How do arts-based writing endeavors catalyze generative thinking and support research development in design students’ thesis endeavors? This paper offers reflections from an industrial design masters student, a graphic design masters student, and their arts education professor in a School of Design at a Research I institution. Informed by theoretical and historical contexts of the design discipline and perspectives from composition studies and fine arts practice, we explore the potential of arts-based writing as an evocative, speculative tool and a distinctive form of reflective practice for the development of graduate design research. We suggest that arts-based writing’s iterative process, dialogic engagement, and speculative approach to knowledge-construction provide critical, reflective structures for working through uncertainties and thus are uniquely responsive to the evolving epistemologies of the transdisciplinary university. Three focal questions guide this reflection: What is arts-based writing? What role does arts-based writing play in students’ design research endeavors? How can arts-based writing practices support the growth of speculative and pragmatic design research?
The ethical dimensions of basing a typeface on existing faces are unclear. Commentary about “clones” from critics and type designers alike are confused and contradictory. Few writers consider the issues systematically. Misunderstanding of copyright law and unreflective versions of moral rights claims dominate discussion. Open discussion of the models for a type design avoid claims of plagiarism and also affect the reception of the new typeface.
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Meredith Davis has taught for forty-seven years and served as head of the Department of Graphic Design, Director of Graduate Programs in Graphic Design, and Director of the PhD Design program at NC State University. She is an AIGA fellow and national medalist, Alexander Quarles Holladay Medalist for Teaching Excellence, and fellow and former member of the accreditation commission of the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, for which she drafted the national standards for the evaluation of college-level design programs. She serves as a member of the education advisory committee of the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian National Design Museum and is a former president of the American Center for Design. Meredith is a frequent author–including four books on design and design education– and serves on the editorial boards of She Ji and Design Issues. Her research includes a two-year study of design-based teaching and learning for the National Endowment for the Arts, which received a CHOICE award from the National Association of College and Research Libraries.
She has served on the development teams for two National Assessments of Educational Progress, most recently for the scenario-based evaluation of 21,500 students in Technology and Engineering Design Literacy. She authored a five-year research study of teaching critical and creative thinking across the college curriculum, featured in a study by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development on the effectiveness of higher education in preparing students for innovation jobs. She has reviewed proposals for the Smithsonian Office of Education and Museum Studies, National Science Foundation, US Department of Education, Institute of Museum and Library Services, and Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and her work has been funded by the Kenan Institute for Engineering, Science and Technology; National Endowment for the Arts; Worldesign Foundation; and several state commissions.
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Bob Schwartz joined GE Healthcare (GEHC) in December 2007 as General Manager, Global Design & User Experience. With five studios in four countries, Bob is responsible for overseeing the Global Design function encompassing human factors, industrial design, ergonomics, user-interface, environmental design, and design research. As a strategic driver of organic business growth, his team focuses on the look, feel usability and end-to-end experience of GEHC products and services. Bob is also the GE Healthcare Global Executive Sponsor of the People with Disabilities Network.
Since 2009, Global Design/UX has been the recipient of 19 medals from the International Design Excellence Awards (IDEA) and was listed, in 2011, by Fast Company magazine as a Corporate Design Stronghold. In 2015, Bob’s career trajectory was cited by Fast Company as among the top Chief Design Officers. In 2015 the Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA) named him among the 50 most notable industrial designers of the last 50 years. Bob was recently elected Chair of the Board of the Design Management Institute.
Continuously engaged in Design education throughout his career, he is a two-term member of the Board of Trustees of the Milwaukee Institute of Art & Design and its Executive Committee and is Chair of its Academic Excellence Committee.
Bob is also a member of the Design Management Advisory Board at Northwestern University and has had similar roles at Savannah College of Art and Design and Carnegie Mellon University. Further, he has also held a design faculty appointment at the University of Cincinnati. While at P&G, Bob applied his leadership to developing the School Collaboratives Program there and has created similar relationships in his other roles with academic institutions globally.
Bob joined GEHC from Procter & Gamble, where he was a global design leader working to transform the design function there to a strategically relevant capability, which is now comprised of 350 global designers and design managers. Prior to P&G, Bob was Vice President, New Product Development, at Levolor Kirsch, a division of Newell Rubbermaid, where he brought innovation to the home decor industry. At Motorola, Bob was the Director of Design, responsible globally for all key product lines within the Commercial, Government, Industrial and Consumer Products businesses.
As Executive Director and COO for the Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA) Bob forged an unprecedented relationship with Business Week magazine to annually publish the Industrial Design Excellence (IDEA) awards and later the Catalyst Awards. This accomplishment led to Bob receiving a United Nations appointment to the People's Republic of China as Senior Advisor for Design. He has also testified before Congress on a Bill to establish a US Design Center in the Dept. of Commerce.
Bob was also the Director, Science and Technology Programs for AdvaMed, where he forged strong partnerships with the FDA, HCFA and Congress and lobbied and directed policy and voluntary standards research for circulatory and cardiovascular devices, healthcare information systems and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Prior to this, Bob was the head of Corporate Industrial Design and Architecture for the American Red Cross, where he implemented new nation-wide mobile blood collection, tissue banking and disaster services systems and blood center laboratory designs.
Most notably, Bob was inducted into the IDSA Academy of Fellows at the 2007 World Congress of Industrial Design, for his outstanding contributions to the industry.
Bob has a Masters degree in Industrial Design from the Rhode Island School of Design, where he was a Roddy Scholar, and a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Industrial & Graphic Design from the Kansas City Art Institute.
The profession of industrial/product design has the capacity to support wealth generation through a product-driven supply chain that extends across services that include manufacturing, distribution, sales and maintenance. Moving away from the more typical manufacturing approaches of developed countries, where the resources available to support designers employ advanced technologies and materials, this paper discusses an on-going UK Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded project to explore ways in which industrial/product design can provide opportunities for entrepreneurship and employment in countries on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) List and receive Overseas Development Assistance (ODA). Through practice-lad research with participants from Uganda, Kenya, Indonesia and Turkey; industrial/product design educators/researchers/practitioners shared knowledge and expertise and engaged in creative activity to translate propositions into proposals with the potential for manufacture in each of the four countries. The findings, articulated product visualisations, indicate significant potential to support manufacturing in countries in a variety of levels of economic development by adding value to the packaging of traditional foods; integrating low-cost imported components to add value to indigenous crafts and materials; producing contemporary furniture designs using materials that can be considered as traditional materials; and employing unorthodox and unexpected materials.
Increasing interest is seen at the intersection of architecture and health. The built environment has become associated with a number of negative health outcomes including obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Engaging design students in these inquiries surrounding health is integral in preparing them for future practice. This paper reviews the conceptual development and tested implementation of an interdisciplinary course focusing on the wellbeing and overall health of the occupant, using primary and secondary framework structures in the vein of Groat and Wang’s logical argumentation. The reviewed course engages interdisciplinary teams composed of students from the School of Architecture, the College of Engineering, and the College of Natural Resources, with private practice. The course puts forth an effort to break out of the conventional pedagogical structure found in architectural education, primarily the studio and large lecture spaces. The course has been specifically designed to: (1) establish a framework for common content relating to health in the built environment across disciplinary boundaries; (2) build meaningful partnerships between interdisciplinary student groups; and (3) establish a common vocabulary between architectural education and aligned disciplines regarding health and the built environment. The course structure, activities, and assessments are reviewed, proposing a solid framework for including integrated design and themes of health in architectural education.
This paper demonstrates how Goffman’s frame analysis is applied in a research on designers’ experience with Cloud based digital tools. At the base of Goffman’s structure is the ‘primary frame’ - in this case designers’ experience with computer based digital tools. These tools’ transition to the Cloud initiated by businesses are called ‘fabrications’. Goffman’s ‘structural issues in fabrication’ such as ‘retransformations’ and the ‘nature of recontainment’ are also discussed through contemporary examples. These fabrications are used or ‘keyed’ by ‘active agents’ from various design fields. The data collected showed different levels of understanding of Cloud technology and the application of various tools in everyday design practices. Thus, the interviewees were clustered into three groups - designers, developers and artists. Their experiences form the creative, technology and experimental frame derived from keying of the primary frame. Design researchers can selectively borrow elements from frame analysis’ complex structure to build an effective user experience narrative.
Flexible interaction technology became a one of key technology in nowadays. On the other hand, there are relatively little works has been done to understand how it should be designed especially for feedback of it. In this study, we investigate the guidelines for design feedback to flexible interaction systems through based on user’s expectation on them. We conducted user participated design workshop to collect user’s perspectives about feedback when they use flexible interactions. We gave 8 sets of actions which are generally used in flexible interaction and let 6 participants to generated ideas about visual, sound, and haptic feedback of them. From discussion session in the design workshop, we found out key factors about feedbacks. As a result of design workshop, we build guidelines of designing feedbacks for flexible interactions. This result will lead system designers to build flexible interaction to create flexible interaction which can improve the user experience.
This research expected to innovation designs can develop by more detail user-experience, that also reduce users unfamiliar and depressed; therefore, we investigated that people cognitive process on operated daily commodities, and we planned a tool to analyze users the area of contact and frequency. In experiment, we selected three objects whose size and shape are similar but haven’t limited way of operation. After that, we excluded feature of shape and make them consistent. We studied 30 participants response to operation and affordance, and analysis that by qualitative and quantitative. The result showed the participants have consistent posture of grasp, area of contact and way of operation in the same experimental situation; in addition, even the grip are the same, but following different functional parts, users still response a corresponding way of operation. So we suggest that shape only be as one of design factors on simple design style, and not the main factor. Designer should find other design techniques to enhance the user’s cognitive operation.
The design of meaningful graphical objects to represent collection items must balance the following: amount of useful information that can be communicated through the object’s graphical form, meaningful graphical difference between individual items or groups of items, and restraint in form complexity to allow for the simultaneous display of numerous collection items at a small size. How the user interprets difference and sameness and, more importantly, whether the user attaches hierarchical value to the emergent categories, may play a significant role in determining whether that user focusses attention on one set of data over another, on one set of processes over another, and ultimately, on one set of tasks over another. This paper examines the significant consequences for the understanding of the user resulting from representation of data, files, and other objects in a human-computer interface (HCI), and proposes that new approaches may be indicated, given the growing complexity of what is being represented and how what is represented can be used.
As society shifts towards an increasingly sustainable future, high-performance buildings can provide a means to meet sustainability and energy efficiency goals. Occupants in high-performance buildings are often expected to interact with building systems to maintain individual levels of comfort and productivity. However, the critical role of the human-building interface is often ignored (Day & Heschong, 2016). Too often, building controls are not intuitive and poorly understood by typical users. Conversely, some buildings rely on entirely automated building systems (e.g. lighting, shading, HVAC systems), which take control away from occupants. This approach is largely unpopular with building occupants. The literature suggests people desire and prefer control of their interior environments (e.g., Escuyer & Fontoynont, 2001). Designing a high-performance building that effectively engages users presents a more complex problem than most designers are prepared to handle.
Design teams require an ability to see the whole situation—from how the parts of the system work to how users will engage and adapt the system. This ability relies on systematic efforts to understand broad swaths of human behavior and design research, which go beyond computation or modeling (e.g., Huppatz, 2015; Rittel & Webber, 1973). In this context, design and design research supports third order (activities and processes) and fourth order (environments, organizations, and systems) design problems (Buchanan, 1999). Creating design teams, who can comprehend a whole situation, requires reframing how clients and designers understand design problems. This draft paper links theory about design problems with practical processes for using design research to improve the human-building interface.
In this paper, we present results from a collaborative research between academic institutions and industry partners in the UK, which aimed to understand the experience of rail passengers and to identify how the design of technology can improve this experience. Travelling by train can often provide passengers with negative experiences. New technologies give the opportunity to design new interactions that support the creation of positive experiences, but the design should be based on solid understanding of user and their needs. We conducted in-depth, face-to-face semi-structured interviews and used additional questionnaires given to passengers on board of trains to collect the data presented on this paper. A customer journey map was produced to illustrate the passengers’ experiences at diverse touchpoints with the rail system. The positive and negative aspects of each touchpoint are plotted over the course of a ‘typical’ journey, followed by the explanations for these ratings. Results indicate how the design of technological innovations can enhance the passenger experience, especially at the problematic touchpoints, e.g. when collecting tickets, navigating to the platform, boarding the train and finding a seat. We finalise this paper pointing towards requirements for future technological innovations to improve the passenger experience.
The more society gets complicated and developed, the more demand for various products. As a result, we are living in a flood of various products. However, considering how people consume and use products in their daily life, it is not difficult to find people transforming, changing the original purpose or adding value to existing products instead of buying new ones. This phenomenon has been defined as everyday design. In a sense that everyday design provides a better understanding of actual uses in real context, it deserves to be studied. Therefore, this paper attempts to figure out an underlying mechanism of everyday design. For this, a conceptual framework was developed, whose focus was on what triggers everyday design, what goals are set, and how a product is transformed. The conceptual framework was validated with a photographic inventory of users’ everyday design in our daily life. The conceptual framework could provide a better understanding of everyday design in a systematic way. If it is considered in the product development process, it could contribute to an increase of use satisfaction as well as sustainable design. The limitations and a further study are discussed at the end of the paper.
From the 1980s, design thinking has emerged in companies as a method for practical and creative problem solving, based on designers’ way of thinking, integrated into a rational and iterative model to accompany the process. In companies, design thinking helped valuing creative teamwork, though not necessarily professional designers’ expertise. By pointing out two blind spots in design thinking models, as currently understood and implemented, this paper aims at shedding light on two rarely described traits of designers’ self. The first relies in problem framing, a breaking point that deeply escapes determinism. The second blind spot questions the post project process. We thus seek to portray designers’ singularity, in order to stimulate critical reflection and encourage the opening-up to design culture. Companies and organizations willing to make the most of designers’ expertise would gain acknowledging their critical heteronomy to foster innovation based on strong and disruptive visions, beyond an out-of-date problem solving approach to design.
Typography is an important visible element of a cultural festival’s brand mark, yet is
overlooked within cultural festival research. An abundance of work has been published that
examines cultural festivals from cultural, economic, tourism, and place-making perspectives,
yet there is a shortfall in scholarly research addressing the key role typography performs to
engage audience participation through cultural festivals’ primary brand driver – the brand
mark. This paper critically considers triangulation as a constructive and effective research
framework for enquiry into typography deployed in the brand marks of cultural festivals and
provides a roadmap to further research. Offering an analysis of how and in what way
typography is being used in the brand marks for cultural festivals, this paper contributes a
discussion of appropriate research methods in the examination of this material. Triangulation
is engaged as a research technique combining the methods 1) content analysis, 2) case study
(text analysis) and 3) a semiotic analysis of typography as a framework to advantage three
perspectives on typography, capturing the complexities of the phenomenon. Through a pilot
study of 20 cultural festival brand marks from English speaking countries in 2016, the findings
show that triangulation of three methods is beneficial to uncovering a rich and nuanced
understanding of the role of typography in brand marks. Although many research methods are
available to design researchers, the authors argue that triangulation, is an appropriate method
to analyze typography used in the brand marks of cultural festivals as it allows for the
emergence of a heterogeneous understanding of the discipline.
Commercial products specially designed for the elderly have assumption of user disability and focus on assistive tools design. However, recent studies show aged people gradually stay healthy condition because of modern advanced medical technology and service. There so- called “platinum society” that describes a group of aged people live in a community where they have to take care of themselves under healthy condition. To respond to above situation, this study applies service design model to explore daily life requirement of the elderly and proposes a new transportation assistive device design located aside the bus station. From empathy map analysis, point of view definition, requirement-and-function deployment, to service model construction, real daily life activity and movement of the elderly are collected and analyzed. A participative design approach is applied to involve senior citizen participation that is helpful to retrieve their intangible needs. In this proposed design, it includes an information interface and an exercise assistive device for the elderly to use during the waiting period when they stay at the bus station. It provides required information for transportation purpose as well as simple exercise movement that make it form an area of social connection. Instead of boring waiting time wasted at the station, it enhances interaction between the elderly through uncomplicated stretch movement and conversation. A scaled prototype is implemented to simulate and test the scenario and interview is executed to collect feedback from the elderly. Ongoing progress show a feasible application can be achieved by integrating with current environment.
This paper presents a case study analysing the interactions of nine security officers during the mandatory passenger screening process at an Australian international Airport. Eye-tracking glasses were used to observe the visual, physical and verbal interactions of security officers while they performed the x-ray task. Stationary video recording devices were used to record physical and verbal interactions performed by security officers during the load, search and metal detector tasks. Six taxonomic groups were developed that define the different types of interactions performed by security officers during each task. Each taxonomic group is comprised of several discrete interactions specific to each of the tasks observed. Through analysing the composition of interactions and the relationships between interactions in different tasks, this paper highlights the prominence of interactions that security officers perform with passengers and their belongings. These interactions play an important role in the first and last stages of the passenger screening process, as well as influence the functioning of the overall passenger screening process. Due to this, they have substantial effect on passenger experience, throughput efficiency and security efficacy. In response to these findings, we draw from emerging security technologies and persuasive design principles to present potential design solutions for optimising the passenger screening process. These are presented in the context of a preliminary framework with which to inform the design of current and future passenger screening processes.
Today’s design pedagogies lack the characteristics for redressing the nature of the ‘wicked problems’ they attempt to solve, such as sustainability. We argue it is not fair for future generations to suffer the systemic effects of our unsustainable consumer culture, partly resulting from today’s design professionals’ decisions, which ensue because design is an amoral discipline lacking a systemic perspective.
To rectify design’s characteristic failings, as part of a PhD study, we report a new pedagogical architecture founded as the synthesis of the practices of design and civics, forming the relationship design-as-civics (DaC): a practical philosophy. We position DaC as a reflexive, systemic radical political praxis for every citizen, possessing the explicit teleological goal to achieve the ‘good life’ for all.
DaC takes a transdisciplinary approach. It integrates the discoveries of cognitive science and linguistics to expose how we construct our understanding of the world interpreting metaphors and frames, which we utilise to ‘aim’ DaC. Alongside shared social practice theory (SSP) and insights from developmental psychology that reveal the distinctly human capacity of “shared intentionality” engendering humankind’s willingness for cooperation and empathy for fairness. That living in a fairer society is desired by people from rival political perspectives, with egalitarian societies reporting lower environmental impact lifestyles and more willingness for transitioning towards sustainment.
Thus, it is humankind’s cooperative behaviour and aligning values that provides the foundational rationale of DaC’s SSP goal to achieve the ‘good life’ through the ongoing critical examination of its ‘aim’ of resolving ‘fairness between citizens.’
While it is common for landscaped and well-marked urban streets to have sufficient identification signs, which display place or street names, they often face issues regarding the provision of information (e.g., in sign placement) and inadequate orientation signs, which play an indispensable role in facilitating pedestrian movement. Insufficient signage can be partially addressed by supplementing signs with non-informational urban elements, such as streetlights or other urban features that provide different sorts of information. In order to result in smooth urban pedestrian movement, public signage systems require a balance between districts and streets and a system for presenting linked information. This study proposes that an urban element design system can be applied to the construction of public signage systems for pedestrians. There are several methods by which to accomplish this; each fulfills the needs of different districts and streets. For example, some strategies suggest ways to integrate information in areas with many urban elements, such as public signage, while others offer strategies for adding pedestrian signs and other elements alongside vehicular signs in areas with insufficient information. This article proposes a distribution graph of public signage as a concrete method for organizing the construction of public signage. Such a distribution graph is a way to visualize different distributions of sign type, and see clusters of street patterns. It is an effective way not only to planning new pedestrian signage systems, but also for revising plans with biased or insufficient signage distribution.
Fundamental to design education is the creation and structure of curriculum. Neither the creation of design curriculum, nor the revaluation of existing curriculum is well documented. With no clear documentation of precedent, best practices are left open to debate. This paper and presentation will discuss the use of a survey as a research tool to assess existing curriculum at Iowa State University in the United States. This tool allowed the needs and perspectives of the program’s diverse stakeholders to be better understood. Utilizing survey methods, research revealed the convergence and divergence of stakeholders’ philosophies, theories and needs in relation to design curriculum.
Accreditation and professional licensing provide base level of guidelines for design curriculum in the United States. However, each program’s curricular structure beyond these guidelines is a complicated balance of resources, facilities, faculty, and the type of institution in which it is housed. Once established, a program’s curriculum is rarely reassessed as a whole, but instead updated with the hasty addition of classes upon an existing curricular structure. Curriculum is infrequently re-addressed, and when it is, it is typically based on the experience and opinions of a select group of faculty. This paper presents how a survey was developed to collect data to inform curricular decision- making, enabling the reduction of faculty bias and speculation in the process. Lessons learned from the development of this research tool will be shared so it might be replicated at other institutions, and be efficiently repeated periodically to ensure currency of a program’s curriculum.