The nature of taphonomic overprint affecting the fossil records of the regular echinoid Families Cidaridae, Diadematidae, Toxopneustidae and Echinometridae is investigated using a synthesis of actualistic and literature-derived data. The actualistic portion of this study focuses on the following extant members of the four families: Eucidaris tribuloides, Diadema antillarum, Tripneustes ventricosus and Echinometra lucunter. Population censuses of these animals in tropical reef and near-reef environments demonstrate that the distribution of macro- and microscopic skeletal material does not reflect the distribution of the living fauna. Field experiments with freshly-killed carcasses of Eucidaris, Diadema and Echinometra indicate that loss of all organic tissue occurs within six days after death, reducing these echinoids to essentially bleached carcasses.
The hydrology of a thin colluvium hillside at the Delhi Pike landslide complex, approximately 15 km west of downtown Cincinnati, is controlled by infiltration and evapotranspiration. Pore water pressures approach $-$10 m H$\sb2$O during summer and autumn, but rise to $-$1 m H$\sb2$O or higher after several days of steady winter rains. This state of near saturation is maintained until large trees leaf out and pore pressures fall dramatically in late spring.
Little is known about the hydraulic fracturing of soil, although the technique holds potential for several environmental engineering applications. The dissertation research consists of laboratory experiments, where hydraulic fractures were created by injecting dyed glycerin into colluvium contained in a triaxial pressure cell, and a field test, where hydraulic fractures were created by injecting guar gum gel at shallow depths in glacial drift. The laboratory tests showed that hydraulic fractures are readily created in clayey-silt colluvium. Furthermore, hydraulic fractures created in soil with positive pore pressure were filled with two fluids: one injected to create the fracture, and pore fluid that infiltrates into the fracture tip. The length of the infiltrated tip increases with increasing fracture length.