses and three typical Neuvola users, including a father, mother, and pregnant woman are presented. As a result of survey, six conditions were identified as the basis of Neuvola services: personal health checks, facility preparation, pleotropic care, communication through mutual dialogue, customized information and management of service provider quality. In a society where nuclear families are increasing, it is harder to care for children without someone’s support. In comparing Finnish and Japanese childcare systems, the Finnish system perceives childcare as a social matter. In the Neuvola System, people are always open to discuss about any worries or queries. In Japan, the system is closed toward personal matters and private treatment options are not adequate. This is a major factor in larger problems that exist in the Japanese system.
The results are discussed in relation to previous studies of participatory roles in social health care services in the Japanese government and users of these services, leading to the proposal of a Japanese childcare service design.
In an equally distressed and burgeoning community just outside of our major metropolitan city, there is a history of transformation efforts—from creative placemaking, to affordable housing initiatives, to economic re-development—which have all seemed to fall short in the area of community engagement.
From the creation of neighborhood festivals that have low resident turnout, to a backlash of discouraged citizens who feel unheard and uninformed, there was a need to re-consider how to involve this unique community—made up of four very distinct neighborhoods— in the imminent re-development of the area in which they live.
In the winter of 2016, our service design and creative strategy consultancy was brought in to a city-wide visionary community development project tied to our rapidly approaching bicentennial, in order to utilize service design methodologies as a way to engage communities and to design with organizations and community residents according to their needs and desires.
This short paper will highlight a case study of an ongoing collaboration between our consultancy; a non-profit organization dedicated to the growth of it’s community; a higher education institution with a legacy of community engagement; a local office of the country’s largest community development corporation focused on Creative Placemaking and community revitalization; and, most importantly, various residents and stakeholders.
The accompanying poster will visualize the process of engagement of various community stakeholders, tailored design research methods, and mechanisms for assessing short- and longterm
Intelligent Application if defined technically is a strategy that uses hyper-personalized mobile app experiences and services and knowledge-extraction processes to increases the user experience (Jessica Ekholm, 2017). In simple words, the applications that not only know how to support or enable key decisions but also continually learn from the user interactions to become even more relevant and valuable to those users, are known as Intelligent apps. Such applications are smart enough to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information with the help of AI algorithms. Moreover, these apps have the capability to ease the complex task into the as simple task as a single touch.
Industrial design education has existed for a long time as part of the university system, but the curriculum and contents of each subject vary considerably from school to school. In recent years, the introduction of new concepts that change the definition of design has blurred the boundaries of design, making the curriculum different. Establishing a standard curriculum to address these challenges is an important task, but it is necessary to fully understand how design education actually takes place and to share content with educators. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on industrial design education by fully disclosing the process and results of the first stage of industrial design education of a university by autobiographical method. The first course, Product Design Practice 1, is a studio class based on a task feedback iteration system. Students are required to submit assignments showing weekly progress. The instructor reviewed the assignments submitted before the class and gave written comments in class. In addition, details of the design process and method that are difficult to identify as novice students are learned through twelve case studies and applied to the project. This Task Feedback Repeating Class system gives students the opportunity to implement design ability while gaining detailed skills with a comprehensive view. Through this process, the researcher got a reflection on the class and implications for the improvement of the class.
Numerous studies have dealt with what kind of value narrative can have for creating a more effective design process. However, there is lack of consideration of storytelling techniques on a stage-by-stage level, where each stage of storytelling technique can draw attention to detailed content for creating use-case scenarios for design development. This research aims to identify the potential implications for design development by using storytelling techniques. For the empirical research, two types of workshops were conducted in order to select the most appropriate storytelling technique for building use-case scenarios, and to determine the relationship between the two methods. Afterwards, co-occurrence analysis was conducted to examine how each step of storytelling technique can help designers develop an enriched content of use-case scenario. Subsequently, the major findings of this research are further discussed, dealing with how each of the storytelling technique steps can help designers to incorporate important issues when building use-case scenarios for design development. These issues are: alternative and competitor’s solution which can aid designers to create better design features; status quo bias of user which can help the designer investigate the occurring reason of the issue; and finally, social/political values of user which have the potential of guiding designers to create strengthened user experience. The results of this research help designers and design researchers concentrate on crucial factors such as the alternative or competitor’s solution, the status quo bias of user, and social/political values of the user when dealing with issues of building use-case scenarios.
The purpose of this study is to plan and operate design-workshops based on project-based learning (PBL), and examine their educational value for students. The PBL workshop encour- ages direct participation from students and produces educational value, and it is important to raise the interest level of workshops to elicit proactive participation. The workshop in this study was carried out over two weeks in January 2017 at Korea’s Yonsei University. The workshop was composed of eight teams of students from three countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, and the course was primarily divided into two sessions. The workshop participants examined in this thesis were notably satised with the elements of the course meant to garner interest. In the questionnaire results, participants also indicated that they obtained ample educational value through the workshop. An important element of the workshop was to connect the participants with businesses, which is also an important component of design education. Despite this, participants expressed a relatively lower level of satisfaction com- pared to other elements of the workshop. The results and analysis of this study will hopefully become a meaningful resource for educators when designing workshops in the future.