One proactive approach to increasing student engagement in schools is implementing Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) strategies. PBIS focuses on prevention and concentrates on quality-of-life issues that include improved academic
achievement, enhanced social competence, and safe learning and teaching environments. This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting. Results show that active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing decreased student problem behavior, decreased the duration of transitions in two instructional periods, and the intervention was maintained in the setting. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Keywords: active supervision, explicit timing, Positive Behavior Intervention and Support, precorrection, urban education
The present study deals with an AFCA (Adaptive Fuzzy Control Algorithm) for an Euler-Bemoulli approximation of a two-dimensional version of a cantilever beam-like orthogonal tetrahedral space truss. Transient disturbances, modeled as a unit impulse, excite all the modes of the beam. The resulting transverse displacement at the free end of the beam and its corresponding rate are observed by sensors placed there, and active control of the beam is provided by a collocated force actuator.
A design methodology, based on fuzzy logic which assumes no a priori knowledge of plant dynamics, for the closed-loop control algorithm results in relatively quick settling times, low overshoots and dying out of vibration within a few seconds. The control algorithm is enhanced and made much faster by eliminating the need of repeatedly solving the set of differential equations of motion of an emulated dynamic vibration absorber. When the control force is turned off after a mere 15 seconds, almost all the vibrational energy is dissipated as the beam returns to its undisturbed state throughout its length. In addition, the performance of the AFCA is insensitive to varying initial conditions. To examine the robustness of the control system to changes in the temporal dynamics of the cantilever beam, the transient disturbance response to a considerably perturbed plant is simulated. The Young's modulus of the beam was raised as well as lowered by 60%, substantially perturbing the natural frequencies of vibration compared to the nominal plant. The AFCA provided similar settling times and rates of vibrational energy dissipation, satisfying the aim of plant model independence.
Lloyd C. Engelbrecht (born 1927) is Professor Emeritus of Art History at the University of Cincinnati. He is author of Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism (Cincinnati: Flying Trapeze Press, 2009). He will supply addenda and corrigenda for this book on a continuing basis.
OBJECTIVE: Damage to hair from UV exposure has been well reported in the literature and is known to be a highly complex process involving initiation via absorption of UV light followed by formation and propagation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this work was to understand these mechanisms, explain the role of copper in accelerating the formation of ROS and identify strategies to reduce the hair damage caused by these reactive species.
METHODS: The location of copper in hair was measured by Transmission electron microscopy–(TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and levels measured by ICP-OES. Protein changes were measured as total protein loss via the Lowry assay, and MALDI ToF was used to identify the biomarker protein fragments. TBARS assay was used to measure lipid peroxide formation. Sensory methods and dry combing friction were used to measure hair damage due to copper and UV exposure and to demonstrate the efficacy of N,N’ ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and histidine chelants to reduce this damage.
RESULTS: In this work, a biomarker protein fragment formed during UV exposure is identified using mass spectrometry. This fragment originates from the calcium-binding protein S100A3. Also shown is the accelerated formation of this peptide fragment in hair containing low levels of copper absorbed from hair during washing with tap water containing copper ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) studies indicate copper is located in the sulphur-poor endo-cuticle region, a region where the S100A3 protein is concentrated. A mechanism for formation of this peptide fragment is proposed in addition to the possible role of lipids in UV oxidation. A shampoo and conditioner containing chelants (EDDS in shampoo and histidine in conditioner) is shown to reduce copper uptake from tap water and reduce protein loss and formation of S100A3 protein fragment. In addition, the long-term consequences of UV oxidation and additional damage induced by copper are illustrated in a fourmonth wear study where hair was treated with a consumer relevant protocol of hair colouring treatments, UV exposure and regular shampoo and conditioning.
CONCLUSIONS: The role of copper in accelerating UV damage to hair has been demonstrated as well as the ability of chelants such as EDDS and histidine in shampoo and conditioner products to reduce this damage.
Despite the increased popularity of online tools for remote teamwork and meetings, moderated collaborative activities between multiple users in early conceptual design stages, such as brainstorming sessions, are yet not well supported. In this paper, we introduce All4One, a networked system that enables multiple remote users to participate in a moderated visual sketching session. Each participant can independently draw and share sketches using a tablet, and a moderator uses a set of tangible tools to arrange and manipulate sketches that are displayed in real-time on a whiteboard. We present our prototype in detail and the results from a workshop study simulating a brainstorming session with designers who tested the system in practice. Results show several usage patterns and the potential of All4One for use in early design stages, and the importance of the role of the moderator as the facilitator of the design process. The paper concludes by identifying weaknesses and strengths of the current system and possible directions for future work.
A formula has been developed that defines the relativity of time in a novel approach. In the present paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity. Using the previous equation, that serves as basis of the “Time Theory” proposed, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed. Which ultimately leads to an alternative understanding of mass and energy.
The purpose of this study is to plan and operate design-workshops based on project-based learning (PBL), and examine their educational value for students. The PBL workshop encour- ages direct participation from students and produces educational value, and it is important to raise the interest level of workshops to elicit proactive participation. The workshop in this study was carried out over two weeks in January 2017 at Korea’s Yonsei University. The workshop was composed of eight teams of students from three countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, and the course was primarily divided into two sessions. The workshop participants examined in this thesis were notably satised with the elements of the course meant to garner interest. In the questionnaire results, participants also indicated that they obtained ample educational value through the workshop. An important element of the workshop was to connect the participants with businesses, which is also an important component of design education. Despite this, participants expressed a relatively lower level of satisfaction com- pared to other elements of the workshop. The results and analysis of this study will hopefully become a meaningful resource for educators when designing workshops in the future.