Cincinnati's struggle for fair housing has been a long and often contested one. A handful of neighborhoods in the Queen City and its metropolitan area are now stably racially integrated and more seem likely to join that number in the near future. Yet there is much more work to be done, as the metropolitan area as a whole remains one of the most segregated in the nation.
Science teachers are often charged with providing discipline-specific literacy instruction. However, little is known about the reading and writing genres, or text types, typically found in these classrooms. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge about what opportunities adolescents have to engage with the genres privileged in science to learn the discipline's specialized ways of making meaning and communicating knowledge. This article reports on a case study of the reading and writing genres found within four middle-grade science classrooms in one small all-female school. Results suggest that although a variety of text genres were present, there was little discussion of how and why science content was presented in particular ways. Notably, students also had far more opportunities to read than write extended nonfiction. Teachers can cultivate a more reciprocal relation between reading and writing in science by using genres that students read as models for their writing.
The foreground Veil of material that lies in front of the Orion Nebula is the best studied sample of the interstellar medium because we know where it is located, how it is illuminated, and the balance of thermal and magnetic energy. In this work, we present high-resolution STIS observations toward the Trapezium, with the goal of better understanding the chemistry and geometry of the two primary Veil layers, along with ionized gas along the line of sight. The most complete characterization of the rotational/vibrational column densities of H2 in the almost purely atomic components of the Veil are presented, including updates to the Cloudy model for H2 formation on grain surfaces. The observed H2 is found to correlate almost exclusively with Component B. The observed H2, observations of CI, CI*, and CI**, and theoretical calculations using Cloudy allow us to place the tightest constraints yet on the distance, density, temperature, and other physical characteristics for each cloud component. We ﬁnd the H2 excitation spectrum observed in the Veil is incompatible with a recent study that argued that the Veil was quite close to the Trapezium. The nature of a layer of ionized gas lying between the Veil and the Trapezium is characterized through the emission and absorption lines it produces, which we ﬁnd to be the blueshifted component observed in S III and P III absorption. We deduce that, within the next 30–60 thousand years, the blueshifted ionized layer and Component B will merge, which will subsequently merge with Component A in the next one million years.
In an effort to promote an image of Allied unity on the eve of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Western Europe, a Joint Anglo-American Film Commission was established with the goal of making a series of short documentaries on the liberation of the continent. Unfortunately, despite the prior planning, the plans for a series of joint films fell victim to competing ideologies about how to showcase the allied campaign. In an effort to salvage the situation the American film maker George Stevens was brought in to make a single long documentary, highlighting the campaign from D-Day to VE-Day. The resulting film, The True Glory, won an Oscar for best documentary of 1945, but in fact was the result of a failure of Allied film propaganda policy.
Remembered today as one of the great popularizers of Jewish history, in the inter-war year the Anglo-Jewish historian Cecil Roth was unable to secure an academic appointment until 1939. As such he turned to writing popular history as a means of support, and while some academic historians discounted his work (then and now), an examination of Roth’s correspondence with individuals such Henry Hurwitz of the Intercollegiate Menorah Society, reveal that Roth worked assiduously to develop an approach to history that would be both academically sound and “useful” to those readers who wanted to understand the contours of Jewish life.
After the liberation of North Africa, in 1943, it was discovered by policy makers within the Grand Alliance that both the British and Americans were in the process of making documentary films about the Operation Torch campaign. Fearful that separate films would highlight potential dissension with the Anglo-American alliance, the director Frank Capra was dispatched to London to coordinate his U.S. Army documentary with his British counter-parts. Instead of a smooth process, the joint film project bogged down in inter-service and inter-allied rivalry’s that delayed the completion of Tunisian Victory for over a year.
Throughout much of his career the Anglo-Jewish historian Cecil Roth visited the U.S. and lectured to American Jewish students. Indeed, his first academic appointment was as a visiting professor at the Jewish Institute in Religion in New York City, and he was a regular teacher at the summer institutes of the Intercollegiate Menorah Society. Yet, he only wrote one short article (in 1963) that focused exclusively on American Jewish history, which was commissioned by Jacob Rader Marcus, the “Dean of American Jewish Historians.” An examination of Roth’s correspondence over a thirty plus year period reveals that his discussions of the nature and purpose of Jewish history was largely shaped by his relationship with American Jewry.
Martin Buber is one of the luminaries of modern Jewish thought, and yet prior to 1944 his work was little known in the Anglophone world as few of his books had been translated into English. In 1933, Buber asked Adolph Oko, the Librarian of the Hebrew Union College (H.U.C.) in Cincinnati, Ohio to help him find a publishers for his work. The correspondence about securing a publisher between Buber and Oko eventually expanded to include the theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel (then teaching at H.U.C.) and the historian Hans Kohn, a former student of Buber who was now a refugee teaching in the U.S.
The alternative education field lacks a common definition and has a major divide between the differing philosophies of alternative programs; little empirical evidence is available to identify the components necessary to create effective alternative educational programs. Tremendous growth in the availability of alternative programs in the United States over the past several decades, however, illustrates continuing demand for such programs as well as the need for research on the characteristics that constitute effective alternative programs. In this article, the authors study exemplary alternative programs in 3 racially and economically diverse communities to characterize the school climate as viewed by the students and the staff. At this relatively early stage in the field of alternative education, it is essential to examine the similarities, as well as any differences, in the social climate of highly effective alternative programs and to consider their potential relationship with student academic and behavioral success. Furthermore, it is important to recognize how these findings might be one foundation for future inquiry and research on alternative education. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
The present study aims to advance the extant research base by evaluating the implementation and effectiveness of an academic vocabulary program designed for use in mainstream middle school classrooms with high proportions of language minority learners. The quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study was conducted in 21 classes (13 treatment matched to 8 control) in seven middle schools in a large district, with 476 sixth-grade students (346 language minority learners, 130 native English speakers). Classroom observations and teacher logs indicated the 18-week program was implemented with good fidelity and that the approach contrasted sharply with the standard district English language arts (ELA) curriculum. Multilevel modeling indicated that the program resulted in significant effects on several aspects of vocabulary knowledge, including meanings of taught words (d = 0.39; p < .0001), morphological awareness (d = 0.20; p = .0003), and the word meanings as presented in expository text (d = 0.20; p = .0227). The program also yielded marginally significant, but promising effects on a depth of word knowledge measure (d = 0.15; p =0.0830) and a norm-referenced measure of reading comprehension (d = 0.15; p = .0568). No effects were found on a norm-referenced vocabulary measure. These effects were comparable for language minority learners and their native-English-speaking classmates. Data from teachers shed light on the challenges of meeting students' diverse instructional needs and the roles of curriculum and professional networks in building instructional capacity. The findings show promise in developing effective multifaceted vocabulary instruction for implementation by ELA teachers in middle school classrooms with high numbers of language minority learners.
In urban middle schools, educators find it challenging to meet the literacy needs of the many struggling readers in their classrooms, including language-minority (LM) learners and students from low-income backgrounds. One strategy for improving these students' reading comprehension is to teach essential academic vocabulary in a meaningful, engaging, and systematic way. This article describes the development and evaluation of an academic vocabulary curriculum for sixth-grade mainstream classrooms with large numbers of LM learners who struggle with comprehension. In a study conducted in 21 sixth-grade classrooms, the curriculum was found to be effective both in improving students' vocabulary and reading comprehension and in supporting teachers' learning about how to teach academic vocabulary. Seven universal learnings for all classrooms are described and illustrated with specific examples of activities, perspectives from teachers, and insights from students, drawn from the study.
Lloyd C. Engelbrecht (born 1927) is Professor Emeritus of Art History at the University of Cincinnati. He is author of Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism (Cincinnati: Flying Trapeze Press, 2009). He will supply addenda and corrigenda for this book on a continuing basis.
Lloyd C. Engelbrecht (born 1927) is Professor Emeritus of Art History at the University of Cincinnati. He is author of Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism (Cincinnati: Flying Trapeze Press, 2009), two volumes. Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism is the first comprehensive, fully documented biography of the most fully-rounded creative figure of the twentieth century.
This introductory essay was originally published in German in 2014 in the Beiheft, or supplementary volume, that accompanies the first German edition of Vision in Motion.
László Moholy-Nagy, Sehen in Bewegung, Deutsche Fassung von László Moholy-Nagys vision in motion in der Übersetzung von Herwig Engelmann [on verso of title page: “Mit einem Beiheft mit Texten von Lloyd C. Engelbrecht, Hattula Moholy-Nagy und Philipp Oswalt”]
(Leipzig: Spector Books, 2014)
László Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion, “id BOOK, INSTITUTE OF DESIGN” (Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1947)
There is good news for those who desire to live in stable racially integrated neighborhoods in Hamilton County. Starting with the 1970 Census, racial segregation declined modestly in the City of Cincinnati and to a smaller extent in suburban areas of the county. This occurred as, over the three decades from 1970 to 2000, an increasing number of communities found blacks and whites living together on the same blocks. Indeed, at the 2000 Census, about one-quarter of Hamilton County communities were racially integrated by the measures used in this study. Moreover, starting with the 1980 Census, fourteen of those communities have maintained stable racial integration. This is in sharp contrast to the results of a 1984 study that found few racially integrated neighborhoods between 1940 and 1980, and that those that did exist generally did so only as neighborhoods changed from largely white to largely black. This news is also in sharp contrast to newspaper accounts of the 2000 Census that reported that “Cincinnati” remained one of the most racially segregated cities in the country. However, many of these reports confused the City of Cincinnati with the much larger Cincinnati Primary Statistical Metropolitan Area, which ranked the 8th or 9th most segregated metropolitan area in the country depending on the study. In actuality, the City of Cincinnati ranked 67th most segregated among 245 cities with populations over 100,000.
The purpose of this study was to define and examine the IASB’s
governance network. The IASB’s governance network was bound to include 14
organisational members and 407 individual actors. I used social network
methodology to examine the professional and geographic perspectives
represented as well as the extent to which the governance network was
structurally embedded. It was found that the network forms a definable
hierarchy that exhibits qualities of structural embeddedness. Banking interests
were more embedded within the governance network than any other
professional, academic, or social group. Also, a strong Western influence was
detected. The societal benefit of this effort was to engage society in general and
accounting researchers in particular in hopes of encouraging discourse about
regulatory processes with both macro and micro consequences.
One proactive approach to increasing student engagement in schools is implementing Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) strategies. PBIS focuses on prevention and concentrates on quality-of-life issues that include improved academic
achievement, enhanced social competence, and safe learning and teaching environments. This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting. Results show that active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing decreased student problem behavior, decreased the duration of transitions in two instructional periods, and the intervention was maintained in the setting. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Keywords: active supervision, explicit timing, Positive Behavior Intervention and Support, precorrection, urban education
A sage expression, you make the road by walking, captures the nature of accompaniment in partnership development. The purpose of this action research project was to examine the partnership of a city school and an urban university as one that engaged mutual generation of knowledge from all participants. Action research, where participants are co-equals in decision-making, enhances the co-construction of knowledge and applied practice when stakeholders work to achieve more practical goals. Two high school co-instructors and a university faculty member examined what initially brought them together – a classroom instructional need. While designing and implementing an investigation of the use of class instructional time, they simultaneously conducted a self-study action research project about the dynamics of their partnership and how to improve it. Critical interviews revealed challenges to integrating research findings into practice as well as convergent benefits of partnership development that may be relevant to partnerships of all kinds.
Key Terms: Action research, collaboration, collaborative organizations, mode 2 knowledge creation, partnership development, research-practice gap