Traditional Industrial Design sponsored studios (when a corporation partners with a student design studio) can quickly become design for hire studios which limit student learning outcomes as well as successful outcomes for the Sponsor. In assessing instruction practices in sponsored studios, traditionally success is limited to products moving directly into production. By reframing the studio into an incubator and in-line studio setting students could work in the same fashion as an in-house design studio, with mass diminutive ideation focusing on performance initially rather than aesthetics causing an increased standard for success. Because students would be concentrating on editing down a mass amount of variables with swift precision using raw but effective mockups, time would not be wasted on improving the craft of an initial, potentially ill- developed concept, leading to more risk projects with market disrupting potential rather than just an aesthetic or materials update going into production.
In a multi-disciplinary studio setting students from Industrial Design, Apparel Merchandising and Design, and Kinesiology, partnered with a corporate sponsored studio instructed in the framework premised above. The outcomes were a success with the studio functioning beyond a studio for hire scenario to learning objectives being met as well as aspects of projects moving forward into to development and projects moving directly into production as well as applications for patents. This paper investigates how studio culture can be reframed to create a diverse range of success as well as what specific instruction techniques, making techniques, and studio culture lead to this success.
This paper engages with the literature to present different perspectives between forecasting
and foresight in strategic design, while drawing insights derived from futures studies that
can be applied in form of a design-inspired foresight approach for designers and
interdisciplinary innovation teams increasingly called upon to help envisage preferable
futures. Demonstrating this process in applied research, relevant examples are drawn from
a 2016 Financial Services industry futures study to the year 2030. While the financial
services industry exemplifies an ideal case for design-inspired foresight, the aims of this
paper are primarily to establish the peculiarities between traditional forecasting
applications and a design-inspired foresight visioning approach as strategic design
activities for selecting preferable futures. Underlining the contribution of this paper is the
value of design futures thinking as a creative and divergent thought process, which has the
potential to respond to the much broader organizational reforms needed to sustain in
today’s rapidly evolving business environment (Buchanan, 2015; Irmak, 2005; Muratovski,
The deterioration of linguistic abilities is a natural phenomenon along with aging. Therefore, various assessment tools have been developed to measure linguistic abilities of seniors and diagnose degenerative diseases such as dementia. Although most of the tools are composed of images, there are not many studies focusing on the visual design, which could significantly affect performance of the subject. In this regard, this research aims to suggest a design guideline for linguistic ability assessment tools concerning the key characteristics of the elderly, focusing on visual contents and interface.
Existing related researches were mostly conducted in English-speaking countries. In order to assess the language processing abilities of Korean-speaking elders more accurately, it is necessary to develop language processing assessment tools that reflect the unique linguistic features and structure of the Korean language. Regarding the existing tools, there is a lack of research on aging, focusing
on ‘verb naming.
In the literature review section, the paper investigated the physical, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the elderly and extracted the key elements to consider when designing for the elderly. Also, design principles were found based on case studies and problem analysis of the existing assessment tools for language processing abilities. Lastly, we created a prototype model using ‘verb naming.’ Using the model, we have conducted an experiment and comparative analysis between different age groups to verify the validity of contents.
In conclusion, we provided a design guideline for visual contents and interface of linguistic assessment tools, focusing on elderly users.
The environment in which patients (need to) reside has a great influence on their wellbeing (Ulrich, 1991). That is why introducing ‘Design for Wellbeing’ is key in the design of palliative environments. People in the last phase of their life become more receptive to environmental stimuli. From our perspective, this triggers design to become even more relevant in such contexts. People’s search for subjective well-being (SWB) has promoted a change in vision in the design of new products, services and environments, with a focus not only on material properties, but also on the personal values that trigger actions that can contribute to people’s SWB. Such considerations contribute also to proposing answers to the question of how design can support people to have a meaningful life and ‘be well’ in the best possible way, according to the circumstances.
The purpose of this paper is firstly, if design for wellbeing can be performed in the context of palliative care, and secondly, how research could be set up in such a precious context. A thorough literature review will be performed to answer these questions. The value of this study lies in aiming to try to enable terminally ill patients and people from their immediate surroundings to cope with these events via design, and to stimulate people to be able to perform activities that they like (most) and which contribute to their SWB.
Low-seated chairs for tatami mats that are characteristic of Japanese-style interior appeared after late 1940s. This article focuses on the ambivalence between Western lifestyles and Japanese lifestyles by tracing the comments of designers, critics, magazines, and so forth to clarify a background of them. The introduction of chairs in Japan was actually involved, by definition, in a dichotomy between sitting on the floor and in chairs, which therefore was far from the domestic practicality of lifestyles among the public. Then we have to observe the two points for the introduction of chairs to break through this rigid situation: (1) how did the public establish definition of chairs outside the Westernization? This article grasps the fact that the artisans and early designers accumulated their experience of producing chairs from scratch, through trial and error. (2) How did the relation between sitting on the floor and in chairs break out of the dichotomy, through ambivalence? This article focuses on the fact that the public enjoyed the physical relaxation offered by the mix of sitting on the floor and in chairs. This constituted the domestic practicality of chairs for the Japanese. Therefore, such experiences of making and using chairs can be summarized as the awakening of a universe in the distance between the floor and the seat-height of Western chairs. It was a new frontier for Japanese designers, and low-seated chairs were born in this space. This article concludes that it marked the transition from Westernization to Japanese modern design.
This study suggests that student reflection on academic and industry collaborative projects can enhance student’s understanding on the design process to solve live industry problems. It contributes to the body of design literature to support students learning of explicit and implicit knowledge (Boling et al., 2016; Land et al., 2016; Salama, 2015). A 2017 learning- by-making (LBM) unit in the School of Architecture and Design, at the University of Tasmania, Australia, developed a unit for students to collaborate with Neville Smith Forest Products Pty. Ltd. (NSFP). NSFP is a local Tasmanian timber product manufacturer who currently stockpiles out-of-grade timber that has limited market applications. Undergraduate design students from second and third year Furniture, Interior and Architecture degrees collaborated with NSFP to value-add to their out-of-grade resource in the LBM unit. A series of design challenges, observations of industry practice and access to out-of-grade timber from NSFP exposed students to live industry problems and provided them the opportunity to build professional design skills. Students reflected on the collaborative LBM unit in a reflection journal, which was used to provide evidence of their learning experiences. The collaborative environment between academia and industry allowed students to acquire an understanding of timber product manufacturing that helped them develop empathy towards the industry problem and influence the development of new products. This study presents how student reflections influenced a change in their design process as they progressed through sequential design challenges to address an industry problem by adopting Valkenburg and Dorst (1998) reflective learning framework.
Decisions made by user interface designers play an influential role in how people interact with software, this is especially true when it comes to the creation of tools to support teaching. As technology continues to play a more prominent role in schools, it poses an important question about how the design of learning tools influence what teachers do in classrooms. Data analytics is one opportunity technology offers for teachers to foster collaboration in student groups. Data analytics have the potential to provide teachers with a live view of what students are doing when using technology, which research shows is challenging to implement in classrooms. This paper focuses on the process to design a tool that assists engineering discussion session teacher assistants (TAs) to monitor collaboration within groups. We report on findings from interviews with TAs on what they anticipate they would need in order to support group work, and discuss how their responses influenced the design of this tool.
Two German pioneers of sensory development education, Christof Drexel (1886-1979) and Hugo Kükelhaus (1900-1984) pursued methodical investigations into perceptual principles of cognition and design in order to discover the ways in which aesthetic principles can develop and guide sensory response. Drexel and Kükelhaus traveled parallel investigative paths, both merging formal aesthetic practices with perceptual psychology. It was not until 1950, when these visionary thinkers finally met in person, that they joined forces to present their discoveries which determined that experiences are momentary intersections between internal and external realities, and are intrinsically intertwined in the deepest levels of consciousness, publicly. Both Drexel and Kükelhaus believed in the value of using the senses as pedagogy and that they should be integrated into every level of education. Correspondence between Drexel and Kükelhaus after 1950 illuminates the theoretical paths and applicative forms generated through the interplay of experimental psychology and applied aesthetic practice. This paper provides insights into the artistic and scientific dynamics based on Drexel’s examination of archetypical imagery and the psychic line, and the sensory development applications designed by Kükelhaus.
Futures techniques have long been used in large enterprises as designerly means to explore the future and guide innovation. In the automotive industry, for instance, the development of concept cars is a technique which has repeatedly proven its value. However, while big companies have broadly embraced futures techniques, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have lagged behind in applying them, largely because they are too resource- intensive and poorly suited to the SMEs’ needs and idiosyncrasies. To address this issue, we developed DIVE: Design, Innovation, Vision, and Exploration, a design-led futures technique for SMEs. Its development began with an inquiry into concept cars in the automotive industry and concept products and services in other industries. We then combined the insights derived from these design practices with elements of the existing techniques of critical design and design fiction into the creation of DIVE’s preliminary first version, which was then applied and evaluated in two iterations with SMEs, resulting in DIVE’s alpha version. After both iterations in context, it seems that DIVE suits the SMEs because of its compact and inexpensive activities which emphasize making and storytelling. Although the results of these activities might be less flashy than concept cars, these simple prototypes and videos help SMEs internalize and share a clear image of a preferable future, commonly known as vision. Developing DIVE thus helped us explore how design can support SMEs in envisioning the future in the context of innovation.
Fundamental to design education is the creation and structure of curriculum. Neither the creation of design curriculum, nor the revaluation of existing curriculum is well documented. With no clear documentation of precedent, best practices are left open to debate. This paper and presentation will discuss the use of a survey as a research tool to assess existing curriculum at Iowa State University in the United States. This tool allowed the needs and perspectives of the program’s diverse stakeholders to be better understood. Utilizing survey methods, research revealed the convergence and divergence of stakeholders’ philosophies, theories and needs in relation to design curriculum.
Accreditation and professional licensing provide base level of guidelines for design curriculum in the United States. However, each program’s curricular structure beyond these guidelines is a complicated balance of resources, facilities, faculty, and the type of institution in which it is housed. Once established, a program’s curriculum is rarely reassessed as a whole, but instead updated with the hasty addition of classes upon an existing curricular structure. Curriculum is infrequently re-addressed, and when it is, it is typically based on the experience and opinions of a select group of faculty. This paper presents how a survey was developed to collect data to inform curricular decision- making, enabling the reduction of faculty bias and speculation in the process. Lessons learned from the development of this research tool will be shared so it might be replicated at other institutions, and be efficiently repeated periodically to ensure currency of a program’s curriculum.
This paper studies a design workshop that investigates complex collaboration between fundamental physics and design. Our research focuses on how students create original artefacts that bridge the gap between disciplines that have very little in common. Our goal is to study the micro-evolutions of their projects. Elaborating first on Actor Network Theory (Latour, 1996; 2005) we study how students’ projects evolved over time and through a diversity of inputs and media. Throughout this longitudinal study, we use then a semiotic and pragmatic approach to observe three “aesthetical formations”: translation, composition, and stabilization. These formations suggest that the question of material agency developed in the field of archeology and cognitive science (Knappett & Malafouris, 2008) need to be considered in the design field (Renon, 2016) to explain metamorphoses from the brief to the final realizations.
Most academic methodologies are developed from a prescribed methodological process that is limited to a specific area of study. However, the disciplinary landscape in which the knowledge is established is being rapidly reconfigured. Given the vast varieties of practices and knowledge base required from information designers, it is even more crucial for them to look outside of the traditional visual design fields and seek diversities for better research and creation methods.
The two disciplines, software engineering and information design, are often perceived as one provides technical solutions to the other. This essay intends to move beyond the common perception, and identify relevant issues in software engineering design that resonate with the information design process. The issues include the multi-component planning approach; the human-oriented agile method; design concepts such as abstraction, decomposition, component modularity, hierarchical relationship, and extensibility. The perspectives from software engineering design and information design is examined through units of analysis, terminology explanations, and forms of communications. The collective design methods and principles provide a systematic framework to the methodological thinking in information design. The discussion serves the purpose of encouraging more conceptual-based conversations between information design and other disciplines, especially in the fields of science and technology.
To limit the harm and damage caused by river flooding, signs to indicate dangerous water levels are placed along the river, particularly where there is a danger of overflow. However, the general level of awareness of such signs is low. In this study, we examined ways to efficiently convey information that people have little interest in and find difficult to understand.
Dangerous water levels are quantified and communicated using colors to indicate the degree of danger, and this information is conveyed to the public with signs on bridge piers and slopes. Various other measures are also employed, e.g., adding evacuation pictograms to signs, displaying signs separate from graduated water level indicators, and providing detailed information via the river office website. In addition to using Internet channels such as websites and Facebook, it is common to create and distribute pamphlets and other kinds of printed notifications to communicate such important information as widely as possible. Nevertheless, information that is essential in an emergency but unnecessary at ordinary times is difficult to communicate widely and effectively, even if all these measures are taken. This is because even if people accept that such information must be understood, they remain uninterested and find the information difficult to understand. To solve this problem, we created a story featuring mascot characters for each danger level. This story, presented as a picture book, overturns the conventional attitude toward such information. We thereby developed a medium for communicating important information in a way that better captures people’s interest.
Traditional craft has been relegated to the margins in modern culture, being perceived as out step with technological, economic and societal progress. However, emergent research is rediscovering the nature of craft and its potential for contributing to design practice in conjunction with developments in science and technology. Through the analyses of craft and sustainability, strong connections are revealed as well as some incompatibilities. The contribution of this paper is to a) map a systemic view of craft and b) establish a theoretical understanding of the relationship between craft and a holistic understanding of sustainability. Drawing on recent research that proposes three areas of leverage for sustainability, we argue that craft, as a system of making, knowing and being, has significant potential to contribute actively and tangibly to the transitional conditions, thereby serving as an agency for sustainable transformation.
When design works with industry it tries to sell two things, first, selling design as an agent of transformation, and second, selling design as a skill. Whilst historically design has been successful in the latter, it is the former that is more challenging, making it a necessity for design to work in none design contexts in order to build trust and credibility. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the ways in which design interacts with industry, and how these interactions enable design to establish longer term relationships.
This investigation set out to answer the question, what design specific characteristics are applied to establish successful longer-term relationships between design and industry? The paper aims to illustrate the intrinsic factors that enable design to get access, and designers to get authority to play a significant role in organisations. Five well-established relationships between design and industry have been used to analyse to find correlations.
The investigation identifies three stages of collaboration between design and industry, namely, involvement, collaboration and partnerships, contrary to Cahill’s (1965) theoretical model, which claimed four stages to long lasting partnerships. Also, the case studies confirm three stages of trust and credibility as factors that help in strengthening a relationship between design and industry. Finally, several intrinsic factors that are unique to design have been identified, which are seen to have helped design in building high levels of trust and credibility.
Living in a modern society is becoming more complex, so in order to keep up with, a person should accomplish various kinds of task at once. Daily life requirements, obligations and the capacity of human memory lead us to collect and control our behaviors, bodies and lives through self-tracking devices. Aim of this paper analysis of emerging digitalized self-tracking trend through content analysis of Wired Magazine. Wired Magazine, both in printed and online, monthly, publish technology related articles how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy and politics. It reaches more than 30 million people each month through wired.com, digital edition. Since the term 'quantified self' emerged for the first time in Wired Magazine, for this reason Wired Magazine is one of the most important sources to be used for content analysis. This present study carries out a content analysis of all the issues until December 2016 through 'self-tracking' and two other related terms: 'quantified self' and 'lifelogging'. The usage period and popularity of these terms and, the relation network with the main topics and the subtopics are examined. As a result, it is possible to define wired magazine as a medium in which industry-academia and users come together and, feed each other reciprocally. Wired Magazine have contributed significantly and continues to contribute to the development of the digitalized self-tracking trend in terms of its content.
Effective university-industry collaboration has become a major focus for governments in recent years. Universities are increasingly expected to play a greater role in the innovation system and evidence their contribution to economic development. At the same time, the growth in research quality assessment exercises makes it imperative that the excellence of research conducted in commercially-driven activities can be appropriately evaluated. This paper explores the challenge of reconciling commercially-focused activity and research quality assessment in design. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with thirteen experts including representatives from the design discipline, other applied academic disciplines, research quality assessment leaders and commercial designers. The interviews identified a number of barriers to demonstrating research excellence in commercially-driven projects. These were classified as barriers resulting from: the nature of industry/academic relationships; the nature of the project; and the nature of the research quality assessment. It is concluded that there is a need to build a simple, easily usable framework for assessing the research potential of commercially-driven design projects from the outset to ensure that the appropriate processes are put in place to communicate research conducted within them.
The purpose of Experience Group Sessions is to identify the health and lifestyle challenges that make it difficult for patients and families to manage chronic medical conditions. The Innovation Engine at Carolinas HealthCare System worked with pediatricians to identify and recruit patients with chronic asthma. Experience Group Sessions were a way for families and patients to share their experiences managing asthma and allowed facilitators to gather insights about what does and does not happen in their daily lives. The key themes and quotes collected from the Experience Group Sessions were grouped into three categories of outcomes that define success with health: capability, comfort and calm. The results of the analysis were shared with the workgroup to inform the design and strategy for an integrated practice unit. Integrated practice units are intended to bring together a full range of providers and services to specifically address a certain medical condition, in this case, pediatric asthma at Carolinas HealthCare System. This integrated practice model will be reorganized around patient-centered care and value to improve overall health for children with asthma.
In the past decades, universities’ involvement in socio-economic development, which goes along with their teaching and researching activities, has defined a new role for them in society’s ecosystem. This new role is often referred with the term of “entrepreneurial” university, whose objectives are positive societal, economic and environmental impacts. In order to fulfil such objectives, entrepreneurial universities might engage in cross-sector collaborations with external organisations. Despite the great contributions that cross-sector collaboration can give to the partners involved, the outcome is mostly unfocussed and rarely embedded. This paper explores the outcome embedding in the cross-sector collaboration between entrepreneurial universities and the private sector. To this end, we provide the case of the collaboration between a Dutch airline company and four Dutch entrepreneurial research and teaching institutions. We aim to uncover hindering and enabling factors to the outcome embedding in order to design an interaction platform, design it together. This platform will be a tool to encourage the outcome embedding, moving from being inspired by to the actual implementation of the cross-sector collaboration. In order to fulfill this goal, this study employs a research through design methodology. This approach is a generative process, where cyclic loops of iterations and evaluations with stakeholders tend to the research goal. The solution is a digital platform, co-created with all stakeholders. This study can inspire practitioners and future research on the problem of unsuccessful cross-sector collaborations, between entrepreneurial universities and external organisations, with more emphasis on the value of embedding and translating the outcomes.