The ethical dimensions of basing a typeface on existing faces are unclear. Commentary about “clones” from critics and type designers alike are confused and contradictory. Few writers consider the issues systematically. Misunderstanding of copyright law and unreflective versions of moral rights claims dominate discussion. Open discussion of the models for a type design avoid claims of plagiarism and also affect the reception of the new typeface.
This paper presents a case study analysing the interactions of nine security officers during the mandatory passenger screening process at an Australian international Airport. Eye-tracking glasses were used to observe the visual, physical and verbal interactions of security officers while they performed the x-ray task. Stationary video recording devices were used to record physical and verbal interactions performed by security officers during the load, search and metal detector tasks. Six taxonomic groups were developed that define the different types of interactions performed by security officers during each task. Each taxonomic group is comprised of several discrete interactions specific to each of the tasks observed. Through analysing the composition of interactions and the relationships between interactions in different tasks, this paper highlights the prominence of interactions that security officers perform with passengers and their belongings. These interactions play an important role in the first and last stages of the passenger screening process, as well as influence the functioning of the overall passenger screening process. Due to this, they have substantial effect on passenger experience, throughput efficiency and security efficacy. In response to these findings, we draw from emerging security technologies and persuasive design principles to present potential design solutions for optimising the passenger screening process. These are presented in the context of a preliminary framework with which to inform the design of current and future passenger screening processes.
This study introduces a new perspective on the design pedagogy in learning symbol design. A new experimental discipline implemented by the design methods demonstrates positive learning outcomes for students on the development of symbol study. Understanding denotative and connotative interpretation in visual literacy is essential in order to convey not only a clear message but also distinctive recognition as the nature of symbol quality. Students executed design experiments with design theories and methods for understanding design fundamentals of the denotative symbol and explored a matrix table for cultivating connotative symbols. This pedagogical strategy applied to the expansion of visual concepts with progressive experiments on each stage; 1) analyzing perceptive characteristics, 2) simplifying visual construction, 3) developing a visual concept with connotative meaning, and 4) configuring visual balance and enhanced quality based on design principles. With examples of student outcomes, this paper explains an analysis of functional expression and interpretation applied by design methods. This study discovered that earlier teaching of design fundamental disciplines with theories and methods in the graphic design major gave students better opportunities to pursue their further study more effectively and productively.
To prepare students to imagine desirable futures amidst current planetary level challenges, design educators must think and act in new ways. In this paper, we describe a pilot study that illustrates how educators might teach K-12 students and university design students to situate their making within transitional times in a volatile and exponentially changing world. We describe how to best situate students to align design thinking and learning with future foresight. Here we present a pilot test and evaluate how a university-level Dexign Futures course content, approach, and scaffolded instructional materials – can be adapted for use in K-12 Design Learning Challenges. We describe the K-12 design-based learning challenges/experiences developed and implemented by the Design Learning Network (DLN). The Dexign Futures course we describe in this paper is a required course for third year undergraduate students in the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University. The “x” signifies a different type of design that aligns short-term action with long-term goals. The course integrates design thinking and learning with long-horizon future scenario foresight. Broadly speaking, we ask how might portions of a design course be taught and experienced by teachers and students of two different demographics: within the university (Design Undergraduates) and in K-12 (via DLN). This pilot study is descriptive in nature; in future work, we seek to assess learning outcomes across university and K-12 courses. We believe the approach described is relevant for lifelong learners (e.g., post- graduate-level, career development, transitional adult education).
In this project, two key elements of the development of technology, Facebook, a social media tool, and mobile phones, a portable communication/connectivity tool is brought together in an experiment that was started in 2009 as pilot and full scale since 2011 which continues to date. The objective of this research is document in real-time, how actual and possible uses of mobile phones, which has transcended from the rubber keypad versions to the smartphones of today, is extending beyond its first intentions. The idea came about on reading that people residing abroad bypass stringent laws, national and international, to transfer money to their homes in Africa through the purchase of prepaid cards and offering the ‘pre-paid’ time as ‘money equivalent’ to traders back home who then deliver real money to people in Africa. Today, there are official versions of this such as ‘Sente’ in that continent. With news and clippings appearing across the internet, through various means such as blogs, websites, newssites, etc., the author realised that all the information, news and bits about the emergence of new uses of mobile phones could be documented through a simple Facebook page. Titled ‘Unique Uses of the Mobile Phones’ the author has been collating information and news about the various ways and means by which smart phones have gone beyond their first incarnation as mobile or cell phones. As an on-going project, the author intends to harvest the data to present the findings in research papers and articles.
This article concerns the use of critical design practices within the context of commercial semiotics, arguing that incorporating practices from a critical design approach is valuable for client brands, but also an important means with which to incite brands to consider more deeply their role in shaping the future. As an alternative to the oppositional approach frequently taken by critical design practitioners, working through design practices collaboratively alongside client brands creates potential for the radical changes sought by many of the movement’s vanguard. A case study of recent work with a corporate client demonstrates the practical effects of using critical design practice within a commercial setting, proving the complementarity between critical design practice and commercial semiotics – where the confluence of the thinking brought new value to improve product design for example – and points to the value of using current leading edge thinking within the design community.
Light in photography is considered by most practitioners as one of the most important
visual element since through it the human is able to recognize shapes, texture, color depth and even create diverse moods in the images. In food photography, light settings also imply the creation of several forms of shadows which become a secondary visual
element. Thus, the effects of different types of shadows on food photos can generate
different perceptions of the food creating either a positive or negative impression on
This paper aims to explore the usage of cast shadow on food photography in order to open a new discussion in this topic. The main approach was to create and survey food images with several cast shadow composition; evaluate them and determine if the difference of cast shadows has an impact on how food images are perceived.
As a result, the experiment showed that different cast shadows affect not only the mood in which food is perceived but also the taste of the food. These findings can be useful to
explain how cast shadows are also a key visual element in the decision making process
or human behavior when choosing what to eat from a group of food images.
Having observed that many industrial design projects are started with the wrong approach, producing loss of resources, time, and professional relationships, this article presents a set of three tools that enables a clearer view of the Fuzzy Front-end (Vogel, Cagan). The first tool helps to understand the design order (Buchanan) of the product to be developed, and to place it in the utilitarian product universe (practical and economically biased), the transitional-wholistic product universe (practical, economic, and emotionally balanced), or the emotional product universe (viscerally and symbolically biased). The second identifies a product’s global purpose composed by its practical, economic, and emotional purposes, as well as the value factors they include (practical and indicative function, usability, practical or emotional cost-benefit, visceral appeal, and symbolic meaning). The third tool involves the type of project to be undertaken (vision, new development, major enhancement, or minor enhancement). Applicable to all disciplines of design, the three tools comprise the product identity footprint, which helps inform the selection of appropriate strategies to start a project the right way. It can increase the efficiency of the product development process by providing an agreed view that can be shared with all the development team, from the project sponsor to the engineering, marketing, planning, and creative departments.
Increasing interest is seen at the intersection of architecture and health. The built environment has become associated with a number of negative health outcomes including obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Engaging design students in these inquiries surrounding health is integral in preparing them for future practice. This paper reviews the conceptual development and tested implementation of an interdisciplinary course focusing on the wellbeing and overall health of the occupant, using primary and secondary framework structures in the vein of Groat and Wang’s logical argumentation. The reviewed course engages interdisciplinary teams composed of students from the School of Architecture, the College of Engineering, and the College of Natural Resources, with private practice. The course puts forth an effort to break out of the conventional pedagogical structure found in architectural education, primarily the studio and large lecture spaces. The course has been specifically designed to: (1) establish a framework for common content relating to health in the built environment across disciplinary boundaries; (2) build meaningful partnerships between interdisciplinary student groups; and (3) establish a common vocabulary between architectural education and aligned disciplines regarding health and the built environment. The course structure, activities, and assessments are reviewed, proposing a solid framework for including integrated design and themes of health in architectural education.
Industrial design education has existed for a long time as part of the university system, but the curriculum and contents of each subject vary considerably from school to school. In recent years, the introduction of new concepts that change the definition of design has blurred the boundaries of design, making the curriculum different. Establishing a standard curriculum to address these challenges is an important task, but it is necessary to fully understand how design education actually takes place and to share content with educators. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on industrial design education by fully disclosing the process and results of the first stage of industrial design education of a university by autobiographical method. The first course, Product Design Practice 1, is a studio class based on a task feedback iteration system. Students are required to submit assignments showing weekly progress. The instructor reviewed the assignments submitted before the class and gave written comments in class. In addition, details of the design process and method that are difficult to identify as novice students are learned through twelve case studies and applied to the project. This Task Feedback Repeating Class system gives students the opportunity to implement design ability while gaining detailed skills with a comprehensive view. Through this process, the researcher got a reflection on the class and implications for the improvement of the class.
This paper expounds the background of Chinese design education as well as the orientation of the design education of Tongji University in the new times, it also collects 458 master thesis of College of Design and Innovation during 2010-2016 as analyzed sample. Based on the coding of subject classification, quantitative analysis and content analysis are made in order to understand the interdisciplinary education status of College of Design and Innovation from the two perspectives: the overall cross-disciplinary performance and the relationship between different cross-disciplinary directions.
The design of meaningful graphical objects to represent collection items must balance the following: amount of useful information that can be communicated through the object’s graphical form, meaningful graphical difference between individual items or groups of items, and restraint in form complexity to allow for the simultaneous display of numerous collection items at a small size. How the user interprets difference and sameness and, more importantly, whether the user attaches hierarchical value to the emergent categories, may play a significant role in determining whether that user focusses attention on one set of data over another, on one set of processes over another, and ultimately, on one set of tasks over another. This paper examines the significant consequences for the understanding of the user resulting from representation of data, files, and other objects in a human-computer interface (HCI), and proposes that new approaches may be indicated, given the growing complexity of what is being represented and how what is represented can be used.
As humans’ information processing abilities, have become more and more disconnected from their senses due to an increasing quantity of abstract information, so have design processes. There is a demand for designers to include human sensation as part of engaging product forms and experiences. This qualitative case study explores the role of senses and their potential use in design ideation. A literature review of related theoretical and pragmatic perspectives and a survey of 15-20 product examples that provide unique sensory experiences are analyzed and sorted through four sensory design strategies: Sensory Augmentation, Conversion, Transition and Isolation. Using the four strategies as core concepts, a Sensory Reflective Framework with a mindful focus on sensory appreciation and translation is proposed to support designers’ ideation in creating unique product forms and experiences. The paper reports the process and findings of a sensory ideation workshop which was conducted based on the framework, and further discusses the development and implications of the framework in supporting designers’ sensory ideation.
This research is based on the scenario in the context of Hong Kong, in which church has been built in densely populated urban environment restricted in flat space. The research objectives were: 1) firstly to investigate the relationship between theology and spatial design in Hong Kong Protestant church; 2) secondly, to analyse the issue of the lack of design with respect to sacred identity in the church of Hong Kong that leads to an unappealing and non-sacred appearance of Protestant church; 3) and finally, to establish theoretical standpoints on designing sacred space with contemporary quality without surrendering of the sacred identity. The aims of the research were to understand the influence of secularisation to the rationale of church design and to generate an appropriate identity of church with a theoretical standpoint to serve the contemporary community effectively.
In order to meet these objectives, the study comprised of a qualitative site observations of 171 churches, which provided comparative figures for the study of churches incorporated with design elements or no design elements.
In Hong Kong approximately 775 one-flat churches, which are 66% of the total number of Protestant churches, are located in different layers of vertical space within this vertical city. When churches provide social services in the same limited space, the identity of church is surrendered to the need of the social community.
This study endeavours to facilitate church design with the focus on the immanence quality in order to encounter the different spatial limitations in church design.
This paper presents the results of a research based Living Lab experience, where people participate together as users, researchers, stakeholders and collaborators working to effect change to improve social inclusion and social participation for persons with functional difficulties. The Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall (RehabMall) transforms an urban shopping mall into an interdisciplinary, multi-sectorial research platform that supports multiple projects investigating what constitutes an accessible and inclusive environment for people with physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities. We present an overview of the RehabMALL Living Lab, the contexts of the project and the project meta-analysis to present the salient issues emerging from the projects that were done. Grounded in a design research approach, and inspired by the Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner (1979), the investigations conducted focus on subjective and inter-subjective experiences within understanding obstacles and facilitators that frame how people experience going to the mall, and how the physical, cognitive and virtual environments that support these activities might be better served. Disability is defined within the framework of the “World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning (WHO, 2003). The overview of the project is presented with particular attention to the various collaborations and partnerships created alongside the issues that emerge in terms of results, and how people might be better served when public spaces are designed with their input and within a perspective of universal design.
Contemporary research in business strategy, new product development, and design management has suggested that cross-functional collaboration within team-based environments is critical to successful product development processes. However, scholars have also demonstrated that the mere presence of inter-functional structures does not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Indeed, the very differences which cause cross-disciplinary teams to result in improved design processes may also lead to friction as team members’ backgrounds, orientations, and training often cause them to have different perspectives on what information is important to the product design process and to solve development-related problems. Improved understanding how to integrate information from differing functional areas is a clear emphasis of research, yet very few empirical studies have precisely defined the units of knowledge flowing through NPD projects, differences in importance of information elements by functional area, or the structures which may facilitate the sharing of information within NPD. This study presents an investigation of product design briefs as knowledge-based artifacts of cross-functional collaboration within NPD. Drawing on a proprietary sample of 68 briefs analyzed through an expert rating procedure alongside survey questionnaire of 153 product development managers our results define 51 information elements commonly shared between functional areas during an NPD project. We organize these information elements as eight factors, categorize the “importance” of each element to NPD success, and describe differences in evaluation from across three primary functional domains of NPD: (a) Design, (b) Marketing, and (c) Engineering/ R&D/ Development.
The mental model is a well-known subject discussed by Norman. But problems of everyday things continue to exist. In fact, it is almost impossible to provide a coherent conceptual model for individual users, especially when an increasing number of technology-embedded artifacts have created new interactivities nowadays. In this paper, the classical user interface problem of a gas stove’s spatial mapping will be used to demonstrate how interactivity could be tamed by using the concept of feedforward. Feedforward is an important element to consider because it provides clear and instant affordance, leading to a mistake-free user experience.
This paper discusses feedforward based on the utilitarian perspective. The Previewable system will be introduced to compare the performance among conventional, touch-enabled, and hover-enabled gas stoves. Findings from a comparison analysis of its performance, its state of action, and the subjective experience will be shared. Furthermore, aspects of feedforward open up a venue in which to discuss its influence on the interpersonal and power relations that exist between artifacts and users with a design guide. The latent potential of feedforward leaves a lot to be discussed, but the findings in this paper strengthen the case for feedforward and lead to a glimpse of look at feedforward in context-aware.
Since the 1800’s, England became an industrialised country and experienced extensive urban growth, so sales associates chose this location to establish large stores. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the aim was to create the stores to entice customers through space, impressive architecture, interior design and the elegant display of merchandise. At the same time, the display techniques were growing to promote sales. Therefore, more retail equipment manufactured and supplied for displaying products in the stores. This significant variation led the retail industry as that goods could be touched by the customers and they were not accessible only through retail assistant anymore (Whitaker, 2011). Since then due to this new differentiation, retailers have been experiencing a significant change in their customer’s behaviour. Now the retailers are trying to give a brilliant shopping experience to their customers with more reason to increase the sale (Ebster, Garaus 2011). However, there are some restrictions to this strategy that afford excellent opportunities for shoplifters and opportunist criminals. Store design can be a fantastic and efficient tool to increase sales. Also, it could significantly increase the chance of retail crime. This paper examines how to minimise criminal activity in retail environments to reduce loss prevention and retail shrinkage by raising awareness through design thinking. Therefore, interviews, observation and exploration were done based on the experience of employees and customers in ‘The High Street Retailer’. The research project outcome included as over, a creative retail crime learning package and a digital platform to raise awareness and improve communication.
Sketchnoting, if seen as a methodology, exhibits potential for systematic and methodical
research. It provides a framework to communicate visually through simple shapes,
breaking complex forms down into combinations of dots, lines, squares, triangles, and
circles. Situated at the lower end of the visualization spectrum, which ranges from napkin
style sketching to photo-realistic rendering, it has low barriers to putting pen on paper.
In the context of an industrial design graduate course originally introduced as a gateway
to traditional visualization in design, sketchnoting exhibited greater potential to not only
lower the threshold of sketching, but in addition, to foster creative, and in some cases,
even boost design confidence. These anecdotal observations revealed several overarching
opportunities for a larger, cross-disciplinary research, which would begin with exploring
the ability to foster creative confidence through lowering the inhibition threshold to
drawing for designers and non-designers alike. Proceeding to explore the potential of
sketchnoting (due to its dual coding nature) becoming an entry point to employing all
modes of thought processing, deductive, inductive and abductive logic as they pertain to
divergent and convergent thinking. Ideally setting up this framework to be investigated as
a means to improve student engagement and general learning behaviors. The long-term
and underlying goal is to change how people see and solve problems and to diversify
stakeholders involved in the development processes. This paper discusses the underlying
concept as well as the originally observations, closing with the above-mentioned series of
How can design orient people to an expanded sense of future possibility? Design researchers are beginning to recognize design’s potential role not solely in producing products, services and strategies but, instead, in shifting mindsets and behaviors. This shift requires a different view of the design practice, from engaging users to gather insights to be implemented, to that process as the actual material of the design. Borrowing from the framework of practice-oriented design, a first step in these processes is expanding participants’ understanding of future possibilities. In opening future possibilities, one recognizes an expanded range of futures and, ideally, engages in dialog with other people and their range of possibilities. This paper introduces mapping activities that are intended to reframe participants’ perception of possible futures. This study conducted pilot workshops with participants who were downsizing their home and struggling with decisions about their things and spaces. This paper argues that working with people already engaged in life transitions such as downsizing presents a rich opportunity for these futuring methods, as they are already beginning to grapple with designing for possible futures. These methods provide a stake in the ground for future exploration of potential methods to engender mindsets of possibility and engage in trialing methods like living labs.