1871 printing of the 1871 copyrighted text. No information on the author is given, although the author is presumably one of the publishers. The preface explains that twelve-year-olds should be able to speak and write accurately, avoid vulgarisms, and detect errors. While most methods of teaching grammar incorrectly focus on memorization, this text is interested in teaching the practical use of language. This is done through observation (or perception) of correct models, imitation of those models, and finally construction of correct sentences. Observation of correct sentences is guided with questions. The text is organized into punctuation, objects, pictorial illustrations (pictures), brief narratives, poems to be rewritten into prose, letter writing, longer narratives, and activities of classifying words. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1867 printing of the 1866 copyrighted text. The author (spelled "Hailman" here) is credited with a Master of Arts and is the Principal of the English and German Academy in Louisville, Kentucky. The introduction is by James N. McElligott, who is credited with a Doctor of Laws in English degree. McElligott's introductions explains that the text doesn't make the errors of some object-teaching that focuses on facts without order, but rather provides mental discipline through following the indications of nature and the laws of mind. In the author's words, the principal aim of school education is to teach students how to form ideas and how to express them. This theoretical treatise on education covers object lessons, development of the faculties, grammar, geometry, and natural history. The text includes illustrative examples. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1869 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a faculty member of the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn, NY. Striving for simplicity and practical instruction, this text approaches teaching composition through steps of preparation rather than asking students to immediately write compositions. The chapters cover oral composition, formation of sentences, incorrect composition, punctuation, preparing composition, copying compositions, poetry and prose, elements of correct composition, style, figures of speech, criticism, and newspapers and magazines. Lessons use models and exercises. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1891 printing to the 1891 text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English, and as Late Professor of Rhetoric and of the English Language and Literature in the College of New Jersey, as the former principal of the New Jersey State Normal School, and as the author of a series of textbooks. A composition textbook designed for use by students with examples for practice. Part one (style) chapters cover punctuation, diction, purity, propriety, precision, kinds of sentences, rules for construction of sentences, figures of speech, special properties (sublimity, beauty, wit, humor), versification, poetry, prose (letters, diaries, news, editorials, history, etc.). Part two (invention) covers objects, transactions, abstract subjects, imaginary subjects, personal narratives, and descriptions. A chapter on proof-reading includes system of notation for correcting student writing. In addition to exercises, includes illustrative examples from celebrated writers. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1886 printing of the 1870 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English, and as Late Professor of Rhetoric and of the English Language and Literature in the College of New Jersey, as the former principal of the New Jersey State Normal School, and as the author of a series of textbooks. The author expresses the conviction that composition teaching should happen much earlier than the typical age of twelve to fourteen and requires regular practice. The book focuses on exercises; the author states practice should come before theory. The chapters cover simple words, derivative words, simple sentences, complex sentences, change of arrangement, change of structure, figurative expression (simile, metaphor, metonymy, etc.), style, letter writing, and an appendix on punctuation. The text contains examples and directions for exercises and compositions. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.