The NATO and the EU Peacebuilding Missions Dataset is created to use fuzzy seta Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) analysis as a method of researching how NATO and the EU missions’ outcomes are influences by organizational assets and decision-making in both organizations. Outcome pertaining to these two sets of missions are intended to measure various aspects of organizational efficacy. There are two groups of variables – condition variables and outcome variables. In the next few sections, we will explain how these two groups of variables were generated, what existing sources and datasets were used and how mission indicators were generated. See attached research note for more detailed information.
Condition Sets: Description
By and large, conditions sets that have been generated measure organizational assets for these NATO and EU missions, as well as patterns in their decision-making process. Two critical organizational assets used for both sets of missions are their annual operational budget and their annual deployed personnel. The dataset contains two control variables measuring operational legitimacy – number of contributing nations and number of UN resolutions passed in relevance to the situation in the area of deployment for the duration of the EU and NATO Mission.
Operational Duration – duration of the operation (in months). For ongoing missions and operations, we have used December 31, 2019 as the end date. All data reflect occurrences no later than December 31, 2019.
Type of Operation – based on their mandate, operations are classified as civilian (coded as 0), military (coded as 1) and hybrid (i.e. with military and civilian components, coded as 0.5).
Annual Operational Budget – total annual mission budget in USD. Sources include SIPRI yearbook and peace operations database. In cases of missing data from the SIPRI yearbook, mission factsheets and original data from the mission have been used. This latter technique applies for the following missions: AMUK, AVSEC, BAM1, BAM2, CAP1, CAP2, MAM1, NAVF1, NAVF2, TMC1, EUAMI. If data is reported in EUR, average exchange rate for the duration of the mission has been used to convert the cost. Data has been adjusted to reflect operational budget over a 12-month period.
Average Annual Mission Personnel – it reflects the average total number of personnel/ staff supporting the NATO or EU peacebuilding mission per annum. Sources have been collected from SIPRI yearbook based on reportings for actual deployments on the ground. In cases when no data has been reported I the SIPRI yearbook/ peace operations dataset, mission factsheets and original data from the mission have been used. The data has been averaged and adjusted for a 12-month period.
Days to Launch – describes the number of days needed from the time a decision has been made by the IO top decision-making body (the European Council and NAC) to launch the mission to the time that the mission is officially declared “operational.” If no declaration that the mission is “fully operational” exists, landmark indicators that the mission is fully operational include: ceremony on the ground marking the beginning of the mission, the appointment of mission commander or first recoded operational presence involving activity on the ground. Sources include official EU and NATO documents announcing the decision to create the peacebuilding operation as well as official documents, press releases and reports in reliable media outlets (including New Agencies) documenting an event that would indicate the mission is “fully operational.”
Number of Contributing Nations –highest reported number of contributing nations for the duration of the NATO and the EU peacebuilding operation.
UN Security Council Resolutions – total number of UN Security Council (UNSG) resolutions relevant for the area of conflict adopted for the duration of the NATO and the EU mission. In cases when UNSC resolutions are relevant for multiple NATO and EU peacebuilding missions those have been reported to all relevant missions.
Outcome Sets: Description
Outcome sets include various indicators created to measure operational efficacy. They include annual events contributing toward peace, conflict and the mission’s functioning, annual fatalities and annual deaths among mission personnel, as well as annual difference in fatalities. A more detailed description of these indicators is included below:
Annual Peace Events – this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that have contributed for the peace process in the conflict area where NATO and EU mission have been deployed. Examples of peace events include steps taken to contribute to the peace process (e.g. creation of buffer zone, cession of hostilities, meeting intended to cease fire or set up the peace process, political events related to or contributing toward the peace process and successful conclusion of a peace agreement. It may also include a decision of an international body (e.g. UN Security Council, UN General Assembly or UN Secretary General, as well as a decision made by the NATO and the EU D-M bodies that contributes toward the peace process in the areas where the mission operates. For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual peace events are recoded.
Annual Conflict Events -- this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that have increased the conflict and the conflict potential in the area where NATO and EU mission have been deployed. Instances include resumption of hostilities among warring parties, occurrence of attacks, clashes, eruption of violence, the killing of civilians, military and peacemaking personnel and other violence-related events that contribute toward instability in the mission’s area. For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual conflict events are recoded.
Annual Mission-related Events -- this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that measures events related to functioning of the mission – the decision to launch, the actual launch, implementation, transfer of authority and/ or mandate, transformation and termination of the mission. It also includes events that reflect decisions made by the contributing nations or sponsoring IOs intended to impact mission’s performances (e.g. decisions related to funding, control and command, transformation of mission mandate and rules and other similar events). For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual mission-related events are recoded.
Average Annual Fatalities – this indicator reports how many average annual civilian deaths have been recorded for the duration of the mission. The data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Dataset (ACD) managed by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies ( https://acd.iiss.org/member/datatools.aspx).
Average Annual Mission Casualties – average annual number of deaths among peacebuilding personnel as reported in SIPRI yearbook/ peace operations database for the duration of the mission. Authors have used discretion to determine the accuracy in cases when there is discrepancy of reported data.
Fatalities Annual Difference – an indicator of differenced annual data of civilian casualties on the ground for the duration of the mission. The indicator is calculated as follows: Differenced Fatalities = Ʃ (CasualtiesY1-Y2 … Casualties Yn-Y(n-1))/ Duration of the mission (in years). It is intended to capture improvement of situation on the ground as a result of presence of the peacebuilding effort.
Condition Sets: Calibration and Rationale
Annual Operational Budget – mission budget reflects resources USD 5 million or less indicate fully out while USD 100 million or more would indicate fully in. A budget of USD 30 should be the watershed borderline of “nether in, not out.” [5-100 million]
Average Annual Mission Personnel – this indicator draws distinction between larger well-resourced missions and smaller missions with limited assets. By and large, missions with 20 personnel or less are fully out, while those with 20,000 or more are fully in. The borderline (net hither in, not out) is 130 people.
Days to Launch – the speed with which the decision is taken indicates how decision-making operated in the case of this mission. D-M that took 5 days or less should be fully out (in, change direction) while D-M 150 days or more should be fully in (out, change direction). 30 days (1 month) should be the neither in, nor out border.
Number of Contributing Nations –control indicator that demotes how high number of contributing nations contribute toward greater legitimacy (30 or more countries marks fully in), while 5 or fewer nations marks fully out. The “nether fully in, nor fully out” is at 15 nations.
UN Security Council Resolutions – total number of UNSC resolutions can vary, fully out is at 0 resolutions while fully in at 50 or more. Since moist of the missions are shorter, Nether fully in, not fully out would be at 8 UNSC resolutions. [Inductive]
Operational Duration – 1 year (12 months) denotes fully out (i.e. short-term mission) while 10 year 120 months denotes fully in; nether in not out would be for missions lasting 5 years (60 months). In other words, a decade is too long, a year is to short, five years is in the middle.
Outcome Variables: Calibration and Rationale
Annual Peace Events – this variable measures the occurrence of peace-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 3 events per annum is fully in. 0.8 event is nether in not out.
Annual Conflict Events -- this variable measures the occurrence of conflict-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 4 events per annum is fully in. 1 event is nether in not out.
Annual Mission-related Events -- this variable measures the occurrence of peace-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 1 events per annum is fully in. 0.3 event is nether in not out.
Average Annual Fatalities – this set measures average number of annual fatalities for the duration of the mission. Cases with 0 fatalities are fully out; cases with 10,000 fatalities are fully in. 1,000 fatalities represent “nether in, not out” value.
Fatalities Annual Difference – this is an indicator that measures the average year-to-year difference in number of fatalities for the duration of the conflict. -50 casualties is fully out (i.e. average growth of casualties by 50 per annum) as this indicator reflects low mission efficacy. 500 is fully in. This number indicates high efficacy; it denotes an average annual decline of casualties by 500 people. If the average number of casualties remains unchanged, then 0 denotes nether in, nor out.
Average Annual Mission Casualties – this indicator measures average number of annual casualties for the duration of the mission. 0 casualties is fully out; 500 casualties is fully in. 0.5 is nether in, nor out.
This CSV file contains the topic distribution of each EIN as uncovered using six parallel Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) Topic Models.
Each row depicts a topic and topic-score associated with an Ohio NPO (identified by Employer Identification Number) generated from one model run.
The sum of topic scores possible for every row associated with an EIN therefore will not exceed 6.0 (6 models x 100%)
Topic scores below .01 (1%) are not included.
Each topic from the models is further identified as Essential/Non-Essential by subject matter expert, Dr. Michael Jones, guided by the official IRS definition.
The topic models are generated on unstructured text language from the mission statement and activities language taken from the 2019 tax forms of Ohio non-profit organizations.
List of plant species recognized as invasive in the Midwest Invasive Plant Network (MIPN), and either regulated or informational. Shown are their method of introduction (intentional vs. accidental), and if intentional, whether it be introduced by ornamental, erosion control, feed/fodder/crops, aquarium trade, and/or medicinal or culinary uses. This was determined from a review of online sources and the scientific literature, and comparison to the dissertation by Sarah Reichard (1994).
This paper explores the question of why it is important to apply culturally responsive teaching within the classroom, through creativity. Teaching diversity exposes students to a variety of cultural and social groups. This educational experience prepares students to become better citizens, within their communities. Through the creative process, students will examine topics which, both, encompass and promote diversity. Additionally, students will be able to construct their own independent, inclusive environment, through art making; this increase in diversity education relates not only to the race and ethnicity of our students, it also includes religion, economic status, gender identity, language background, and more. Adopting inclusion and awareness around multicultural education and taking a culturally responsive approach to teaching is a benefit to both students and instructors. Not only does creating a better multicultural awareness and inclusive environment help students with different backgrounds and needs succeed, but it encourages acceptance and helps prepare students to thrive in a diverse world.
Keywords: cultural diversity, curriculum, teaching, art, social reconstructionism
Classifier algorithms use the features (collectively known as Feature Vectors) of each item in a dataset to assess the classification to which that item belongs.
In this classifier approach, each item represents one document containing the application essay combined with unstructured language describing relevant activities of a single applicant. For privacy, the full text of this document is not provided. Instead, each document is represented only by its features. The feature vector for this classifier is based on the term frequency for each of the identified terms. E.G. Doc_A contains 0 occurrences of any terms identified as family medicine vocabulary, and 10 occurrences of terms from the the non-family-medicine vocabulary.
W2V takes terms from a large corpus of text and models them onto a vector space, based on word associations from your dataset. These Word Associations take into account each word's immediate context (its ten neighboring words).
Following the data modeling (large-scale unstructured text), The platform then generates a visualization of this vector space, which lets us perform analysis e.g. detect synonymous/synonym-ish words and highlight related words. At the heart of this project, is W2V's ability to identify key words that were more frequent - and more unique - to each group using results from 2 different W2V models – one for each group's application texts.
We coded these Key Terms into categories, then analyzed those categories for overarching themes.
Empathy is an essential aspect for all facets of an educational system, specifically in art classrooms. Lack of empathy and collaborative skills can cause issues in relations and classroom management throughout the school year. Utilizing resources such as group lessons, community activities, and classroom reflections can allow for the kind of collaboration needed for students, teachers, and all those involved in a school system to succeed in their endeavors.
The education field has historically underrepresented teachers based on gender, race, and sexual orientation. This has led to a severe lack of diversity in the field. By utilizing professional workshops, educators will have greater awareness of barriers that have caused such underrepresentation. Educators will be given tools to reflect on how this facet of the educational system can be improved.
In the 1960"s and 1970', when most of these unfinished essays were written, I was a free thinking architecture student who perceived a fundamental disconnect within diverse institutions, including Architecture and Education and Money - Banking. I had an intuitive feeling that architecture is more than a visual aesthetic, rather a holistic social experience. The everyday objects with which we interact are an integral part of our social disposition and social wellbeing. The attempt is to develop a method for understanding some previously largely ignored aspects of environmental design – the role of Common Objects as a communication facilitator.- Eric M. Lee
Cincinnati has one of the lowest home ownership rates in the country for cities of comparable size. Several other cities with low rates of home ownership in 1970 have managed to increase their rates two to four percent over the past 25 years, but the home ownership rate in Cincinnati has been stable over that period at 38 percent.
The best explanation for Cincinnati’s low home ownership rate is that the topography of the city encouraged dense development involving multiple-unit structures up until World War II. When the highway programs of the post-war period opened up the suburbs to development, the city was already built-out and could not compete for new single-unit construction that the federal government was subsidizing on a massive scale.
In the last 50 years, the Hamilton County suburbs have gained 140,000 owners while the number of owners in the city has decreased by 1,000. As a result, the home ownership rate in the Cincinnati metropolitan area is greater than the national rate for areas of comparable size (63 percent versus 61 percent) while the rate in the city is far less than the national rate.
The City of Cincinnati faces a number of challenges in any effort to increase its home ownership rate. Government programs in other cities typically produce dozens of units a year, not the hundreds of units that Cincinnati needs to produce. In order to achieve even a modest increase in home ownership, the city will have to alter market forces in the direction of increased supply of housing suitable for owner-occupancy and increased demand for home ownership.
In order to increase its rate of home ownership to 41 percent by the year 2010, the City of Cincinnati needs to adopt a four-part strategy:
Increase the Supply of Units
The market cannot produce new units on its own. The city needs to assemble and prepare sites in order to reduce the additional costs associated with building in the city as opposed to the suburbs. City Hall must continue to eliminate barriers to development and provide new services to builders. Cincinnati will not be able to increase the number of middle-class owners without creating new neighborhood areas with the appropriate mix of amenities. At the lower end of the owner-market, the city needs to move aggressively to convert abandoned structures into units people will want to buy and rehabilitate.
Help Renters Become Owners
While converting renters to owners is an essential component of an overall strategy, the City of Cincinnati must recognize that not everyone can be an owner and target its resources appropriately. The city does not have unlimited funds to change the cost equation of owning a home and will, therefore, have to learn from other cities how to work with lending institutions to increase the flow of dollars under Community Reinvestment Act initiatives. Other cities have had some limited success with programs to convert people renting duplex and condo units into owners. The city needs to increase the availability, extent and quality of education and counseling programs.
Attract New Households to the City
The city has to market its neighborhoods, and in some cases, smaller areas within neighborhoods. This will require market research, training programs for Realtors, investments in street furniture, increased services, publications extolling city neighborhoods, and programs comparable to the Living in Cleveland program. The city needs to start working cooperatively with the Cincinnati Public Schools. Specific market niches in which the city can hope to compete very successfully include the empty nesters, the gay and lesbian community, first time buyers, and people interested in downtown living.
Maintain the Existing Pool of Owners
About 75 percent of the time a home owner in Cincinnati sells and buys another home in the Cincinnati area, the home purchased will be in the suburbs. The city must create opportunities for the home seller to move up without moving out of the city.
In addition to the above strategies, which involve the central city market, the City of Cincinnati needs to actively promote strategies that will help slow the rate of suburbanization and that will create low income housing opportunities in the suburbs. If suburbanization continues at the current rate, and if the city continues to be the governmental unit with de facto responsibility for low income housing, there is every reason to wonder if there is anything that the city can do to increase its rate of home ownership.