The purpose of this study is to plan and operate design-workshops based on project-based learning (PBL), and examine their educational value for students. The PBL workshop encour- ages direct participation from students and produces educational value, and it is important to raise the interest level of workshops to elicit proactive participation. The workshop in this study was carried out over two weeks in January 2017 at Korea’s Yonsei University. The workshop was composed of eight teams of students from three countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, and the course was primarily divided into two sessions. The workshop participants examined in this thesis were notably satised with the elements of the course meant to garner interest. In the questionnaire results, participants also indicated that they obtained ample educational value through the workshop. An important element of the workshop was to connect the participants with businesses, which is also an important component of design education. Despite this, participants expressed a relatively lower level of satisfaction com- pared to other elements of the workshop. The results and analysis of this study will hopefully become a meaningful resource for educators when designing workshops in the future.
This paper engages with the literature to present different perspectives between forecasting and foresight in strategic design, while drawing insights derived from futures studies that can be applied in form of a design-inspired foresight approach for designers and interdisciplinary innovation teams increasingly called upon to help envisage preferable futures. Demonstrating this process in applied research, relevant examples are drawn from a 2016 Financial Services industry futures study to the year 2030. While the financial services industry exemplifies an ideal case for design-inspired foresight, the aims of this paper are primarily to establish the peculiarities between traditional forecasting applications and a design-inspired foresight visioning approach as strategic design activities for selecting preferable futures. Underlining the contribution of this paper is the
value of design futures thinking as a creative and divergent thought process, which has the potential to respond to the much broader organizational reforms needed to sustain in today’s rapidly evolving business environment (Buchanan, 2015; Irmak, 2005; Muratovski, 2016).
The term “community-based participatory design” (CBPD) recently emerged as a distinctive space in the Participatory Design tradition (DiSalvo, Clement & Pipek, 2013; LeDantec, 2016). This move marks a shift from treating the process of design primarily as a product development method, to one that builds social and technical capacities – or infrastructures – of individuals and communities (Björgvinsson, Ehn, & Hillgren 2010; Karasti 2014; LeDantec 2016). This paper describes participant gains from a design workshop conducted as part of a research collaboration involving a university-based research center, and four NGOs, the participatory design workshop aimed to: (1) build the capacities of young people; (2) guide young people in the creation of novel and locally relevant gender and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) solutions; and, (3) bring voices of young people into research and programmatic questions around gender and SRH in the public health domain. The workshop was conducted with 31 young people aged 15-25, over 2.5 weeks, in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The evaluation demonstrates that the workshop resulted in exposure to working in mixed-gender teams, developing problem-solving skills, and increasing SRH awareness and knowledge. The workshop produced six low-fidelity prototypes, five of which were subsequently refined and piloted by three Lucknow NGOs.
The Japanese government has planned by 2020 to introduce the Finnish Neuvola System, a fundamental social childcare system that covers the period of pregnancy to child care. The purpose of this research is to clarify the conditions for high quality of Neuvola service, comparing childcare of Finland and Japan. First, the social systems of Finland and Japan, legal actions and other related social backgrounds are covered. Following this, the results are analyzed. Secondly, the results of interviews in Finland with Neuvola public health nurses and three typical Neuvola users, including a father, mother, and pregnant woman are presented. As a result of survey, six conditions were identified as the basis of Neuvola services: personal health checks, facility preparation, pleotropic care, communication through mutual dialogue, customized information and management of service provider quality. In a society where nuclear families are increasing, it is harder to care for children without someone’s support. In comparing Finnish and Japanese childcare systems, the Finnish system perceives childcare as a social matter. In the Neuvola System, people are always open to discuss about any worries or queries. In Japan, the system is closed toward personal matters and private treatment options are not adequate. This is a major factor in larger problems that exist in the Japanese system.
The results are discussed in relation to previous studies of participatory roles in social health care services in the Japanese government and users of these services, leading to the proposal of a Japanese childcare service design.
This paper introduces academic research into conceptual apparel and fashion narratives that are inspired by diverse art and media aesthetics for unique collection stories. Distinct photography forms the design continuum with photo-real imagery carefully mapped onto patterns, creating fabric textures and garment shapes. They concentrate in their content on investigating place and space as a shared environment. The actual design practice is therefore embedded in a reflective discourse that is driven by exploring textiles as a social, factual or cultural platform for meaning and narrative. Fabric is treated as a screen and canvas for a collage of visual information, cultural environment, collective memory and association. In contextualizing this multi-disciplinary approach, wider theoretical implications and readings of narrative imagery in textile, fashion design and art are cross-referenced. A focus is on particular limited editions as a research model and case study within this practice. Bespoke ranges have been commissioned by partners in creative industries that explore site-specific histories and new insights for design outputs. They have been exhibited at international fashion weeks as well as in museum and gallery contexts. As a second outcome they have also played an important role by being commercialized in an academic spinout company and intersecting research strategy with academic enterprise. This is referenced in this context as an underlying support structure for dissemination of above experimentation.
It was late on a Friday evening. A great time to avoid crowds. Most people were dining and drinking, absorbing the city’s capacity for pleasure, or maybe relaxing at home. That left the supermarket to me and others whose lives are synchronized differently. But as I stumbled my way through those harshly lit corridors of obscene American consumption, I realized I was among some highly unusual company. In every aisle, there were people—people?—clad in blue uniforms with devices attached to their forearms and fingertips, cables and wires dangling, each methodically filling large specialized carts. These were not shoppers like me. They were employees of the grocery chain operating— operated by?—new software for online ordering and curbside pickup. Surely, this wasn’t such a strange scene in contemporary stores around the world. Yet, it did raise strange—radical? — possibilities: a specter of “before” for an unforeseeable and potentially unpleasant “after.” The unity of the human and the machine, not implanted but merged in the operation, made me wonder: Are they cyborgs? Incipient cyborgs? Is this still a supermarket? Or an altogether different kind of space? One in the process of becoming? But becoming what?
The image that flashed to mind was that of an Amazon fulfillment center: a million acres of non-stop conveyor belts with robots finding and retrieving machine-labeled products and filling yellow bins under the supervision of a handful of humans. Robotic automation creating efficiency while eliminating the unpredictable and unproductive complexities of human labor and interactions. Perhaps, supermarkets are undergoing a transformation from spaces where humans browse, compare, select, and purchase to cyborg-operated warehouses. Perhaps this rapid and fundamental revision of function is an inevitable result of the increasing rate of technical reformation of everyday life.
Then again, perhaps my lucid vision of this scene as a new-reality- becoming is an example of what has been called “dystopian imagination”—an imaginary projection of “ethical and political concern” [Baccolini & Moylan, 2]. Or maybe it’s only a personal paranoia about the brave new world unfolding.
Traditional craft has been relegated to the margins in modern culture, being perceived as out step with technological, economic and societal progress. However, emergent research is rediscovering the nature of craft and its potential for contributing to design practice in conjunction with developments in science and technology. Through the analyses of craft and sustainability, strong connections are revealed as well as some incompatibilities. The contribution of this paper is to a) map a systemic view of craft and b) establish a theoretical understanding of the relationship between craft and a holistic understanding of sustainability. Drawing on recent research that proposes three areas of leverage for sustainability, we argue that craft, as a system of making, knowing and being, has significant potential to contribute actively and tangibly to the transitional conditions, thereby serving as an agency for sustainable transformation.
Starting or growing a co-op/internship program can be intimidating; for both educators and potential employer partners. In an effort to learn the pain points for both parties, opportunities
to break down barriers and build bridges, and identify actionable steps to get started, faculty from the University of Cincinnati’s Division of Experience-Based Learning and Career Education conducted a two-year research project with 65 co-op and internship employers from more 15 unique industry clusters, and 50 university faculty and staff representing 24 unique institutions. This poster will graphically share the resulting findings from more than 1250 qualitative responses, and generate discussion on the educational pedagogy of creating best practices for employer partners. Find out what “the survey says”!
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Mark Hallerberg is Dean and Professor of Public Management and Political Economy at the Hertie School of Governance, a private public policy School in Berlin, Germany. His research focuses on fiscal governance, tax competition, financial crises, public sector innovation, and European Union politics.
He previously held academic positions at Emory University, where he maintains an affiliation with the political science department, as well as at the University of Pittsburgh and Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his PhD from UCLA in 1995.
Graphic design is often seen in the commercial context and is discussed through topics linked to software and technology. When we look around us we can realise that billboards, banners, posters and most of the print that surround us in the public space are delivering messages of marketing, corporations, consumerism and other commercially inclined narratives. This, however, is not the only way to comprehend the practice of a graphic designer. Graphic design can take a socio-pedagogical and historical role and distribute alternative messages in the society which are not linked to money and consumption, unless education, reading and studying are considered consumption of sorts.
It is obvious that graphic design is a powerful tool that shapes our understanding of reality. This happens through being exposed to the work. Posters are claimed to mirror societies by many theorists and most visual communication is mediated by a graphic designer. Thus, Bonsiepe stated already in 2005 in his speech Design and Democracy that there is an absence of questioning activities linked to design production. It is yet a relevant theme that research needs to approach; also in a post-colony where the printed poster is ubiquitous. A simple sheet of printed paper. A very simple but extremely complex and powerful. There lies an investigation that this paper will start. The outcome of this paper to share knowledge within the researchers about creating new meaningful pathways in understanding globally important practice of graphic design. Art and design are universally important.
IASDR 2017 Workshop
Design now faces with new challenges that have made us rethink about our current design paradigm. It motivated us to organize a forum called, Design 3.0 Forum at KAIST in 2016, where we invited globally renowned design researchers and practitioners from different countries to discuss about important agenda for emerging challenges. The agenda we extracted from this forum can be summarized as follows: 1) envisioning of designers' future roles on open creativity and design; 2) dissemination and evaluation of design research outcomes by keeping deep design values; and 3) post education and practice that moves beyond the current use-centered perspectives by thinking big toward social innovation and large-scale impact.
As the result of the Design 3.0 forum, we all agreed that we must continue to develop and extend these agenda and collaboratively make executable actions to carry them out in the design community. In this special session at IASDR 2017, not only the organizers of the previous Design 3.0 forum (i.e. Youn-kyung Lim, Ron Wakkary, Kun-pyo Lee, and Tek-jin Nam), we invite the people who have not participated in the previous forum but can provide important insights on these issues. For the format of the session, we will take the panel format where the invited participants will present their positions first, and then have in-depth discussion on them among the participants and the audience. Through this special session, we expect to advance the initial Design 3.0 agenda and can generate more concrete and executable action items for Design 3.0.
Please follow developments of this work at http://design3-0.org/2017iasdr/
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Tracy Moss is an independent design consultant and currently serves as the Course Director for Counter-Proliferation Opportunity Design at Joint Special Operations University, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. As co-founder of the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Design Thinking education program, she also serves as core faculty for the full complement of design-related courses and activities at the university and headquarters.
Ms. Moss retired from military service in 2015 having spent 20 years on active duty in both the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. During her final four years of military service at USSOCOM, she served as the lead Analyst and Planner on two operational design teams and as Chief of Counter-Weapons of Mass Destruction Analysis.
In societies where productivity is prioritized over presence, anxiety abounds. The extensive and alarming effects of anxiety on the mental and physiological wellbeing of bachelor students inspired a cross-disciplinary team to tackle this problem. Using combined expertise in visual design, music technology, psychology, art therapy and mindfulness — a digital tool entitled “Modes” was born. The Modes digital tool is an atmospheric, introspective, and aesthetically sophisticated engagement of three senses: ophthalmoception (sight), audioception (hearing), and tactioception (touch). Through immersive interaction, mesmerizing visual and sound landscapes are generated in order to reduce anxiety in bachelor students. The two measurable outcomes of Modes are 1) the reduction of self-reported anxiety in bachelor students, and 2) the reduction of bachelor student heart rates.
Interacting with the Modes digital tool is like playing in a sandbox of dynamic visuals and music. Users begin by selecting and entering one of three digital environments entitled Refocus, Chill, or Energize. Each environment (or mode) offers a unique set of visuals and music designed specifically for anxiety reduction. The design and functionality of Modes are rooted in tenets of mindfulness practice and Ayurveda — an ancient Indian healing system emphasizing inner balance as a method for maintaining health and wellness (Kiefer, 2016). The Refocus, Chill, and Energize modes aim to balance each of three governing principle of Ayurveda that regulate physiological activity. Ultimately, users may combat and control their anxiety in three targeted ways: by refocusing, chilling, or energizing.
This study introduces a new perspective on the design pedagogy in learning symbol design. A new experimental discipline implemented by the design methods demonstrates positive learning outcomes for students on the development of symbol study. Understanding denotative and connotative interpretation in visual literacy is essential in order to convey not only a clear message but also distinctive recognition as the nature of symbol quality. Students executed design experiments with design theories and methods for understanding design fundamentals of the denotative symbol and explored a matrix table for cultivating connotative symbols. This pedagogical strategy applied to the expansion of visual concepts with progressive experiments on each stage; 1) analyzing perceptive characteristics, 2) simplifying visual construction, 3) developing a visual concept with connotative meaning, and 4) configuring visual balance and enhanced quality based on design principles. With examples of student outcomes, this paper explains an analysis of functional expression and interpretation applied by design methods. This study discovered that earlier teaching of design fundamental disciplines with theories and methods in the graphic design major gave students better opportunities to pursue their further study more effectively and productively.
Design processes are so complex that it is not easy to remember, reflect and record in detail after the actual processes are over. This paper proposes a notation to depict a design process as a whole while keeping its original complexity in terms of visual and structural aspects. The notion affords two types of structures to represent design processes, through activity units, a series of actions of the same kind, and design elements including ideas, prototypes and theories emerged, created, and applied during the design process. We use a design process of an actual design workshop as a case to derive the notation while using the online presentation tool “Prezi” as an interaction framework. We then investigated the depicted design process by re-experiencing the process as a first-person engagement using the designed notation. Prezi's animation mode allowed us designate a sequence along which viewers can experience the design process by zooming in some activity units and design elements, and its presentation mode allows us to look back the design process from the start to the end by following activity units arranged in the temporal order. Following the transitions among some design elements allows us to focus on essential objects in the design process. The depicted process illustrate that the two structures of activity units and design elements are not corresponding to but independent of each other.
To limit the harm and damage caused by river flooding, signs to indicate dangerous water levels are placed along the river, particularly where there is a danger of overflow. However, the general level of awareness of such signs is low. In this study, we examined ways to efficiently convey information that people have little interest in and find difficult to understand.
Dangerous water levels are quantified and communicated using colors to indicate the degree of danger, and this information is conveyed to the public with signs on bridge piers and slopes. Various other measures are also employed, e.g., adding evacuation pictograms to signs, displaying signs separate from graduated water level indicators, and providing detailed information via the river office website. In addition to using Internet channels such as websites and Facebook, it is common to create and distribute pamphlets and other kinds of printed notifications to communicate such important information as widely as possible. Nevertheless, information that is essential in an emergency but unnecessary at ordinary times is difficult to communicate widely and effectively, even if all these measures are taken. This is because even if people accept that such information must be understood, they remain uninterested and find the information difficult to understand. To solve this problem, we created a story featuring mascot characters for each danger level. This story, presented as a picture book, overturns the conventional attitude toward such information. We thereby developed a medium for communicating important information in a way that better captures people’s interest.
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Kit Zhang is a Senior User Experience Designer and Design Manager at Amazon. She is currently working on Amazon Fashion’s personalized shopping experience, including Amazon's fashion service, “Prime Wardrobe”.
She was the solo designer and researcher on the launch team of Amazon’s first brick-and-mortar "Bookstore". Throughout her three year journey at Amazon, she has been advocating for design research through collaboration with researchers, as well as pioneering new research methodologies as a designer on startup-mode teams.
Kit has nine years of design industry experience in consultancies and corporations. She has designed and launched various consumer facing and enterprise products. Kit has a Master of Design degree from the University of Cincinnati, College of DAAP.
This paper explores the collaborative process of designing a physical object to support a National Science Foundation funded educational research project. Researchers involved with this project are exploring the ways in which gesture can aid in a explanations of science phenomena, particularly ones that have unseen structures and unobservable mechanisms. In order to manipulate the science simulations, a motion sensitive device captures students’ hand gestures. It can be difficult for students to know how to engage with this device, which impedes both student learning and associated research. In order to reduce usability challenges and enhance the connection between a student’s gestures and the scientific concepts presented on the simulation screen, a collaborative and iterative design process was conducted to create a designed form that would assist students in productively engaging with the simulations. The iterative development process of this project is an exemplar of how designed items can be developed to support multidisciplinary research projects, while also creating new fields of research. Future exploration of this device’s impact on student interaction and learning may bring to light how objects can change how people gesture in learning contexts, leaving a lasting imprint on their understanding and memory.
Decisions made by user interface designers play an influential role in how people interact with software, this is especially true when it comes to the creation of tools to support teaching. As technology continues to play a more prominent role in schools, it poses an important question about how the design of learning tools influence what teachers do in classrooms. Data analytics is one opportunity technology offers for teachers to foster collaboration in student groups. Data analytics have the potential to provide teachers with a live view of what students are doing when using technology, which research shows is challenging to implement in classrooms. This paper focuses on the process to design a tool that assists engineering discussion session teacher assistants (TAs) to monitor collaboration within groups. We report on findings from interviews with TAs on what they anticipate they would need in order to support group work, and discuss how their responses influenced the design of this tool.
IASDR 2017 Keynote- Design in the 21st Century: Complex Sociotechnical Systems
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Don Norman is Director of the Design Lab at the University of California, San Diego. He is co-founder of the Nielsen Norman Group, former Vice President of Apple and former executive at Hewlett Packard. Norman serves as an IDEO Fellow, an honorary professor of Design and Innovation at Tongji University (Shanghai), and is an advisor or board member of numerous companies.
At UC, San Diego, he served as chair of the Psychology Department and founder and chair of the Cognitive Science Department. At Northwestern University, he is the Breed Professor of Design, emeritus. He has been Distinguished Visiting Professor of Industrial Design at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). He has honorary degrees in psychology from the University of Padua (Italy) and in Design from the Technical University of Delft (the Netherlands) and the University of the Republic of San Marino. He received a "Lifetime Achievement Award" from SIGCHI and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer & Cognitive Science from the Franklin Institute (Philadelphia).
He is a member of the American National Academy of Engineering, and fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Association for Computing Machinery, American Psychological Association, Association for Psychological Science, Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, and the Design Research Society. He serves on the Board of Trustees at IIT's Institute of Design in Chicago.
He is well known for his books "The Design of Everyday Things," "Emotional Design," and "Living with Complexity." He lives at www.jnd.org.
CampusParc, the entity that manages and operates The Ohio State University’s parking assets under a long-term lease, engaged students and faculty in the university’s Department of Design to determine how its brand, services, and parking environments can contribute to a more positive parking experience in garages and surface lots–particularly for visitors to the main campus. This year-long collaboration involved multiple design-definition sessions between design faculty and a CampusParc design strategy team, an 8-week graduate/undergraduate design-led summer workshop, and a full semester Advanced Visual Communication Design Studio course. The outcomes included discovery themes, user journey maps, observation findings, problem statements, design opportunity proposals, and concept prototypes. Throughout this process, the students worked with, presented to, and received feedback from design faculty and CampusParc representatives. Students engaged stakeholders, university staff, and transient (visiting) parkers. By immersing students into a complex practice-based project, the students applied their design research and service design thinking in environmental graphics and branding. CampusParc is realizing new design opportunities, embracing proposed design themes and concepts, and shifting their role from a ‘utility’ to a ‘service’ provider. This new mindset is contributing to CampusParc’s interest in enhancing relationship building and crafting a friendly and approachable brand language that interjects a sense of delight. This paper captures this collaboration and presents the student-led design solutions as a case study that can serve as a model for future professional academic collaborations.
Kaleidoscope-Special Sessions Presentation
You may have labored for years to achieve your current market success. But as your success grows, so do expectations.
Growth targets require both capitalizing on existing business practices and innovating new ones. It can be a challenge to do both.
Kaleidoscope's VP of Research and Development, Mike Clem, DVM, Ms shares his understandable, memorable and easy-to- apply "Ships and Castle" model.
Lately, various kinds of intelligent products have been invented, and to play a part in the “intelligent” era, I designed an intelligent nursing bottle which can help a user when making up a bottle for a baby in middle of the night. The intelligent nursing bottle, Easybottle is a behaviour induce interaction product, which means that it motivates a user to do something with pleasure. As a mother of one year old, I learned that it is very important for a caregiver to feel satisfied in order to nurse a baby from the heart. Easybottle provides sound modality to notify the caregiver how much water she should pour when mixing powdered formula with water so she does not need to feel agitated to read bottle markings in middle of the night when her eyes are not fully awake.
The methodology that I applied is metaphor. As metaphors, I chose two different sounds to compare; sound of water pouring and sound of a car’s proximity sensor. The main goal was to define more useful interface for Easybottle.
I conducted quantitative within-participants experiment. This study explored whether lifelike sound works better or artificial sound works better as an indication interface. Participants evaluated the water pouring sound interface more positively than a car’s proximity sensor sound interface. Lifelike and hedonic factor appeared to be attractive to the participants and it implies that even though Easybottle is an electronic product, participants appreciate more when it reminds them of nature. Also, entertainment factor is important when doing a chore.
Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity in adulthood and is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in China. It is necessary to develop an intervention project for preschool children. Based on a service design project aiming at the communication of balanced diet information to the preschool children in China, this paper discusses how to take advantage of the digital platform and game-based learning to empower the preschool children. It argues for the importance of the DIKW hierarchy for empowerment. It also proposes an innovative model to involve new stakeholders into the whole system and to improve the viability of the project.
This submission reports a design-driven integrated innovation on EV mobility, EV 3.0, as a collaboration between design research institution and a small BEV company in China. The on-going project provides a novel vision and design strategies of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and mobility and has achieved a key technological performance on rapid charging of BEV. The current situation of BEV Industry and their recharging patterns show a big gap of new energy mobility. Key issues of BEV and mobility are defined by analysis of users’ need of mass market and a case study of a leading BEV. Usability of charging is identified as a bottleneck of BEV industry. Hence a new vision and scenario of rapid charging are defined, leading to respective design strategies and technological routines. With a long term investigation and iterative prototyping, an established prototype is developed and officially tested in the National Center of Supervision and Inspection on New Energy Motor Vehicle Products Quality in Shanghai. The test result indicates that the prototype has 431 km range in speed of 80km/h with only 15 minutes’ recharging, which provides a valid routine to break bottleneck of BEV industry .
A Design for Service (DfS) approach has been linked with impacts that significantly alter touchpoints, services and organisational culture. However, there is no model with which to assess the extent to which these impacts can be considered transformational. In the absence of such a model, the authors have reviewed literature on subjects including the transformational potential of design; characteristics of transformational design; transformational change; and organisational change. From this review, six indicators of transformational change in design projects have been identified: evidence of non-traditional transformative design objects; evidence of a new perspective; evidence of a community of advocates; evidence of design capability; evidence of new power dynamics; and evidence of new organisational standards. These indicators, along with an assessment scale, have been used to succesfully review the findings from a doctoral study exploring the impact of the DfS approach in Voluntary Community Sector (VCS) organisations. This paper presents this model as a first-step to establishing a method to helpfully gauge the extent of transformational impact in design projects.
In this project, two key elements of the development of technology, Facebook, a social media tool, and mobile phones, a portable communication/connectivity tool is brought together in an experiment that was started in 2009 as pilot and full scale since 2011 which continues to date. The objective of this research is document in real-time, how actual and possible uses of mobile phones, which has transcended from the rubber keypad versions to the smartphones of today, is extending beyond its first intentions. The idea came about on reading that people residing abroad bypass stringent laws, national and international, to transfer money to their homes in Africa through the purchase of prepaid cards and offering the ‘pre-paid’ time as ‘money equivalent’ to traders back home who then deliver real money to people in Africa. Today, there are official versions of this such as ‘Sente’ in that continent. With news and clippings appearing across the internet, through various means such as blogs, websites, newssites, etc., the author realised that all the information, news and bits about the emergence of new uses of mobile phones could be documented through a simple Facebook page. Titled ‘Unique Uses of the Mobile Phones’ the author has been collating information and news about the various ways and means by which smart phones have gone beyond their first incarnation as mobile or cell phones. As an on-going project, the author intends to harvest the data to present the findings in research papers and articles.
The mental model is a well-known subject discussed by Norman. But problems of everyday things continue to exist. In fact, it is almost impossible to provide a coherent conceptual model for individual users, especially when an increasing number of technology-embedded artifacts have created new interactivities nowadays. In this paper, the classical user interface problem of a gas stove’s spatial mapping will be used to demonstrate how interactivity could be tamed by using the concept of feedforward. Feedforward is an important element to consider because it provides clear and instant affordance, leading to a mistake-free user experience.
This paper discusses feedforward based on the utilitarian perspective. The Previewable system will be introduced to compare the performance among conventional, touch-enabled, and hover-enabled gas stoves. Findings from a comparison analysis of its performance, its state of action, and the subjective experience will be shared. Furthermore, aspects of feedforward open up a venue in which to discuss its influence on the interpersonal and power relations that exist between artifacts and users with a design guide. The latent potential of feedforward leaves a lot to be discussed, but the findings in this paper strengthen the case for feedforward and lead to a glimpse of look at feedforward in context-aware.
The rapid development of IoT technology has accelerated the growth of smart services. Despite the proliferation of smart services, academic research is still in its early stage particularly in terms of service experience and service design. Concerning a service experience viewpoint, it is essential to consider the context and environment of smart services, namely “smart servicescape,” as this can influence users’ entire experience.
Moreover, the smart servicescape will have different characteristics due to the convergence of online and offline connected environments. With this background, this study aimed to propose a framework for the smart servicescape by identifying new dimensions that reflect the characteristics of smart services.
Accordingly, an initial analytic framework of service experience blueprint was established on the basis of the conventional servicescape and service blueprinting. Twenty movie clips on smart home services officially produced by ICT corporations were collected, were analyzed through grounded theory, and were classified according to the analytic framework. Through a series of qualitative analysis, the framework structure was improved to make it more suitable for the smart servicescape. Finally, this study proposed a framework for the smart servicescape derived from the smart home service experience blueprint. The values of this framework can be identified in two aspects: (1) by identifying new dimensions to reflect the characteristics of smart services such as Smart device, Datascape, and Connected scape; and
(2) by suggesting the structure of the service experience blueprint infused with the perspective of service experience, which consists of service encounters and the servicescape.
This paper studies a design workshop that investigates complex collaboration between fundamental physics and design. Our research focuses on how students create original artefacts that bridge the gap between disciplines that have very little in common. Our goal is to study the micro-evolutions of their projects. Elaborating first on Actor Network Theory (Latour, 1996; 2005) we study how students’ projects evolved over time and through a diversity of inputs and media. Throughout this longitudinal study, we use then a semiotic and pragmatic approach to observe three “aesthetical formations”: translation, composition, and stabilization. These formations suggest that the question of material agency developed in the field of archeology and cognitive science (Knappett & Malafouris, 2008) need to be considered in the design field (Renon, 2016) to explain metamorphoses from the brief to the final realizations.
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Chris Rockwell is CEO and founder of Lextant, a human experience firm dedicated to informing and inspiring design through a deep understanding of people, their experiences and aspirations. For over 20 years, Chris and his team have developed leading techniques to connect desires to the design of product and service experiences for some of the largest brands in the automotive, consumer packaged goods, healthcare, and financial industries. A frequent speaker and thought leader, Chris was recently added to the Smart 50 list of innovators and was named a top executive in Central Ohio.
Based on a sound research plan, qualitative user data help designers understand needs, behaviors, and frustrations of a target user group. However, when a design team attempts to design for unfamiliar target groups, it is extremely difficult to accurately observe and understand them by simply using traditional research methods such as interviews and observation. As a result, the quality of user research data can be called into a question, which leads to unsatisfying design solutions. Inspired by a fiction writer’s technique of generating stories together with readers, we present the new method, Group Storymaking, that supports designers to quickly gain broad and clear understanding of an unfamiliar target group throughout a story-making activity with actual users. We envision Group Storymaking as a new user study method that designers can easily implement to learn about an unfamiliar target, involving actual users in a research process with less time and cost commitment.
This paper explores the findings of a study into the telecommunications environment in Mongolia. It was hoped that an effective self-learning resource for the prevention of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants for distribution to parents in that country could be created and evaluated using these findings. Based on a field survey conducted in Mongolia, the most effective format this resource should take was identified. A prototype was created that featured video taken from both a third-person and parent’s (first person) perspective. After further evaluation, this prototype is to undergo revisions that will be assessed in Japan and Mongolia before a final version is distributed utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT). It was found that a visual message that did not rely on written language was the most effective means of communicating the desired message. With input from nursing staff in Mongolia, the Sapporo City University School of Design and School of Nursing came to leverage their respective strengths to create an effective prototype that will be used as the basis for a resource for relaying this preventive information to the target audience.
Industrial design education has existed for a long time as part of the university system, but the curriculum and contents of each subject vary considerably from school to school. In recent years, the introduction of new concepts that change the definition of design has blurred the boundaries of design, making the curriculum different. Establishing a standard curriculum to address these challenges is an important task, but it is necessary to fully understand how design education actually takes place and to share content with educators. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on industrial design education by fully disclosing the process and results of the first stage of industrial design education of a university by autobiographical method. The first course, Product Design Practice 1, is a studio class based on a task feedback iteration system. Students are required to submit assignments showing weekly progress. The instructor reviewed the assignments submitted before the class and gave written comments in class. In addition, details of the design process and method that are difficult to identify as novice students are learned through twelve case studies and applied to the project. This Task Feedback Repeating Class system gives students the opportunity to implement design ability while gaining detailed skills with a comprehensive view. Through this process, the researcher got a reflection on the class and implications for the improvement of the class.
The authors performed a usability improvement study for a shoulder continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation device based on the usability engineering process of IEC 62366, a mandatory standard for the development of medical devices. To enhance the usability of the entire development process for a shoulder CPM device, the authors 1) performed user research to determine design requirements and 2) evaluated the usability of the device. Requirements for a shoulder CPM device were derived through rehabilitation device comparisons, functional analysis, context inquiry and observation, and interviews. The authors used expert reviews and comparison usability evaluation methods for shoulder CPM prototyping. The methods and techniques of these design researches were declared in IEC 62366, but IEC 62366 does not include any guideline in detail. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of a user interface that meets the level of usability standards required for medical devices.
Design is essential in product development but several small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) relatively capable of manufacturing are suffered from lack of in-house design ability. For new product design, these SMEs typically employ external designers. In this clientdesigner interaction, designers propose design solution alternatives to their clients, which clients may accept or reject. In some cases, clients provide designers further design requirements. A study on how interactions are performed and what effects these interactions have on the results of product development is essential to determine what is needed to achieve successful collaborative relationships. Thus, this study analyzed three design development cases that were previously performed to understand how interactions work between clients and designers and its effect on the outcomes. In all cases, the design team developed designs for the clients based on their technological requirements. This study focused on the effect of client stance on the process and deliverables. Clients usually take various actions that accept or reject design solutions or give additional demands. This is because clients take initiative in decision making. Clients' stance was divided into receptive and expressive stances. As a result, a receptive stance ensured the design capabilities of design consultants, whereas expressive stance confined design capabilities to some extent but a new design direction may be proposed based on a client's knowledge, information, and judgment.
Eliciting multiple stakeholder narratives is a critical factor when designing systems, services or products. This research explores how the use of an analog tool (the picture postcard) in the digital age can be used to elicit socio-cultural stories to support design for ‘social practice’. The process combines people and things by using a participatory design approach and material culture studies to design, explore and analyze the complex nature of interactions between social ideals and the artefact.
The study emphasizes ‘slow immersion and design’ by creating prolonged interactions that allow people to sit with someone else’s perspective while also introspecting about their own. In an age of echo-chambers, the research examines the impact of reducing the risk of fragmentation (where people assign themselves into homogenous groups leading to an amplification of pre-existing views (Sunstein, 2001)) on participants’ ability to generate and sustain a healthy exchange of honest, social narratives.
The research findings reveal a deep bonding between participants and a reduction of implicit biases that initiates a broader range of discussions within a given socio-cultural topic. The space for ‘elastic interaction’ (articulation of ideas without fear of judgment; when and how they want it to be expressed) allows honest thoughts to manifest. The findings also reveal that this process slowly allows for an empathetic acceptance of another’s perspectives.
The poster illustrates the research through these various approaches: the process of slow immersion and design research with a combination of postcard exchanges, one-on-one interviews and participatory design research activities to help elicit the stories for a sociocultural co-design space.
This paper expounds the background of Chinese design education as well as the orientation of the design education of Tongji University in the new times, it also collects 458 master thesis of College of Design and Innovation during 2010-2016 as analyzed sample. Based on the coding of subject classification, quantitative analysis and content analysis are made in order to understand the interdisciplinary education status of College of Design and Innovation from the two perspectives: the overall cross-disciplinary performance and the relationship between different cross-disciplinary directions.
Japan has become a super-aging society, with the number of older people (over the age of 65) at a historical high both in absolute numbers (33 million) and as a proportion of the total population (26.0%). Walking is known to be associated with positive psychological improvements such as in subjective sense of wellbeing, life satisfaction, and a sense of purpose in life, as well as improvements in physical and mental function, such as arm/leg muscle strength and standing balance. In this study, we focus on information about functions for assisting walking, comparing and contrasting the information provided by existing products that support walking with the goal of clarifying issues from an information-provision viewpoint. We conducted interviews with eight older people who go for walks on a daily basis, asking about their thoughts before, during, and after walking. From 110 total comments, we obtained 30 comments relating to the action of walking. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of 11 devices and 20 applications that support walking, and from 24 functions, we focused on 20 functions relating to the action of walking. By comparing and contrasting the twin perspectives of “information items” and “information content” with visualization levels identified in the field of management, we clarified issues relating to devices and applications for supporting walking among older users, from the viewpoint of information provision.
Over the last two decades, constructive design research (CDR) — also known as Research through Design — has become an accepted mode of scholarly inquiry within the design research community. CDR is a broad term encompassing almost any kind of research that uses design action as a mode of inquiry. It has been described as having three distinct genres: lab, field, and showroom. The lab and field genres typically take a pragmatic stance, making things as a way of investigating what preferred futures might be. In contrast, research done following the showroom approach (more commonly known as critical design (CD), speculative design, or design fictions) offers a polemic and sometimes also a critique of the current state embodied in an artifact. Recently, we have observed a growing conflict within the design research community between pragmatic and critical researchers. To help reduce this conflict, we call for a divorce between CD and pragmatic CDR. We clarify how CDR and CD exist along a continuum. We conclude with suggestions for the design research community, about how each unique research approach can be used singly or in combination, and how they can push the boundaries of academic design research in new collaboration with different disciplines.
Design is by nature an interdisciplinary, dynamic, and fluid discipline (Cross, 1982; Friedman, 2003). To define what design is has proved to be a very difficult—if not impossible and meaningless—exercise (Friedman, 2000), making also the understanding of the evolution of both the design discipline and practice a complex challenge. A rapidly changing technological landscape increases the breadth of design both in geographical terms and by extending to new domains, merging with different and new disciplines.
Communication Design especially, being closer to the information and the media spheres, is the most sensitive and receptive design area. Communication Design finds online a fertile ground for its growth and developments, thus the online environment and the Web especially can be explored, dug, and mapped as mirrors of that evolution. The aim of our research is to map through the Web the complexity of the intersections between design as a discipline and design as a field of practice. Our exploration and representation of the online design territory covered four online environments: Behance, Wikipedia, Google, and the websites of the top one hundred design universities. The study has been conducted by using digital, statistical, and visualization methods. This exploration seeks neither to confirm theories nor predict the future, rather, it wants to make explicit and observable what Communication Design has become today. It aims to screenshot the state of the art, the emerging paths, in order to understand where and how it is going to develop. The attempt is to make design as a complex phenomenon visible, through the construction of a set of maps and representations for professors, students, and associations. These representations are tools to trigger reflections on the discipline
Design oriented educational institution around the world, project based learning is well practiced in local setting as well as global setting. Communication is one of the significant aspect in this learning settings. Currently, many design projects are implemented by members beyond their belonging organization, creating difficulties in face to face communication, especially when members are in different countries. This study proposes a new method for project-based learning in design education program implemented on international design workshop and discuss about outcome through empirical program.
This method is composed in three phases. First phase is online pre-workshop session using SLACK, where each member do their own researching and surveying on the specific topic related to the project, share and discuss them with other members. The second phase is face to face workshop, which all members gather in one place to work on the project intensively to make their group design proposal. The lastly in the post workshop phase, each member get back online to make reflection on the project, feedback them on the proposal, and make improvements. Also, compile and publish a project reports on the overall program for documentation. Through out the program, SLACK platform is used for basic communication and sharing data and information. S This program are operated in an international design workshop called “Global Design Workshop” of Chiba Institute of Technology(CIT, Chiba, Japan), with students from Chiba University(CU, Chiba, Japan) and Tunghai University(THU, Taichung, Taiwan) . The theme of the workshop was “New work place, space, style using IoT technologies.
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Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and Premera Blue Cross show you how we conducted design research to build a collective understanding of the cancer care experience. We will provide detailed instructions, with checklists, on how to recreate a similar collaboration, including how we worked and what we worked on. You will walk away knowing how we shared skills and resources, built credibility and equal playing fields, and delivered research insights to both our organizations from multiple perspectives and vantage points.
Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) brings together the leading research teams and cancer specialists from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle Children's and UW Medicine. Based in Seattle, SCCA is one of the top five Adult Cancer Care facilities in the United States as ranked by U.S. News & World Report. Shay Ghassemian, User Experience Designer in Digital Health, and Katie Rehfield, Patient Experience Specialist, will be facilitating this workshop.
Premera Blue Cross is a not-for-profit health insurance company serving 2 million people across the United States. As the largest health plan in the Pacific Northwest, Premera offers a wide range of products for individuals and families, Medicare recipients, and employers ranging from small business to Fortune 100 companies. Irish Malig, Senior Manager of Experience Strategy, Robert Racadio, Design Research Manager, Design Strategists Sara Bell, Paul Braun, and Ryan Rosensweig, and Darci Brown, Healthcare Implementation Manager in Provider Experience, will all be facilitating this workshop.
Presented by Shay Ghassemian and Robert Racadio
This study aims to explore the difficulties of preserving cultural heritage in rural areas and to inform better designs of computer systems to support such preservation. In this case study, we observed and documented craft cultures in three rural villages in China. Our methods include photo-ethnography, interview and observation. From analyzing various types of data, we were able to identify issues of cultural heritage preservation, including cultural identity and values. We propose a conceptual system design for an installation and software connecting rural craftspeople and people who appreciate crafts, as a means of fostering a mutual relationship of support and appreciation. We believe this relationship can help preserve cultural heritage in rural areas. Some of the system installation elements were prototyped in scale models. The paper’s primary contribution is the design field research, analysis of design field research, and conceptualization.
We recognize our past—history and heritage—as crucial to who we are (Grenville, 2007; Lowenthal, 2008; Nietzsche, 1874/1980). Significant regulatory and popular effort is expended in protecting places, buildings, and behaviors that link us to this past. International governance organizations recognize free association with history as a fundamental human right (e.g., Blake, 2011). Tangible representations of the past (e.g., objects, buildings, landscapes) are preserved as reminders of this past. Given the broad agreement that connections to the past are important parts of human existence, what are the connections between individuals’ security in knowledge of their own history and measures of public health?
The literature connecting preservation and public health is neither direct nor voluminous. A search for literature revealed a gap in knowledge about ways that preservation and public health relate. While some literature demonstrates possible connections between the two fields, no identified articles argue for the connection. Two examples from the preservation literature (Appler, 2015; Kearney & Bradley, 2015) explain situations where preservation issues have affected public health concerns, but do not acknowledge public health as part of their discussion. This exploratory essay briefly outlines core principles of public health and a review of literature from the public health and preservation and heritage fields that aligns with these principles. The essay concludes targeted research into the relationship preservation-public health is needed.
Having observed that many industrial design projects are started with the wrong approach, producing loss of resources, time, and professional relationships, this article presents a set of three tools that enables a clearer view of the Fuzzy Front-end (Vogel, Cagan). The first tool helps to understand the design order (Buchanan) of the product to be developed, and to place it in the utilitarian product universe (practical and economically biased), the transitional-wholistic product universe (practical, economic, and emotionally balanced), or the emotional product universe (viscerally and symbolically biased). The second identifies a product’s global purpose composed by its practical, economic, and emotional purposes, as well as the value factors they include (practical and indicative function, usability, practical or emotional cost-benefit, visceral appeal, and symbolic meaning). The third tool involves the type of project to be undertaken (vision, new development, major enhancement, or minor enhancement). Applicable to all disciplines of design, the three tools comprise the product identity footprint, which helps inform the selection of appropriate strategies to start a project the right way. It can increase the efficiency of the product development process by providing an agreed view that can be shared with all the development team, from the project sponsor to the engineering, marketing, planning, and creative departments.
Understanding the user’s situation is very important in the design process. There are many ways to understand a user’s situation – a designer might observe a user’s situation or a user
might record their own situation in Human Centered Design (HCD) file. However, the latter of these methods has not been very popular mainly because of the burden it place on the users. This research proposes a new smartphone-based design support application, named “HN camera”, which can be used to record the users’ situation, without any additional burden on them. This application is based on the ‘Extended Alethic/Deontic/Temporal (ADT) model’ concept. A user or a designer can understand and record the user’s situation based on the Physical factor, the Kansei factor, and the Cultural factor using HN Camera. The application was used in visualizing and analyzing tourists’ travel as a service design. Through this, the effectiveness of the proposed application was clarified.