High-stakes testing that became the norm after the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 helped condition students to strive for correct answers for clear problems, all on the first try. However, the iterative process inherent in designing requires risk-taking to conduct a trial-and-error process of defining problems and exploring possible solutions. This design research project was operated with Miami University Graphic Design students to test their willingness to take risks in their coursework to achieve their self-defined measures of success. Students identified that improving their skills was how they defined success. An interaction design assignment involving front-end coding was modified to test students’ comfort taking risks to grow their skills. Most students took risks in the assignment to grow their interaction design skills. The project revealed that closer attention to student motivation when developing learning experiences could help students make the transition to practicing design as an iterative process fraught with risk.
As humans’ information processing abilities, have become more and more disconnected from their senses due to an increasing quantity of abstract information, so have design processes. There is a demand for designers to include human sensation as part of engaging product forms and experiences. This qualitative case study explores the role of senses and their potential use in design ideation. A literature review of related theoretical and pragmatic perspectives and a survey of 15-20 product examples that provide unique sensory experiences are analyzed and sorted through four sensory design strategies: Sensory Augmentation, Conversion, Transition and Isolation. Using the four strategies as core concepts, a Sensory Reflective Framework with a mindful focus on sensory appreciation and translation is proposed to support designers’ ideation in creating unique product forms and experiences. The paper reports the process and findings of a sensory ideation workshop which was conducted based on the framework, and further discusses the development and implications of the framework in supporting designers’ sensory ideation.
Solution-generation design behavior in general, and "reflection-in-action" in particular, can serve to differentiate designers, recognizing their personal reflecting when designing. In psychology, reflection is found a more robust tool to enhance task performance after feedback from a personal "device" that generates the process itself while interacting with visual representation. Differences among students' interior design processes appear in their solution-generation design behavior. A “think aloud” experiment identified solution-generation behavior profiles. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies showed how design characteristics unite, forming patterns of design behavior. A comprehensive picture of designers’ differences emerged.
The research aimed:
to identify individual design students’ solution-generation profiles based on design characteristics.
to show how reflection-in-action appearing in the profiles can serve to predict how novice designers learn and act when solving a design problem.
to enhance the uniqueness of reflection-in-action for designers as distinct from reflection in other fields.
Four distinct solution-generation profiles emerged, each showing a different type of reflective acts. Identifying reflection-in-action type can robustly predict how designers develop design solutions and help develop pedagogical concepts, strategies and tools.
There is considerable interest within the design research domain in the possible cognitive functions and actions as ‘design thinking’ is used. This proposal commences with reference to Senge who suggests, “Truly creative people use the gap between vision and current reality to generate energy for change”. He drew from the musician Fritz, who proposed, “It’s not what the vision is but what the vision does,” (1990, p.153). The imagined ideal in a vision seems to act like a spike setting off self-urging creative intuitions and insights and instinctive reactions. A conceptual series of diagrams will develop these insights where an imagined ideal is to be set up as the vision as the anticipated experience of a ‘best-possible-self’ with success, where emergent ‘ideas-of-best-fit’ closely match the designer’s goals and desires. The triggering mental actions required are similar in form to De Bono’s technique based on ‘Six Colored Hats’ (1985). In this project, however, the practitioner adopts an overarching meaningful ideal for a ‘hat’ in the form of an experiential clear sense of success as motivating ideations emerge, such that these closely match their goals and desires as a ‘best-possible-fit’. The model is also potentially transformative as the visioning ideal could be framed such that any emergent effects of encoded formed bias or a self-limiting psychology could be effectively reduced or eliminated through the applied created differential as a ‘generative gap’ for the self. This paper will further suggest how this envisaged ideal of success could be experientially explored through co-creative action cycles of research in different design-thinking domains.
Numerous studies have dealt with what kind of value narrative can have for creating a more effective design process. However, there is lack of consideration of storytelling techniques on a stage-by-stage level, where each stage of storytelling technique can draw attention to detailed content for creating use-case scenarios for design development. This research aims to identify the potential implications for design development by using storytelling techniques. For the empirical research, two types of workshops were conducted in order to select the most appropriate storytelling technique for building use-case scenarios, and to determine the relationship between the two methods. Afterwards, co-occurrence analysis was conducted to examine how each step of storytelling technique can help designers develop an enriched content of use-case scenario. Subsequently, the major findings of this research are further discussed, dealing with how each of the storytelling technique steps can help designers to incorporate important issues when building use-case scenarios for design development. These issues are: alternative and competitor’s solution which can aid designers to create better design features; status quo bias of user which can help the designer investigate the occurring reason of the issue; and finally, social/political values of user which have the potential of guiding designers to create strengthened user experience. The results of this research help designers and design researchers concentrate on crucial factors such as the alternative or competitor’s solution, the status quo bias of user, and social/political values of the user when dealing with issues of building use-case scenarios.
The deterioration of linguistic abilities is a natural phenomenon along with aging. Therefore, various assessment tools have been developed to measure linguistic abilities of seniors and diagnose
degenerative diseases such as dementia. Although most of the tools are composed of images, there are not many studies focusing on the visual design, which could significantly affect performance of the subject. In this regard, this research aims to suggest a design guideline for linguistic ability assessment tools concerning the key characteristics of the elderly, focusing on visual contents and interface.
Existing related researches were mostly conducted in English speaking countries. In order to assess the language processing abilities of Korean-speaking elders more accurately, it is necessary to develop language processing assessment tools that reflect the unique linguistic features and structure of the Korean language. Regarding the existing tools, there is a lack of research on aging, focusing on ‘verb naming.
In the literature review section, the paper investigated the physical, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the elderly and extracted the key elements to consider when designing for the elderly. Also, design principles were found based on case studies and problem analysis of the existing assessment tools for language processing abilities. Lastly, we created a prototype model using ‘verb naming.’ Using the model, we have conducted an experiment and comparative analysis between different age groups to verify the validity of contents.
In conclusion, we provided a design guideline for visual contents and interface of linguistic assessment tools, focusing on elderly users.
While it is common for landscaped and well-marked urban streets to have sufficient identification signs, which display place or street names, they often face issues regarding the provision of information (e.g., in sign placement) and inadequate orientation signs, which play an indispensable role in facilitating pedestrian movement. Insufficient signage can be partially addressed by supplementing signs with non-informational urban elements, such as streetlights or other urban features that provide different sorts of information. In order to result in smooth urban pedestrian movement, public signage systems require a balance between districts and streets and a system for presenting linked information. This study proposes that an urban element design system can be applied to the construction of public signage systems for pedestrians. There are several methods by which to accomplish this; each fulfills the needs of different districts and streets. For example, some strategies suggest ways to integrate information in areas with many urban elements, such as public signage, while others offer strategies for adding pedestrian signs and other elements alongside vehicular signs in areas with insufficient information. This article proposes a distribution graph of public signage as a concrete method for organizing the construction of public signage. Such a distribution graph is a way to visualize different distributions of sign type, and see clusters of street patterns. It is an effective way not only to planning new pedestrian signage systems, but also for revising plans with biased or insufficient signage distribution.
Today’s design pedagogies lack the characteristics for redressing the nature of the ‘wicked problems’ they attempt to solve, such as sustainability. We argue it is not fair for future generations to suffer the systemic effects of our unsustainable consumer culture, partly resulting from today’s design professionals’ decisions, which ensue because design is an amoral discipline lacking a systemic perspective.
To rectify design’s characteristic failings, as part of a PhD study, we report a new pedagogical architecture founded as the synthesis of the practices of design and civics, forming the relationship design-as-civics (DaC): a practical philosophy. We position DaC as a reflexive, systemic radical political praxis for every citizen, possessing the explicit teleological goal to achieve the ‘good life’ for all.
DaC takes a transdisciplinary approach. It integrates the discoveries of cognitive science and linguistics to expose how we construct our understanding of the world interpreting metaphors and frames, which we utilise to ‘aim’ DaC. Alongside shared social practice theory (SSP) and insights from developmental psychology that reveal the distinctly human capacity of “shared intentionality” engendering humankind’s willingness for cooperation and empathy for fairness. That living in a fairer society is desired by people from rival political perspectives, with egalitarian societies reporting lower environmental impact lifestyles and more willingness for transitioning towards sustainment.
Thus, it is humankind’s cooperative behaviour and aligning values that provides the foundational rationale of DaC’s SSP goal to achieve the ‘good life’ through the ongoing critical examination of its ‘aim’ of resolving ‘fairness between citizens.’
This paper presents a case study analysing the interactions of nine security officers during the mandatory passenger screening process at an Australian international Airport. Eye-tracking glasses were used to observe the visual, physical and verbal interactions of security officers while they performed the x-ray task. Stationary video recording devices were used to record physical and verbal interactions performed by security officers during the load, search and metal detector tasks. Six taxonomic groups were developed that define the different types of interactions performed by security officers during each task. Each taxonomic group is comprised of several discrete interactions specific to each of the tasks observed. Through analysing the composition of interactions and the relationships between interactions in different tasks, this paper highlights the prominence of interactions that security officers perform with passengers and their belongings. These interactions play an important role in the first and last stages of the passenger screening process, as well as influence the functioning of the overall passenger screening process. Due to this, they have substantial effect on passenger experience, throughput efficiency and security efficacy. In response to these findings, we draw from emerging security technologies and persuasive design principles to present potential design solutions for optimising the passenger screening process. These are presented in the context of a preliminary framework with which to inform the design of current and future passenger screening processes.
Commercial products specially designed for the elderly have assumption of user disability and focus on assistive tools design. However, recent studies show aged people gradually stay healthy condition because of modern advanced medical technology and service. There so- called “platinum society” that describes a group of aged people live in a community where they have to take care of themselves under healthy condition. To respond to above situation, this study applies service design model to explore daily life requirement of the elderly and proposes a new transportation assistive device design located aside the bus station. From empathy map analysis, point of view definition, requirement-and-function deployment, to service model construction, real daily life activity and movement of the elderly are collected and analyzed. A participative design approach is applied to involve senior citizen participation that is helpful to retrieve their intangible needs. In this proposed design, it includes an information interface and an exercise assistive device for the elderly to use during the waiting period when they stay at the bus station. It provides required information for transportation purpose as well as simple exercise movement that make it form an area of social connection. Instead of boring waiting time wasted at the station, it enhances interaction between the elderly through uncomplicated stretch movement and conversation. A scaled prototype is implemented to simulate and test the scenario and interview is executed to collect feedback from the elderly. Ongoing progress show a feasible application can be achieved by integrating with current environment.