Ninth edition/printing (no year) of the 1867 copyrighted text. Day is credited as the author of Logic, Rhetoric, and Rhetorical Praxis. The book is based on Day's rhetoric that argues thought (and forms of thought) is the starting point for teaching rhetoric, composition, and grammar rather than style and form of language. Emphasis is put on teaching methods of thought and study with accompanying exercises. Definitions and principles are here given in their simplest forms. Introductory exercises cover parts of speech, such as sentences, clauses, and words. The next section, the Art of Composition, is divided into simple objects, principal elements fo the sentence, modifying elements, abnormal forms, construction, analysis, symbolism of thought, and explanation. Oral and written exercises are included throughout, including exercises in correction. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1864 printing of the 1864 copyrighted text. The preface states the methods of the text are the result of eight years of classroom experience and testing. The text is written as a teaching guide with advice on lessons and providing feedback to encourage composition in younger students. The text's method is to introduce composition through the presentation of various forms of writing rather than simplified rhetorical principles. These forms include letters (epistles), diary writing, news items, advertisements, and extempore writing. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1870 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Brooklyn, NY and has a Doctor of Laws in English (LL. D.). The prefaces says the work has three parts. The first part covers sentence structure with familiar examples and makes references to Bullions's grammar. The second part gives selections for analysis and parsing. The third part gives practical methods in composition (as opposed to "tiresome exercises" or the laws of rhetoric). The Schultz Archive's copy only contains part III: Composition, which contains: framing sentences, copying, dictations exercises, reproduction, impromptu composition, paraphrase, variety of expression, criticism, the essay, letter writing, style, choice of words (perspicuity, purity, propriety, and precision), structure of sentences, and figurative language.
No printing date given. 1886 copyright. The author is credited as Reverend Charles Coppens, Society of Jesus, and author of The Art of Oratorical Composition. A textbook on rhetoric and poetry. Book I: Elements of Composition covers object-lessons, words, sentences, combination and punctuation of sentences. Book II covers ornamentation, such as tropes and figures. Book III covers style in literary composition. Book IV covers genres of prose: imitation, epistles, narration, description, essays, dialogues, novels, history. Book V covers versification. Book IV covers nature and varieties of poetry. Illustrative examples and exercises appear throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy only has the first 251 pages of the text, which covers Book I thru IV.
1859 printing of 1859 copyrighted work. The author is credited as Professor of English Literature in the University of Pennsylvania, Late Principal-Assistant Professor of "Ethics and English Studies" in the United States Military Academy at West Point. A textbook designed to be a complete overview of rhetoric, putting an emphasis the application of rhetorical philosophy to the practice of writing. The author credits the influence of Whately, Campbell, and Aristotle. The text discusses the history of rhetoric, Campbell's four divisions, the relations of rhetoric to aesthetics, division of poetry, oratorical discourses, other genres (history, biography, fiction, epistles), invention, argument, persuasion, arrangement, style, and qualities of style. The author uses illustrative examples from the bible and from modern English and American writers. The Schultz Archive's copy is the complete text.
No printing information given. 1901 copyright. Copeland is credited as Lecturer on English Literature and Rideout is credit as instructor in English. An impersonal overview of the freshmen composition course at Harvard, breaking down the semester chapter by chapter. It discusses how the courses are structured, how papers are graded, how feedback generally appears on these papers, and how students generally perform throughout the course. The book ends with a collection of sample essays. The Schultz Archive's copy is the entire text.
The thirteenth edition corrected and much improved, printed in 1823, copyrighted in 1821. No information on the author is given. The preface says the work has been abridged and arranged the definitions and rules (to be committed to memory) so as not to overburden the pupil. Repetition and parsing exercises are used to aid the teaching. Exercises in correcting false syntax are also used. The work is sectioned orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. Corrections for the false syntax exercises are included in the appendix. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1852 printing of the 1852 copyrighted text. Reverend W. Colegrove is credited as principal of Burton Academy and member of the board of school examiners for Geauga County. A grammar handbook following six principles: 1) Brevity, conciseness, and accuracy; 2) Simplicity in classification; 3) Perspicuity in the arrangement and adaptedness to the purposes of class recitations; 4) Freedom from superfluities; 5) Comprehensiveness in the plan; 6) Originality in design and execution of the work. The introduction says that composition should be kept separate from the teaching of grammar. Analysis, or syntactical parsing, is viewed as helpful for mental discipline and has a prominent place in the work. Authors credited for influence are Webster, Mandeville, Green, Wells, Chapin, and Whateley. The work follows the orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody divisions for its organization. The appendices includes short excerpts by respected authors for parsing exercises. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
No printing or copyright year are on this copy (the dedication is dated 1820), but a handwritten note dates it to 1901 (it was long out of print, according to the preface). No information on Cobbett is given, but in the incomplete editor's preface states that Cobbett was the first to demonstrate how to write for young people and in a manner that plain people can understand (in a conversational style). The editor goes on to say that grammar should not be taught out of books, but rather by the teacher himself. This book is meant for those who are learning without a teacher, or it is for children of at least twelve. The editor says Cobbett is addressing boys fourteen and fifteen years old. The text is a written as a series of letters (epistles) and covers orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. Including are examples of false grammar, errors, and nonsense. The six additional lessons for statesmen are dated 1822. The Schultz Archive copy is missing some pages at the beginning which cut into the preface, but otherwise the entire text is complete.
1899 printing of 1899 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of Beginners' Readers I, II, III and Vivid Scenes in American History. The text is a teacher's manual to accompany Letters From Queer Folk, a composition book aimed at enhancing student learning by drafting correspondence with imagined people. The text covers various genres of writing such as business, social, telegrams, advertisements, receipts. It addresses particular skills such as paragraphing, vocabulary, punctuation, and arrangement. The Schultz Archive copy is the entire text.
1868 printing (40th edition, revised) of the 1864 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the Principal of Cortland Academy and author of three other books on grammar and the English language. Rather than begin with the usual brief section on orthography, the text's first part touches on words, phrases and sentences. Part two is etymology, part three is syntax, and part four is prosody. The author uses circular charts to aid students with learning grammar. Sentences are diagrammed to separate their elements. Examples, exercises and review questions are implemented throughout. There are many exercises in analysis. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes the first 67 pages of the text, which runs through all of part one and ends on the first page of part two.
1916 printing of 1902 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Principal of the High School Department of the Ethical Culture Schools, New York. An examination of the practices and assignments common in elementary and high school. According to Chubb, the purpose of the text is to provide instructors with some notion of what is being taught most commonly for the various levels of students and what the most common practices are. He indicates that his book does not advocate a specific pedagogical practice; rather, he hopes only to establish a greater continuity in English instruction throughout the educative process because a varied process can only prove detrimental to education on the whole. The book touches on reading and composition (both oral and written) from kindergarten up to high school. It addresses what sorts of literature should be assigned as reading as well as how grammar should be taught and the four kinds of writing: narrative, descriptive, exposition, and argumentative. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and the scans are good condition.
No printing information given. Copyrighted 1857. No information on the author is provided. As the lengthy title suggests, Chesterfield's text is directed at any student who wants or needs to learn how to compose an effective letter. The author claims that the book may prove useful for students young and old, as well as for students who wish to learn to write polite letters for society or business letters for monetary purposes. No matter the student or cause, Chesterfield claims that all people may benefit from an increased knowledge of how to write letters. The text offers instruction on all aspects of letters, including grammar, style, arrangement, concluding, and more. Examples of different genres of letter are provided, such as business or love letters. The Schultz Archive includes the complete letter-writing section (with the exception of pages 50-51 and 58-59), but the text seems to continue beyond the letter-writing portion. Some highlighter obscures text throughout, but the quality is good nonetheless.
1847 printing. No copyright date provided. The author is credited as Editor of the United States Gazette. A grammar handbook for those who feel "the need of simple and familiar explanations and illustrations, and oft-repeated rules." Chandler claims that this textbook is intended to present grammar instruction in a more interesting manner than it is usually presented. He claims that his text accomplishes this goal through the use of familiar language, numerous examples and illustrations, and through exercises in parsing. Chandler does not intend for this textbook to replace the grammar instructor, but that the book should be used as an effective supplement to in-class instruction. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt of the cover page, preface and the first 11 pages of content. The scans are good quality, but there are a few markings that obscure the text.
1842 printing. No copyright date given. No information on the authors is provided. The authors' text begins with a brief discussion of the inefficacy of the previous method of instructing grammar and composition, which included a heavy emphasis on rule memorization and the reading--and subsequent copying of--classic texts. The authors, instead, advocate a more "natural" approach to the acquisition of grammar and composition: practice, object use and familiarity. The authors propose students should be given the chance to copy short pieces by good authors to learn neatness and exactness. They then work with writing about familiar objects, exchanging their work and correcting each other's errors, discussing their work as a class, then having their instructor provide feedback for correction. The authors suggest beginning with concrete objects that are near the students and progressing through to more complex abstract ideas and series of objects in order to assist in the acquisition of composition abilities. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (although it is a fairly short text), and the quality of the scans is fairly good; however, there are a few places where markings on the text are somewhat distracting.
1897 printing (the sixth edition, revised and enlarged) of the 1891 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia College (University?); formerly Associate Professor of English in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Carpenter claims that the exigency of his text is the fact that most students learn more easily from the comments the instructor makes because her/his examples are familiar to the student and s/he uses literature that is more relevant to the students than what is usually found in texts. Each section contains a fairly detailed exercise that includes explanations, examples and systematic exercises for the students. The exercises often emphasize correcting errors. The chapters cover words, sentences, paragraphs, whole compositions, qualities of style (clearness, force, elegance). Barrett Wendell is credited as a primary influence. Wendell, McElroy, A. S. Hill, David Salmon, and Genung are referenced. The Schultz Archive only includes brief excerpts, but they are good quality.
1902 printing of the 1900 copyrighted work. The first high school course was initially published separately in 1899. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia University. This text by Carpenter builds on his previous Exercises in Rhetoric and English Composition that was published roughly 10 years prior. Based on the conclusions of the committees of ten and fifteen, the author is working from the conclusions that students in high school should received the same rhetorical training as those in college; that training should be at least two years; the first course should focus on words and the structure of sentences and paragraphs, and the second should focus on the main principles of exposition, narration, description, and (perhaps) argument; that students have abundant practice in applying principles; that correctness, clearness, directness, and simplicity of style should be emphasized. The author credits Barrett Wendell and F. N. Scott as influences. Exercises are provided throughout.The appendix also includes suggestions for "home reading" and "words frequently misused." The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (although it is missing pages 246-53), and it is good quality.
1877 printing of 1877 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of Primary Object-Lessons. A guide based on the notion that student knowledge is experienced, not memorized and recited. Each chapter focuses on an object or location that relates to real life experience. Calkins's Manual for Teachers is intended as a supplement for another textbook based on object teaching. The purpose of this supplemental text is to inform teachers of the best ways to teach using the text. The text accomplishes this by suggesting a variety of lessons for each grade level of primary school. The actual text seeks to teach young students practically by teaching them the systematic examination of real objects. Examples from trades and occupations are used to create a desire in students to learns about these occupations and how each contributes to the common welfare. It uses The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and it is good quality. However, the bottoms of each page seem to be cut off.
The second edition, printed 1859, copyrighted 1858. The work begins with twenty pages of certificates: words of praise from various people. A grammar handbook aimed at a wide audience of readers who wish to become "grammarians." Based on Lindley Murray's Grammar and the work of Samuel Kirkham, the author seeks to establish a more effective and systematic method of teaching students to parse and correct. For each grammatical principle Caldwell offers a number of questions and answers to elucidate the system of grammar. Students are expected to memorize the answers (the rules). Examples of false orthography, false syntax, and false punctuation are used to teach correcting. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt, but the scans are good quality. However, some highlighter obscures text throughout.
1900 printing of the 1899 copyrighted text. William B. Cairns is credited as having a Ph.D. and as Instructor in English in the University of Wisconsin. A thorough guide that divides its focus on style and invention. Cairns's text seeks to teach rhetoric in a familiar way without introducing new terms or definitions. He argues principles are dependent on usage and that style and invention should be treated together. Style and invention have independent sections, but each contain cross references to the other. Long illustrative texts are used rather than scattered short ones and appear at the end of chapters. Part one, style, has two chapters: Language determined by usage, and language adapted to the Needs of the reader. The first covers spelling, grammar, and word usage. Chapter two covers qualities of style (clearness, force, ease, unity) and a section of qualities expressed in full sentences. Part 2, invention, has chapters on narration, description, exposition, argumentation, and persuasion. The prefaces credits Genung and A. S. Hill as influences.The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and the scans are fairly good quality.
1873 printing of the 1873 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts degree, as Principal of the Ralston School in Pittsburgh, and as the author of two other books on grammar. Burtt's Primary Grammar is intended to be a supplemental work for his text Practical Grammar. Primary Grammar, Burtt professes, will simply and practically present the basics of English grammar by providing definitions, exercises, examples, models and questions to assist in the application of parsing and other grammatical concerns. The text advocates students be required to recite answers in complete sentences. The work has three sections: introduction, parts of speech, and analysis of sentences. The analysis of sentences section has false syntax for correcting and examples for parsing and analysis. The Schultz Archive includes up to page 49, where it abruptly ends, and the scans are all good quality.
No printing date given. Copyrighted in 1859. The author is credited as having Master of Arts degree. Burtt professes that his grammar will be practical and clear for high school and college students who need to learn the basic principles of English grammar. The text begins with basic orthography and etymology and progress through syntax, among other principles, to arrive at the application of English grammar principles to prosody. Burtt's text offers numerous examples for students that he claims will make learning the principles of English grammar simple for any student. Questions and exercises are used throughout, including exercising in parsing. The syntax section has examples of false syntax to be corrected and samples for syntax analysis. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (although the cover page repeats and page 65 is partly blanked out). Aside from the previously mentioned issues, the text is in good condition.
1865 printing of the copyrighted 1865 text. The author is credited as the author of two other works on teaching. A guide on how to teach developing children with the "things around them." A presentation on the abilities and strengths of youth that might otherwise be ignored. The author of this text advocates education through the observation of familiar objects. His claim is that young children would learn all things more effectively if they were to learn by doing as opposed to learning through rote memorization and drilling of mechanics. It advocates for parents taking up the roll of aiding in children's intellectual development. The text offers a variety of potential learning experiences with familiar objects such as grocery shelves or animals and advances on to adult subject such as newspaper reform and partisan calumnies. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (except pages 132-33, which are missing). The text is legible, but some of the scans are low quality, which makes them difficult to read.
1870 printing of the 1870 copyrighted text, a revised edition of the Common School Grammar, and Introductory to the Practical Grammar.The author is credited as Peter Bullions, Doctor of Divinity, and the author of the Series of English, Latin, and Greek Grammars, and Latin and Greek Readers. Bullions's School Grammar is designed to have a high level of practicality for the students who use the text. In the preface, the author identifies the primary audience for this text to be young students who do not have time to devote to more detailed grammar handbooks. The text is organized into orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody (prosody is very brief). Emphasis is put on comprehension and application. Within each lesson, explanations are followed with illustrations, then observations, questions, and exercises in application. The teacher is instructed to supplement the text as necessary with any information that s/he does not find in this book. The Schultz Archive includes a mostly complete text with a number of issues. The scans are mostly legible, but there are a number of pages that are repeated, missing, out of order or upside down.
No information on edition or printing is on this copy. The title state the author is an instructor.
Balch's primary school grammar handbook wishes to change the manner in which grammar is taught to schoolchildren. Instead of expecting them to memorize and apply myriad rules in which they are not interested, Balch believes children's natural interest should be fostered by the usage of familiar things to teach. The Schultz Archive only includes a very brief excerpt of the cover page and preface. The quality is poor, but everything is legible.
No information regarding edition or printing is in the copy. No information on the author is provided. Balch's addition to the list of grammar handbooks seeks to improve the methods of grammar instruction by rendering language study more scientific (and less like an art) and less focused on mere rule memorization. The author hopes that such a transformation will make the study of grammar more interesting for high school students because they will be encouraged to create their own models. He is interested in "the essential principles of human speech and the best method of constructing sentences according to the idiom of the English language." The preface also interestingly states that "[t]he inseparable connexion between words, ideas, and things, is carefully observed." The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt of the cover page, contents, preface, introduction and a short section of text. The text is legible, but some highlighting does obscure throughout.
1887 printing of the enlarged edition of the first part of Bain's English Composition and Rhetoric. Alexander Bain is a Doctor of Laws of English and Emeritus Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen.The first part, Intellectual Elements of Style (included here), is focused on "Elements of Style that concern the understanding." The second part is about the "emotional qualities." This "re-modeling" is designed to narrow the scope and devote more attention to certain portions chosen for their utility. Its topics are order of words; number of words; the sentence; the paragraph; figures of speech; and the qualities of style: clearness, simplicity, impressiveness, and picturesqueness. Bain states that these topics are expounded, exemplified, and applied to the arts of criticism and composition. Bain has somewhat reordered the contents that was previously sectioned under the kinds of composition (description, narration, exposition, oratory). The Schultz Archive copy is the complete text of part first of the enlarged edition.
1884 printing of the revised American edition of Bain's rhetorical manual focused on style, structure, and modes. The copyright page states it was registered in 1866. Alexander Bain had a Master of Arts and was Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. It states an interest in methodizing instruction in english composition, stating that little can be done to cultivate students' fund of expression, but that they can be taught to discriminate between good and bad expression. Rhetoric is defined as "the means whereby language, spoken or written, may be rendered effective." The text is divided into two parts. Part one deals with composition in general, particularly figures of speech, qualities of style, the sentence, and the paragraph. Part two deal with five kinds or modes of composition: description, narration (historical composition), exposition (science), oratory (persuasion), and poetry. Its rules and principles are accompanied with examples from canonical texts. It also includes analyzed extracts in its appendix. Although it has not been digitzed, the Schultz Archive's hardcopy is the complete text. It is identical to the 1887 printing (that is digitzed), excepting paratextual advertisements.
1887 printing of the revised American edition. The copyright page states it was registered in 1866. Alexander Bain had a Master of Arts and was Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. It states an interest in methodizing instruction in english composition, stating that little can be done to cultivate students' fund of expression, but that they can be taught to discriminate between good and bad expression. Rhetoric is defined as "the means whereby language, spoken or written, may be rendered effective." The text is divided into two parts. Part one deals with composition in general, particularly figures of speech, qualities of style, the sentence, and the paragraph. Part two deal with five kinds or modes of composition: description, narration (historical composition), exposition (science), oratory (persuasion), and poetry. Its rules and principles are accompanied with examples from canonical texts. It also includes analyzed extracts in its appendix. The Schultz Archive's copy is the complete text.
No printing or edition information is provided on this copy. Rufus W. Bailey has a Master of Arts degree, but his status as a reverend is omitted on this text. He was a teacher for over thirty years. The prefaces states this book is for mothers, fathers, elder brothers and sisters, and female teachers employed in primary and public schools. A grammar handbook for younger students that features various modes of examples such as lists or mock conversations. It argues that children learn nouns first, then verbs, and then the combining of these two in sentences. Part one teachers sentence structure and parts of speech; part two, etymology; part three, syntax; part four, rules of punctuation, orthography, and a dictionary of english grammar. It does not use exercises of correcting false grammar, as the author believes those are unhelpful. The Schultz Archive's copy is the complete text.
Stated as the tenth edition on the cover page. Reverend R. W. Bailey is stated as having a Master of Arts degree and in the preface it states he taught English youth for over thirty years. Bailey's English Grammar is a fairly standard grammar handbook from the nineteenth century. The author acknowledges the myriad grammar handbooks that precede his own, but explains that his book serves as a kind of aggregate of such manuals. It divides grammar into four parts: orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. It gives three classes of words: nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The handbook includes fairly detailed sections on many of the parts of speech. It says its method of parsing is analytic rather than synthetic, but philosophic and inductive. The end of each section has a review. The preface states an interest in a pure English. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt (the cover page, preface, contents and a few snippets of text), but they are good quality.
No edition or printing information is given on this copy. The author alludes to the fact that he is a teacher in the preface where he addresses the audience as his “fellow teachers.” Badgley's work is a grammar textbook for school children that emphasizes object teaching and working with the familiar in order to promote a better understanding of the English language. Badgely states the instruction is drawn from nature and uses the inductive and synthetic method. It moves from facts and things to general truths and from arranging words into sentences to analysis. “Ideas and thoughts precede expression.” The sections are grammar and the parts of speech; classification and variation of nouns and pronouns, adjectives and adverbs; analysis of sentences and syntactical parsing; and syntax (a list of rules and exercises of violation of these rules).The book provides exercises in the form of staged conversations in order to better relate to the students. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text in very good condition.
No edition or printing information is included on this copy. No author is credited, although Whitney, Jocelyn, and Annin are credited as illustrators. It includes basic information on composing, including advice on penmanship, titling, margins, paragraphs, spelling, capital letters, punctuation, arranging sentences, style (purity, precision, clearness, strength, harmony, unity), and modes (debates, letters). The majority of the text is a collection of ornate illustrations for the purpose of aiding composition development. Each illustration is accompanied with advice on how to elaborate on subjects within the illustration.
No edition or printing information is available on this copy. The author, Israel Alger Jr., was a school teacher in Boston with a Master of Arts degree. This work was approved for use in Boston schools by the School Committee of Boston. This work is an “enlargement” of Lindley Murray’s grammar textbook with exercises. It is sectioned as exercises in parsing, exercises in etymology, exercises in syntax, exercises in punctuation, and exercises to promote perspicuous and accurate writing. This last section includes exercises in writing focusing on rules of purity, propriety, precision, clearness, unity, strength and figures of speech. The exercises are incorrect examples that violate these rules.
No edition or printing information is available in this copy. Written by Reverend Charles Adams, Principal of Newbury Seminary, a high school and literary institution. This system of grammar was created by the author for use in his own classes. It is based on the work of Lindley Murray, whose works on English grammar were published in the last decade of the 18th century. The author has endeavored to improve upon its definitions where possible. It provides four divisions of grammar: Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody. Orthography covers the nature of letters and proper spelling. Etymology covers the classifications of words with accompanying examples. Rules of syntax are accompanied with correct and incorrect examples. Prosody has two parts: pronunciation, comprising accent, quantity, emphasis, pause, and tone, and the laws of versification, which is the arrangement of syllables. Laws of punctuation are included. The text ends with eleven chapters of example texts that serve as exercises in parsing.
The Schultz Archive includes the complete text with minimal disruptions in quality. There are very rare instances of highlighting which obscures the readability; however, the text is otherwise impeccable.