The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and General Relativity could be studied using a factor dependent on specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. This mathematical definition of mass is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter Annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and General Relativity could be studied using an expression dependent on specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical definition of mass that is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter Annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and the General Relativity could be understood as children of a common expression that uses a factor dependent on the specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical definition of mass that is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the Special Relativity and the General Relativity could be understood as children of a common expression that uses a factor dependent on the specific energy. Should such factor be used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical definition of mass that is finally compared to the equations that define Dark Matter annihilation into charged states via loop-level processes.
The time dilation formulas of both the specific relativity and the general relativity could be understood as children of a common expression that uses a factor dependent on the specific energy. Surprisingly when such factor is used to define the relativistic mass, the equation that arises is an extraordinary approximation of the mass and energy relation. An entangled mathematical perspective of both time and mass that opens up again the question of what their definition really is, and which are the factors that modify such variables.
A new formula has been developed that determines the passage of time. In the paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity.
Additionally, using the previous equation, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed.
Moreover, and based on all of the above, a different way of understanding mass and space is proposed. Which ultimately implies an alternative expression that relates mass and energy.
A formula has been developed that defines the relativity of time in a novel approach. In the present paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity. Using the previous equation, that serves as basis of the “Time Theory” proposed, an interpretation of the nature of black holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed. Which ultimately leads to an alternative understanding of mass and energy.
A formula has been developed that defines the relativity of time in a novel approach. In the present paper, this is particularized for cases of temporary dilation due to speed and gravity. Using the previous equation, that serves as basis of the theory proposed, an interpretation of the nature of Black Holes, their formation, growth, and dimension can be developed. Which ultimately leads to an alternative understanding of mass and energy.
Copyright and Digital Collections: A Data Driven Roadmap for Rights Statement SuccessThis presentation focuses on data driven research from both a survey and in person interviews to articulate a roadmap for digital collection managers to navigate copyright challenges stemming from the adoption of standardized rights statements and licenses. Barriers to implementation of the RightsStatements.org statements and Creative Commons licenses will be described, including methods to remove such objections to using the standardized rights statements. Additionally, the research will outline the workflows of institutions that have been successful in the application of RightsStatements.org statements, what barriers they met, and the methods that were used to overcome the challenges they faced.
The development of complex and dependable systems like autonomous vehicles relies increasingly on the use of systems modeling language (SysML). In fact, SysML has become a de facto standard for systems engineering. With model-driven engineering, a SysML model serves as a reference for the early defect detection of the system under design: the earlier the errors are detected, the less is the cost of handling the errors. Mutation testing is a fault-based technique that has recently seen its applications to SysML behavioral models (e.g., state machine diagrams). Specifically, a system's state-transition design can be fed to a model checker where mutants are automatically generated and then killed against the desired design specifications (e.g., safety properties). In this paper, we present a novel approach based on process mining to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the SysML mutation testing based on model checking. In our approach, the mutation operators are applied directly to the state machine diagram. These mutants are then fed as traces into a process mining tool and checked according to the event logs. Our initial results indicates that the process mining approach kills more mutants faster than the model checking method.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a cognitive science to enables human to explore many intelligent ways to model our sensing and reasoning processes. Industrial AI is a systematic discipline to enable engineers to systematically develop and deploy AI algorithms with repeating and consistent successes. In this paper, the key enablers for this transformative technology along with their significant advantages are discussed. In addition, this research explains Lighthouse Factories as an emerging status applying to the top manufacturers that have implemented Industrial AI in their manufacturing ecosystem and gained significant financial benefits. It is believed that this research will work as a guideline and roadmap for researchers and industries towards the real-world implementation of Industrial AI.
Shortly after the comparative analysis of Codding et al. was published, I prepared a comment on the article that I submitted for publication. In response to feedback from the editors, I eventually revised the manuscript substantially. That revised version has now been published. In this paper, I share the original submission of the comment, which focuses on important considerations for future studies of risk-‐ sensitive foraging. Meanwhile, Codding and his colleagues have published a response to my comment. They exhibit some confusion about my position, which they describe as “paradoxical.” In a reply to their response, I have therefore added some clarifying remarks at the end of this paper
This paper presents a prime aspect of Augmented and Virtual Reality development in the field of healthcare. We explored several recent works and articles and a comparison between generic application development and immersive technology-based application is included. The paper talks about more practical approaches that can be taken to enhance the effectiveness of the application.
The resources (infrastructure) to complete this study are provided by the University of Cincinnati’s Center for Simulation and Virtual Environment Research (UCSIM). And several experiments and projects in the field of health care are used as a reference to make conclusions.
Ideation flexibility is the ability to shift between a designer’s preferred and non-preferred ways of generating solutions as required by the presented task. There are many tools that exist to support ideation; however, there is a lack of research defining how to facilitate ideation flexibility and how to support designers in this process through use of such tools. In this paper, we report on the development of a new tool, the "Incremental to Radical Heuristics" (I2Rh), which may provide inspiring prompts for ideation, ranging from more incremental to more radical examples. We tested the use of this I2Rh with a small set of industrial design and architecture students and aim to report on ways in which designers with varying cognitive styles perceive and apply these heuristics and further the impact of the heuristics on the students’ problem solving processes and ideation outcomes. Preliminary results demonstrate that more innovative students found the adaptive applications of the heuristics to trigger more novel solutions, whereas the more adaptive students found that the innovative applications to be more inspiring.
Ideation is critical as it allows designers to form many diverse ideas to choose from and eventually test and validate them (Sheppard, Macatangay et al. 2009). However, in many cases, designers find it difficult to come up with many diverse ideas as a result of fixation they experience on particular ideas (Crilly 2015). Being a flexible designer means being able to move from one solution to another, in order to produce the most promising solutions for the given context. In this movement, idea generation methods play a critical role as facilitators of this movement while pushing designers to think differently (Silk, Daly et al. 2014). The focus of the proposed work is ideation flexibility (Yilmaz, Daly et al. 2014), defined as the ability to ideate in both incremental and radical ways – or, more precisely, to ideate along a continuum of thinking between the two, depending on the needs of the problem. Building on the theoretical foundation of Kirton’s adaption-innovation theory (Kirton 1976), we defined the ideation success as a designer’s ability to move between his/her preferred and nonpreferred ways of generating ideas as required in the design brief. To specifically target ideation flexibility, we took an empirically-driven and validated ideation tool, Design Heuristics (Yilmaz, Seifert et al. 2016), and modified it based on the Kirton’s adaptiveinnovative theory. This revised set, called the "Incremental to Radical Heuristics" (I2Rh), illustrates heuristics’ application both incrementally and radically to the same example design problem. I2Rh is intended to help designers execute an ideation strategy based on prompts, examples, and directions to incorporate more incremental or more radical changes to their naturally preferred ways of generating ideas, through facilitating flexible thinking. Our goal in this paper was to investigate how designers with different cognitive styles perceive and apply these revised heuristics and their impact on the students’ ideation outcomes.
There has been a lot of discussion and application of social media marketing in libraries. Not surprisingly, many libraries manage multiple social media accounts on top of traditional marketing strategies. However, not many libraries have developed a strategic digital marketing strategy that synthesizes areas such as video marketing, email marketing, search engine optimization (SEO), mobile marketing, and even outreach through traditional marketing channels. These additional digital marketing channels are equally as important as social media, yet play different roles in attracting, retaining, and engaging users. As users spend an increasing amount of time online searching, it is essential for them to identify the right library resources in a search engine, find the right event in their email and social media, and develop a sense of loyalty through valuable content generated in videos and blogs. Planning for channel overlap as well as users that a campaign may have missed is an essential part of this strategy. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the multi-channel digital marketing landscape and its application in libraries. Recommended actions are provided as well.
It is shown in present study that Rainflow method is unable to accurately estimate fatigue life ofcomponents under random loading, almost always. The inconsistencies between results of Rainflowmethod and hysteresis curve are also discussed. Alike the Peak counting method, it is shown that Shadowmethod doesn’t consider the possibility of deformation within individual cycles. Hence, Moshrefifar andAzamfar method is proposed as a novel technique having accurate results in different analytical condi-tions which are in good consistence with results obtained from hysteresis curves. Authors finally proposean algorithm as well as a C language program for this method.
Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPSs) are complex manufacturing systems which aim to integrate and synchronize machine world and manufacturing facility to the cyber computational space. However, having intensive interconnectivity and a computational platform is crucial for real-world implementation of CPPSs. In this paper, the potential impacts of blockchain technology in development and realization of real-world CPPSs are discussed. A unified three-level blockchain architecture is proposed as a guideline for researchers and industries to clearly identify the potentials of blockchain and adapt, develop, and incorporate this technology with their manufacturing developments towards Industry 4.0.
Despite the increased popularity of online tools for remote teamwork and meetings, moderated collaborative activities between multiple users in early conceptual design stages, such as brainstorming sessions, are yet not well supported. In this paper, we introduce All4One, a networked system that enables multiple remote users to participate in a moderated visual sketching session. Each participant can independently draw and share sketches using a tablet, and a moderator uses a set of tangible tools to arrange and manipulate sketches that are displayed in real-time on a whiteboard. We present our prototype in detail and the results from a workshop study simulating a brainstorming session with designers who tested the system in practice. Results show several usage patterns and the potential of All4One for use in early design stages, and the importance of the role of the moderator as the facilitator of the design process. The paper concludes by identifying weaknesses and strengths of the current system and possible directions for future work.
Solution-generation design behavior in general, and "reflection-in-action" in particular, can serve to differentiate designers, recognizing their personal reflecting when designing. In psychology, reflection is found a more robust tool to enhance task performance after feedback from a personal "device" that generates the process itself while interacting with visual representation. Differences among students' interior design processes appear in their solution-generation design behavior. A “think aloud” experiment identified solution-generation behavior profiles. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies showed how design characteristics unite, forming patterns of design behavior. A comprehensive picture of designers’ differences emerged.
The research aimed:
to identify individual design students’ solution-generation profiles based on design characteristics.
to show how reflection-in-action appearing in the profiles can serve to predict how novice designers learn and act when solving a design problem.
to enhance the uniqueness of reflection-in-action for designers as distinct from reflection in other fields.
Four distinct solution-generation profiles emerged, each showing a different type of reflective acts. Identifying reflection-in-action type can robustly predict how designers develop design solutions and help develop pedagogical concepts, strategies and tools.
Traditional craft has been relegated to the margins in modern culture, being perceived as out step with technological, economic and societal progress. However, emergent research is rediscovering the nature of craft and its potential for contributing to design practice in conjunction with developments in science and technology. Through the analyses of craft and sustainability, strong connections are revealed as well as some incompatibilities. The contribution of this paper is to a) map a systemic view of craft and b) establish a theoretical understanding of the relationship between craft and a holistic understanding of sustainability. Drawing on recent research that proposes three areas of leverage for sustainability, we argue that craft, as a system of making, knowing and being, has significant potential to contribute actively and tangibly to the transitional conditions, thereby serving as an agency for sustainable transformation.
The purpose of this research was to utilize co-design thinking to investigate and understand the experiences of veteran students entering into college at The Ohio State University (OSU) after military service, and to assist the university in improving those transition experiences. The research significance is that an increasing number of post 9/11 era veterans are utilizing the educational benefits earned through their service. Many of these service members have spent years inside a military culture, which has inadequately prepared them for a transition to the civilian and academic environments.
It has been found that veteran students often self-segregate due to age differences, and their experiences gained through military service. Additionally, while OSU’s Office of Military and Veteran Services (OMVS) has been doing incredible things to help veteran students transition away from the military and into OSU, many of their practices tend to promote self-segregation rather than integration.
Although it is not true across the entire population of veteran students, the research conducted showed that many sought opportunities for improved social integration programs. Opportunities lie in finding a balance between the culture that veteran students share, and integration into the civilian culture they are now part of. Additionally, veteran students could benefit from additional support in regards to academics and logistics when navigating through OSU.
The study conducted was comprised of preliminary interviews with a director of the OMVS, an initial survey, four co-design sessions with volunteer veteran students, and an evaluative survey to gain deeper insight into the possible new service concepts generated during the co-design sessions. Based on the research results, proposed new services and improvements to existing ones were presented to OSU’s OMVS.
Japan has become a super-aging society, with the number of older people (over the age of 65) at a historical high both in absolute numbers (33 million) and as a proportion of the total population (26.0%). Walking is known to be associated with positive psychological improvements such as in subjective sense of wellbeing, life satisfaction, and a sense of purpose in life, as well as improvements in physical and mental function, such as arm/leg muscle strength and standing balance. In this study, we focus on information about functions for assisting walking, comparing and contrasting the information provided by existing products that support walking with the goal of clarifying issues from an information-provision viewpoint. We conducted interviews with eight older people who go for walks on a daily basis, asking about their thoughts before, during, and after walking. From 110 total comments, we obtained 30 comments relating to the action of walking. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of 11 devices and 20 applications that support walking, and from 24 functions, we focused on 20 functions relating to the action of walking. By comparing and contrasting the twin perspectives of “information items” and “information content” with visualization levels identified in the field of management, we clarified issues relating to devices and applications for supporting walking among older users, from the viewpoint of information provision.
This paper demonstrates how Goffman’s frame analysis is applied in a research on designers’ experience with Cloud based digital tools. At the base of Goffman’s structure is the ‘primary frame’ - in this case designers’ experience with computer based digital tools. These tools’ transition to the Cloud initiated by businesses are called ‘fabrications’. Goffman’s ‘structural issues in fabrication’ such as ‘retransformations’ and the ‘nature of recontainment’ are also discussed through contemporary examples. These fabrications are used or ‘keyed’ by ‘active agents’ from various design fields. The data collected showed different levels of understanding of Cloud technology and the application of various tools in everyday design practices. Thus, the interviewees were clustered into three groups - designers, developers and artists. Their experiences form the creative, technology and experimental frame derived from keying of the primary frame. Design researchers can selectively borrow elements from frame analysis’ complex structure to build an effective user experience narrative.
Case studies are discussed, from Northumbria University’s practice-led Centre for Design Research (CfDR) that demonstrate how visualising concepts and designs through digital animation can enable effective communication of ideas and interactions, which in turn enables creative leaps in thinking, understanding and decision-making. Animation is a tool that can unlock the comprehension into what is and what could be. This paper reflects on a number of collaborative projects between the CfDR and several scientific communities, demonstrating and focusing in particular on the process of visualisation, designing digital animations to communicate complex processes, ideas and interactions. An approach and understanding has been developed about how to effectively communicate potentially complex, scientific and technical concepts for the benefit of the client and the end user, in particular the lay audience whose knowledge of the subject may be limited or non-existing.
Findings indicate that the process of constructing simple digital animated stories becomes a learning process for both designer and client. Critical discussions during collaborative meetings develop shared understandings: helping clients to think more creatively about communication (appreciating the benefits of manipulating a truth to position to waylay contextual confusion), and making implicit knowledge belonging to the client explicit to the designer. It is important to state that this negotiation is more effective when the designer is a layperson with respect to the complex implicit knowledge of the client. During these collaborative conditions the untangling of complex ideas have achieve the a-ha moments in the animations’ audiences.
In the field of information technology, virtual reality and simulation learning have become huge trends, not only in gaming and entertainment, but also in academic fields such as medicine. In the past, medical training has always been costly in providing tools and resources for entry-level medical students to acquire proper training. Medical training conducted in a virtual environment has not only yielded higher success rates, but has also reduced resource costs overall. However, with no standardized guidelines for conducting certain training regimens and learning skills, there are still studies that show some medical training programs do not produce the best results. This research focuses on analyzing the usage of virtual reality in current medical training programs to design a medical, virtual reality, training program. This program will revolve around entry-level medical students who will be attending the University of Cincinnati’s College of Medicine. This research proposal will not only examine previous research on the utilization of virtual reality in various types of medical training, but also discuss the potential benefits of developing this training program at UC.
How do arts-based writing endeavors catalyze generative thinking and support research development in design students’ thesis endeavors? This paper offers reflections from an industrial design masters student, a graphic design masters student, and their arts education professor in a School of Design at a Research I institution. Informed by theoretical and historical contexts of the design discipline and perspectives from composition studies and fine arts practice, we explore the potential of arts-based writing as an evocative, speculative tool and a distinctive form of reflective practice for the development of graduate design research. We suggest that arts-based writing’s iterative process, dialogic engagement, and speculative approach to knowledge-construction provide critical, reflective structures for working through uncertainties and thus are uniquely responsive to the evolving epistemologies of the transdisciplinary university. Three focal questions guide this reflection: What is arts-based writing? What role does arts-based writing play in students’ design research endeavors? How can arts-based writing practices support the growth of speculative and pragmatic design research?
Having observed that many industrial design projects are started with the wrong approach, producing loss of resources, time, and professional relationships, this article presents a set of three tools that enables a clearer view of the Fuzzy Front-end (Vogel, Cagan). The first tool helps to understand the design order (Buchanan) of the product to be developed, and to place it in the utilitarian product universe (practical and economically biased), the transitional-wholistic product universe (practical, economic, and emotionally balanced), or the emotional product universe (viscerally and symbolically biased). The second identifies a product’s global purpose composed by its practical, economic, and emotional purposes, as well as the value factors they include (practical and indicative function, usability, practical or emotional cost-benefit, visceral appeal, and symbolic meaning). The third tool involves the type of project to be undertaken (vision, new development, major enhancement, or minor enhancement). Applicable to all disciplines of design, the three tools comprise the product identity footprint, which helps inform the selection of appropriate strategies to start a project the right way. It can increase the efficiency of the product development process by providing an agreed view that can be shared with all the development team, from the project sponsor to the engineering, marketing, planning, and creative departments.
This submission reports a design-driven integrated innovation on EV mobility, EV 3.0, as a collaboration between design research institution and a small BEV company in China. The on-going project provides a novel vision and design strategies of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and mobility and has achieved a key technological performance on rapid charging of BEV. The current situation of BEV Industry and their recharging patterns show a big gap of new energy mobility. Key issues of BEV and mobility are defined by analysis of users’ need of mass market and a case study of a leading BEV. Usability of charging is identified as a bottleneck of BEV industry. Hence a new vision and scenario of rapid charging are defined, leading to respective design strategies and technological routines. With a long term investigation and iterative prototyping, an established prototype is developed and officially tested in the National Center of Supervision and Inspection on New Energy Motor Vehicle Products Quality in Shanghai. The test result indicates that the prototype has 431 km range in speed of 80km/h with only 15 minutes’ recharging, which provides a valid routine to break bottleneck of BEV industry .
High-stakes testing that became the norm after the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 helped condition students to strive for correct answers for clear problems, all on the first try. However, the iterative process inherent in designing requires risk-taking to conduct a trial-and-error process of defining problems and exploring possible solutions. This design research project was operated with Miami University Graphic Design students to test their willingness to take risks in their coursework to achieve their self-defined measures of success. Students identified that improving their skills was how they defined success. An interaction design assignment involving front-end coding was modified to test students’ comfort taking risks to grow their skills. Most students took risks in the assignment to grow their interaction design skills. The project revealed that closer attention to student motivation when developing learning experiences could help students make the transition to practicing design as an iterative process fraught with risk.
Traditional Industrial Design sponsored studios (when a corporation partners with a student design studio) can quickly become design for hire studios which limit student learning outcomes as well as successful outcomes for the Sponsor. In assessing instruction practices in sponsored studios, traditionally success is limited to products moving directly into production. By reframing the studio into an incubator and in-line studio setting students could work in the same fashion as an in-house design studio, with mass diminutive ideation focusing on performance initially rather than aesthetics causing an increased standard for success. Because students would be concentrating on editing down a mass amount of variables with swift precision using raw but effective mockups, time would not be wasted on improving the craft of an initial, potentially ill- developed concept, leading to more risk projects with market disrupting potential rather than just an aesthetic or materials update going into production.
In a multi-disciplinary studio setting students from Industrial Design, Apparel Merchandising and Design, and Kinesiology, partnered with a corporate sponsored studio instructed in the framework premised above. The outcomes were a success with the studio functioning beyond a studio for hire scenario to learning objectives being met as well as aspects of projects moving forward into to development and projects moving directly into production as well as applications for patents. This paper investigates how studio culture can be reframed to create a diverse range of success as well as what specific instruction techniques, making techniques, and studio culture lead to this success.
Cincinnati's struggle for fair housing has been a long and often contested one. A handful of neighborhoods in the Queen City and its metropolitan area are now stably racially integrated and more seem likely to join that number in the near future. Yet there is much more work to be done, as the metropolitan area as a whole remains one of the most segregated in the nation.
Design processes are so complex that it is not easy to remember, reflect and record in detail after the actual processes are over. This paper proposes a notation to depict a design process as a whole while keeping its original complexity in terms of visual and structural aspects. The notion affords two types of structures to represent design processes, through activity units, a series of actions of the same kind, and design elements including ideas, prototypes and theories emerged, created, and applied during the design process. We use a design process of an actual design workshop as a case to derive the notation while using the online presentation tool “Prezi” as an interaction framework. We then investigated the depicted design process by re-experiencing the process as a first-person engagement using the designed notation. Prezi's animation mode allowed us designate a sequence along which viewers can experience the design process by zooming in some activity units and design elements, and its presentation mode allows us to look back the design process from the start to the end by following activity units arranged in the temporal order. Following the transitions among some design elements allows us to focus on essential objects in the design process. The depicted process illustrate that the two structures of activity units and design elements are not corresponding to but independent of each other.
Over the last two decades, constructive design research (CDR) — also known as Research through Design — has become an accepted mode of scholarly inquiry within the design research community. CDR is a broad term encompassing almost any kind of research that uses design action as a mode of inquiry. It has been described as having three distinct genres: lab, field, and showroom. The lab and field genres typically take a pragmatic stance, making things as a way of investigating what preferred futures might be. In contrast, research done following the showroom approach (more commonly known as critical design (CD), speculative design, or design fictions) offers a polemic and sometimes also a critique of the current state embodied in an artifact. Recently, we have observed a growing conflict within the design research community between pragmatic and critical researchers. To help reduce this conflict, we call for a divorce between CD and pragmatic CDR. We clarify how CDR and CD exist along a continuum. We conclude with suggestions for the design research community, about how each unique research approach can be used singly or in combination, and how they can push the boundaries of academic design research in new collaboration with different disciplines.
We developed an art program that connects rehabilitation exercises with the creation of art. The quality and level of rehabilitation exercise achieved in the outcome of the resulting artwork is reflected as feedback to encourage patients to perform their rehabilitation exercises. The art program is called “Let’s stand up and draw art in the sky!” and utilizes a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display device to create a landscape image in the device’s display area, through the movements of sitting down and standing up. To replicate the rehabilitation movement of standing then sitting on a chair, a squat exercise experiment was conducted with and without the art program, using university student subjects, and the results were compared between the two trials. When the subjects used the program they reported a significant increase in the "Level of Vitality" and the "Level of Pleasure", compared to when they performed the exercises without the art program.
Since the 1800’s, England became an industrialised country and experienced extensive urban growth, so sales associates chose this location to establish large stores. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the aim was to create the stores to entice customers through space, impressive architecture, interior design and the elegant display of merchandise. At the same time, the display techniques were growing to promote sales. Therefore, more retail equipment manufactured and supplied for displaying products in the stores. This significant variation led the retail industry as that goods could be touched by the customers and they were not accessible only through retail assistant anymore (Whitaker, 2011). Since then due to this new differentiation, retailers have been experiencing a significant change in their customer’s behaviour. Now the retailers are trying to give a brilliant shopping experience to their customers with more reason to increase the sale (Ebster, Garaus 2011). However, there are some restrictions to this strategy that afford excellent opportunities for shoplifters and opportunist criminals. Store design can be a fantastic and efficient tool to increase sales. Also, it could significantly increase the chance of retail crime. This paper examines how to minimise criminal activity in retail environments to reduce loss prevention and retail shrinkage by raising awareness through design thinking. Therefore, interviews, observation and exploration were done based on the experience of employees and customers in ‘The High Street Retailer’. The research project outcome included as over, a creative retail crime learning package and a digital platform to raise awareness and improve communication.
Understanding the user’s situation is very important in the design process. There are many ways to understand a user’s situation – a designer might observe a user’s situation or a user
might record their own situation in Human Centered Design (HCD) file. However, the latter of these methods has not been very popular mainly because of the burden it place on the users. This research proposes a new smartphone-based design support application, named “HN camera”, which can be used to record the users’ situation, without any additional burden on them. This application is based on the ‘Extended Alethic/Deontic/Temporal (ADT) model’ concept. A user or a designer can understand and record the user’s situation based on the Physical factor, the Kansei factor, and the Cultural factor using HN Camera. The application was used in visualizing and analyzing tourists’ travel as a service design. Through this, the effectiveness of the proposed application was clarified.
Today’s design pedagogies lack the characteristics for redressing the nature of the ‘wicked problems’ they attempt to solve, such as sustainability. We argue it is not fair for future generations to suffer the systemic effects of our unsustainable consumer culture, partly resulting from today’s design professionals’ decisions, which ensue because design is an amoral discipline lacking a systemic perspective.
To rectify design’s characteristic failings, as part of a PhD study, we report a new pedagogical architecture founded as the synthesis of the practices of design and civics, forming the relationship design-as-civics (DaC): a practical philosophy. We position DaC as a reflexive, systemic radical political praxis for every citizen, possessing the explicit teleological goal to achieve the ‘good life’ for all.
DaC takes a transdisciplinary approach. It integrates the discoveries of cognitive science and linguistics to expose how we construct our understanding of the world interpreting metaphors and frames, which we utilise to ‘aim’ DaC. Alongside shared social practice theory (SSP) and insights from developmental psychology that reveal the distinctly human capacity of “shared intentionality” engendering humankind’s willingness for cooperation and empathy for fairness. That living in a fairer society is desired by people from rival political perspectives, with egalitarian societies reporting lower environmental impact lifestyles and more willingness for transitioning towards sustainment.
Thus, it is humankind’s cooperative behaviour and aligning values that provides the foundational rationale of DaC’s SSP goal to achieve the ‘good life’ through the ongoing critical examination of its ‘aim’ of resolving ‘fairness between citizens.’
To limit the harm and damage caused by river flooding, signs to indicate dangerous water levels are placed along the river, particularly where there is a danger of overflow. However, the general level of awareness of such signs is low. In this study, we examined ways to efficiently convey information that people have little interest in and find difficult to understand.
Dangerous water levels are quantified and communicated using colors to indicate the degree of danger, and this information is conveyed to the public with signs on bridge piers and slopes. Various other measures are also employed, e.g., adding evacuation pictograms to signs, displaying signs separate from graduated water level indicators, and providing detailed information via the river office website. In addition to using Internet channels such as websites and Facebook, it is common to create and distribute pamphlets and other kinds of printed notifications to communicate such important information as widely as possible. Nevertheless, information that is essential in an emergency but unnecessary at ordinary times is difficult to communicate widely and effectively, even if all these measures are taken. This is because even if people accept that such information must be understood, they remain uninterested and find the information difficult to understand. To solve this problem, we created a story featuring mascot characters for each danger level. This story, presented as a picture book, overturns the conventional attitude toward such information. We thereby developed a medium for communicating important information in a way that better captures people’s interest.
The Japanese government has planned by 2020 to introduce the Finnish Neuvola System, a fundamental social childcare system that covers the period of pregnancy to child care. The purpose of this research is to clarify the conditions for high quality of Neuvola service, comparing childcare of Finland and Japan. First, the social systems of Finland and Japan, legal actions and other related social backgrounds are covered. Following this, the results are analyzed. Secondly, the results of interviews in Finland with Neuvola public health nurses and three typical Neuvola users, including a father, mother, and pregnant woman are presented. As a result of survey, six conditions were identified as the basis of Neuvola services: personal health checks, facility preparation, pleotropic care, communication through mutual dialogue, customized information and management of service provider quality. In a society where nuclear families are increasing, it is harder to care for children without someone’s support. In comparing Finnish and Japanese childcare systems, the Finnish system perceives childcare as a social matter. In the Neuvola System, people are always open to discuss about any worries or queries. In Japan, the system is closed toward personal matters and private treatment options are not adequate. This is a major factor in larger problems that exist in the Japanese system.
The results are discussed in relation to previous studies of participatory roles in social health care services in the Japanese government and users of these services, leading to the proposal of a Japanese childcare service design.
The ethical dimensions of basing a typeface on existing faces are unclear. Commentary about “clones” from critics and type designers alike are confused and contradictory. Few writers consider the issues systematically. Misunderstanding of copyright law and unreflective versions of moral rights claims dominate discussion. Open discussion of the models for a type design avoid claims of plagiarism and also affect the reception of the new typeface.
In an equally distressed and burgeoning community just outside of our major metropolitan city, there is a history of transformation efforts—from creative placemaking, to affordable housing initiatives, to economic re-development—which have all seemed to fall short in the area of community engagement.
From the creation of neighborhood festivals that have low resident turnout, to a backlash of discouraged citizens who feel unheard and uninformed, there was a need to re-consider how to involve this unique community—made up of four very distinct neighborhoods— in the imminent re-development of the area in which they live.
In the winter of 2016, our service design and creative strategy consultancy was brought in to a city-wide visionary community development project tied to our rapidly approaching bicentennial, in order to utilize service design methodologies as a way to engage communities and to design with organizations and community residents according to their needs and desires.
This short paper will highlight a case study of an ongoing collaboration between our consultancy; a non-profit organization dedicated to the growth of it’s community; a higher education institution with a legacy of community engagement; a local office of the country’s largest community development corporation focused on Creative Placemaking and community revitalization; and, most importantly, various residents and stakeholders.
The accompanying poster will visualize the process of engagement of various community stakeholders, tailored design research methods, and mechanisms for assessing short- and longterm
How can students at a federally-designated Hispanic-serving institution understand and express culture and diversity through art and design? In order to address this inquiry and to exemplify a method that introduces students to critical thinking in the context of design, I am presenting a case study based on the primary results of a project implemented at an introductory graphic design class, which is part of a multidisciplinary arts program. In this project, students learn basics of design research and auto ethnography in a studio setting, in order to explore heritage and culture, their context of living, family history, and personal connections with their past, present, and future. Results from this discovery stage inform brainstorming, sketching, design, and production of a book that contains multiple visual explorations on “Heritage.” Some of the most memorable and productive conversations and interactions between students took place not only during the development of the project, but at the final project presentation, which exposed their capacity to develop greater tolerance and a more empathic view of the other, to be open to reanalyze their context and personal interactions, to better evaluate the design abilities of their peers as they respond to their own individual approach to the topic, and to develop a better and safer sense of place in the classroom.
Carnegie Mellon University's School of Design partnered with Cognizant Technology Solutions on a design project for a semester-long elective course called UX Design Tools. The intent was broad in its inception: identify emergent opportunities where technology will play a significant role in people's interactions and experiences. What is the future of physical space? How are advancements in IoT, augmented reality, and telematics influencing how we experience environments?
Students were asked to anchor their problem solving in evolving human needs and to understand the role technology plays. Cognizant's human-centered development approach relies primarily on ethnographic inquiry. This evidenced through integrating their anthropologists from acquired firm Idea Couture, and associates from strategic partner ReD Associates. The interdisciplinary majors from upper-level undergraduate to graduate level students learned to use and create multi- method research approaches to identify unique opportunities.
Seven teams created future scenarios with newly developed physical product designs, digital interfaces, and new service strategies utilizing various technologies. Three case studies highlight a trio of observed emotional themes in relation to how people utilize technology to benefit their daily life or work: self-
election, introduction-exchange, and co-dependency.
This poster presentation will showcase three projects that will serve as examples of how industry and academia act as research and development entities; how to approach research as a
fundamental tenet for innovation and design; and show how breadth and depth of interdisciplinary skills and experience is a necessity in an ever expanding climate of technology push.
Intelligent Application if defined technically is a strategy that uses hyper-personalized mobile app experiences and services and knowledge-extraction processes to increases the user experience (Jessica Ekholm, 2017). In simple words, the applications that not only know how to support or enable key decisions but also continually learn from the user interactions to become even more relevant and valuable to those users, are known as Intelligent apps. Such applications are smart enough to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information with the help of AI algorithms. Moreover, these apps have the capability to ease the complex task into the as simple task as a single touch.
This study suggests that student reflection on academic and industry collaborative projects can enhance student’s understanding on the design process to solve live industry problems. It contributes to the body of design literature to support students learning of explicit and implicit knowledge (Boling et al., 2016; Land et al., 2016; Salama, 2015). A 2017 learning- by-making (LBM) unit in the School of Architecture and Design, at the University of Tasmania, Australia, developed a unit for students to collaborate with Neville Smith Forest Products Pty. Ltd. (NSFP). NSFP is a local Tasmanian timber product manufacturer who currently stockpiles out-of-grade timber that has limited market applications. Undergraduate design students from second and third year Furniture, Interior and Architecture degrees collaborated with NSFP to value-add to their out-of-grade resource in the LBM unit. A series of design challenges, observations of industry practice and access to out-of-grade timber from NSFP exposed students to live industry problems and provided them the opportunity to build professional design skills. Students reflected on the collaborative LBM unit in a reflection journal, which was used to provide evidence of their learning experiences. The collaborative environment between academia and industry allowed students to acquire an understanding of timber product manufacturing that helped them develop empathy towards the industry problem and influence the development of new products. This study presents how student reflections influenced a change in their design process as they progressed through sequential design challenges to address an industry problem by adopting Valkenburg and Dorst (1998) reflective learning framework.