Over the last two decades, for-profit and non-for-profit organizations have increasingly adopted open collaboration, such as open innovation and crowdsourcing, as a strategy for innovation. Information and communication technology (ICT) has played a major role in forming open collaboration communities, but organizational design also needs to be considered to encourage the active participation and collaboration of actors. Nonetheless, organizational design aspect has seldom been addressed in developing open collaboration platforms. In this research, an organizational design framework for open collaboration was developed through a nature-inspired design approach. This framework suggests that the self-organization mechanism of social insects provides inspirations for the design of the platform, especially in terms of setting simple rules to induce behaviors of the actors and facilitating interactions among them. Since the open collaboration strategy depends on external actors who are not in employment relationship, an organization cannot force their contribution. Accordingly, the organization’s capability to induce the spontaneous participation of actors is essential, and it implies the potential role of designers in platform design based on a thorough understanding of actors. We thus claim that designers can bring a new perspective to organizational design. Open collaboration platforms serve as an exemplar in which designers contribute to the design of an organizational environment that fosters collaboration.
Today, while profit maximization is still the bedrock of the capitalist model, people have embraced the idea of social contribution as a useful strategy in businesses. In this recent movement, Creating Shared Value (CSV) strives for a win-win solution that creates both social and business value. While in its early stage, CSV is showing promise and potential; society is witnessing a paradigm shift from practices of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) to CSV which is more sustainable and effective approach. Since Porter and Kramer originally introduced the concept in 2011, CSV’s application has expanded to many areas of business management, but it has not been discussed comprehensively in design research as of yet.
The title of this paper, “Designerly Way of Creating Shared Value” (DCSV) is inspired by Nigel Cross’s famous book, Designerly Way of Knowing (2006). ‘Designerly’ is an adjective describing ‘how’ designers think and behave that is different from professionals in scientific disciplines. The aim of this paper is to propose a new matrix illustrating the link between creating shared value and design, and to systemically describe the existing examples of DCSV (Cross, 2016). The paper will begin with an introduction to the concept of CSV followed by a brief literature review on CSV in design research. The second part will focus on demonstrating the new DCSV matrix by illustrating the four examples that exemplify it.
Based on a sound research plan, qualitative user data help designers understand needs, behaviors, and frustrations of a target user group. However, when a design team attempts to design for unfamiliar target groups, it is extremely difficult to accurately observe and understand them by simply using traditional research methods such as interviews and observation. As a result, the quality of user research data can be called into a question, which leads to unsatisfying design solutions. Inspired by a fiction writer’s technique of generating stories together with readers, we present the new method, Group Storymaking, that supports designers to quickly gain broad and clear understanding of an unfamiliar target group throughout a story-making activity with actual users. We envision Group Storymaking as a new user study method that designers can easily implement to learn about an unfamiliar target, involving actual users in a research process with less time and cost commitment.
The authors performed a usability improvement study for a shoulder continuous passive motion (CPM) rehabilitation device based on the usability engineering process of IEC 62366, a mandatory standard for the development of medical devices. To enhance the usability of the entire development process for a shoulder CPM device, the authors 1) performed user research to determine design requirements and 2) evaluated the usability of the device. Requirements for a shoulder CPM device were derived through rehabilitation device comparisons, functional analysis, context inquiry and observation, and interviews. The authors used expert reviews and comparison usability evaluation methods for shoulder CPM prototyping. The methods and techniques of these design researches were declared in IEC 62366, but IEC 62366 does not include any guideline in detail. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of a user interface that meets the level of usability standards required for medical devices.
There is a growing need for sustainable fashion since the 2010s. As artists and designers explore the potential use of innovative materials developed by synthetic biology and DIY bio-hacking (Myers, 2010), recent practice-led research in fashion design aims at building the better relationship between ecological sustainability and biotechnology to cope with the limited resources available on the earth (Fletcher, 2008). Based on this issue on the material sustainability, this practice-led research analyzes the current production processes of the fashion industry to propose possible solutions by incorporating emerging biotechnology and fashion design in the context of sustainable design. As the methodology, the authors adopt two processes to make bio-garment. First, the experiment of DIY bio has been conducted for culturing ecological bio-material SCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast) that produces bacterial cellulose. The material has similar properties to leather. Second, designing the garment through 3D modeling has been tackled because we aim to make the bio-materials grow onto a 3D printed mold as ‘zero waste method’ (Rissanen; Mcquillan, 2016) , which can eliminate textile waste at the design stage. By the application of biological materials in the process of dressmaking, this practice led research has been analyzing the production line of the fashion industry and trying to propose sustainable solutions. Also the research aims to combine emerging biotechnology and sustainable fashion in order to establish the design process as an alternative design process to the polluting industry.
Packaging is an essential element of design for both consumers and businesses. Product packaging functions both as a communication tool for product information and for brand messages. In addition, the role of visual elements and messages on snack packages are not well understood. This is particularly true from the standpoint of influencing the selection of snack food in children, even though there has been growth in the economic power of children as a consumer group. Therefore, this study examines: 1) the role of design variables such as typography, images, and the stylistic combination of these visual elements in affecting children’s snack food selection; 2) the role of health messages on children’s snack food selections; and 3) the role of perceived ‘healthiness’ in influencing children’s snack food selections. Digitally- simulated snack package images were created and sixty children ages 9 to13 were recruited for this study. From these design variables, ‘preferred-selections’ and ‘perceived healthy-selection’ of children in this age group were identified.
Understanding the user’s situation is very important in the design process. There are many ways to understand a user’s situation – a designer might observe a user’s situation or a user
might record their own situation in Human Centered Design (HCD) file. However, the latter of these methods has not been very popular mainly because of the burden it place on the users. This research proposes a new smartphone-based design support application, named “HN camera”, which can be used to record the users’ situation, without any additional burden on them. This application is based on the ‘Extended Alethic/Deontic/Temporal (ADT) model’ concept. A user or a designer can understand and record the user’s situation based on the Physical factor, the Kansei factor, and the Cultural factor using HN Camera. The application was used in visualizing and analyzing tourists’ travel as a service design. Through this, the effectiveness of the proposed application was clarified.
Design oriented educational institution around the world, project based learning is well practiced in local setting as well as global setting. Communication is one of the significant aspect in this learning settings. Currently, many design projects are implemented by members beyond their belonging organization, creating difficulties in face to face communication, especially when members are in different countries. This study proposes a new method for project-based learning in design education program implemented on international design workshop and discuss about outcome through empirical program.
This method is composed in three phases. First phase is online pre-workshop session using SLACK, where each member do their own researching and surveying on the specific topic related to the project, share and discuss them with other members. The second phase is face to face workshop, which all members gather in one place to work on the project intensively to make their group design proposal. The lastly in the post workshop phase, each member get back online to make reflection on the project, feedback them on the proposal, and make improvements. Also, compile and publish a project reports on the overall program for documentation. Through out the program, SLACK platform is used for basic communication and sharing data and information. S This program are operated in an international design workshop called “Global Design Workshop” of Chiba Institute of Technology(CIT, Chiba, Japan), with students from Chiba University(CU, Chiba, Japan) and Tunghai University(THU, Taichung, Taiwan) . The theme of the workshop was “New work place, space, style using IoT technologies.
The technique and philosophy of traditional crafts are relevant aspects of our culture that should be passed on to future generations. However, using traditional crafts in modern life in their original form can be a challenge. It is essential to reinterpret them in the modern context, keeping the essence of tradition. For this purpose, we conducted case studies of Koishiwara and Yame in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, where Japanese traditional crafts are still manufactured. We used Koishiwara Pottery and Yame-Fukushima Buddhist Altar manufacturing as our investigation objects, conducted studies on their historical background and performed detailed observations of manufacturing techniques and processes. Thereafter, we developed the concept of “KATA” in Japanese, generally translated as type or prototype. “KATA” has several other meanings; in this study, we subdivided the concept into three elements, namely, shape, pattern, and style. We used “KATA” to build a framework to be used as a scaffold to help analyze the techniques and background of traditional crafts and reinterpret them to design products in the modern context. Based on reinterpretations, we developed a series of prototypes of modern tableware with the essential techniques of traditional crafts to verify the usefulness of the framework.
In recent years, architecture culture study is a popular direction in traditional vernacular dwelling research of China. Architectural culture, as the metaphysical part of a building, not only influences the formation of the building in design period, but also dominates the usepattern of the building after construction. However most of studies started with material form of dwelling from architectonic prospective ignored that architecture is a phenomenon of culture. The study of vernacular dwelling from cultural and other related academic fields is very necessary. Bei-nong is a transportation space in traditional vernacular dwelling of Jiangnan area in China. This paper tried to use the methods of urban history research to investigate this space. First of all, the particular time and region of bei-nong appearance has been observed and defined from historical and cultural background. Then, appearance reasons have been analyzed based on the social context and mainstream philosophy during the scope of time and region. In the end, the physical and social functions and the architecture construction of bei-nong have been summarized and ratiocinated from the former conclusions according to inductive reasoning theory. A real and comprehensive bei-nong is showed in the result of research, not only the physical form and history of architecture but also a history story about that place and time.
This research expected to innovation designs can develop by more detail user-experience, that also reduce users unfamiliar and depressed; therefore, we investigated that people cognitive process on operated daily commodities, and we planned a tool to analyze users the area of contact and frequency. In experiment, we selected three objects whose size and shape are similar but haven’t limited way of operation. After that, we excluded feature of shape and make them consistent. We studied 30 participants response to operation and affordance, and analysis that by qualitative and quantitative. The result showed the participants have consistent posture of grasp, area of contact and way of operation in the same experimental situation; in addition, even the grip are the same, but following different functional parts, users still response a corresponding way of operation. So we suggest that shape only be as one of design factors on simple design style, and not the main factor. Designer should find other design techniques to enhance the user’s cognitive operation.
Case studies are discussed, from Northumbria University’s practice-led Centre for Design Research (CfDR) that demonstrate how visualising concepts and designs through digital animation can enable effective communication of ideas and interactions, which in turn enables creative leaps in thinking, understanding and decision-making. Animation is a tool that can unlock the comprehension into what is and what could be. This paper reflects on a number of collaborative projects between the CfDR and several scientific communities, demonstrating and focusing in particular on the process of visualisation, designing digital animations to communicate complex processes, ideas and interactions. An approach and understanding has been developed about how to effectively communicate potentially complex, scientific and technical concepts for the benefit of the client and the end user, in particular the lay audience whose knowledge of the subject may be limited or non-existing.
Findings indicate that the process of constructing simple digital animated stories becomes a learning process for both designer and client. Critical discussions during collaborative meetings develop shared understandings: helping clients to think more creatively about communication (appreciating the benefits of manipulating a truth to position to waylay contextual confusion), and making implicit knowledge belonging to the client explicit to the designer. It is important to state that this negotiation is more effective when the designer is a layperson with respect to the complex implicit knowledge of the client. During these collaborative conditions the untangling of complex ideas have achieve the a-ha moments in the animations’ audiences.
How can students at a federally-designated Hispanic-serving institution understand and express culture and diversity through art and design? In order to address this inquiry and to exemplify a method that introduces students to critical thinking in the context of design, I am presenting a case study based on the primary results of a project implemented at an introductory graphic design class, which is part of a multidisciplinary arts program. In this project, students learn basics of design research and auto ethnography in a studio setting, in order to explore heritage and culture, their context of living, family history, and personal connections with their past, present, and future. Results from this discovery stage inform brainstorming, sketching, design, and production of a book that contains multiple visual explorations on “Heritage.” Some of the most memorable and productive conversations and interactions between students took place not only during the development of the project, but at the final project presentation, which exposed their capacity to develop greater tolerance and a more empathic view of the other, to be open to reanalyze their context and personal interactions, to better evaluate the design abilities of their peers as they respond to their own individual approach to the topic, and to develop a better and safer sense of place in the classroom.
The term “slow fashion” was coined by Kate Fletcher to counter the growing trend of the “fast fashion” industry. In recent years, the clothing industry has been dominated by fast fashion that has spurred overconsumption whereby people buy more than they need.
This study aims to develop a critical-creative thinking framework based on the understandings and insights of how Millennials view apparel consumption. Lynda Grose and Kate Fletcher’s chapter “Transforming Fashion Product” from their book Fashion & Sustainability: Design for Change (2012) provided useful information regarding the fashion process, helping to reveal new patterns to frame how participants of this study view apparel consumption. This research investigated the way in which consumers viewed material, consumer care, and disposal of their clothing.
In order to understand the Millennial mindset with regard to apparel consumption, responses were collected from over a hundred Millennials through an online survey (Phase One), where they discussed their reasons for placing themselves along a scale from slow to fast fashion. The findings uncovered a new group of consumers, the undecided+exploring, who identified with both slow and fast fashion. Valuable insights extracted from the survey informed the development of a research toolkit for a series of participatory workshops (Phase Two) with the goal to construct a conceptual model of Millennial apparel consumption.
Further understanding of slow fashion, as seen through the Millennial mindset, will inspire and guide designers, manufacturers, and consumers to make more sustainable decision when developing, selling, and buying clothing items.
This paper explores the collaborative process of designing a physical object to support a National Science Foundation funded educational research project. Researchers involved with this project are exploring the ways in which gesture can aid in a explanations of science phenomena, particularly ones that have unseen structures and unobservable mechanisms. In order to manipulate the science simulations, a motion sensitive device captures students’ hand gestures. It can be difficult for students to know how to engage with this device, which impedes both student learning and associated research. In order to reduce usability challenges and enhance the connection between a student’s gestures and the scientific concepts presented on the simulation screen, a collaborative and iterative design process was conducted to create a designed form that would assist students in productively engaging with the simulations. The iterative development process of this project is an exemplar of how designed items can be developed to support multidisciplinary research projects, while also creating new fields of research. Future exploration of this device’s impact on student interaction and learning may bring to light how objects can change how people gesture in learning contexts, leaving a lasting imprint on their understanding and memory.
The political rhetoric of today economy has framed innovation as reproduced and reserved by specific people in specific locations. This framing has shaped the discourse of who is deserving and who is not deserving and gradually sets the foundation of social discrimination, inequality, and exploitation as part of the neoliberal economy. Given the claim that entrepreneurs are inventing the future, this paper envisions alternative futures in which performing economy contributes to socio-technical transformation. To that end, this paper focuses on two community- based initiatives in Chicago that their contribution to economy is not recognized due to incompatibility with mainstream narrative. In these counter-hegemonic exemplars, different but potentially related future-making practices occur; they are shifting the emphasize from individual entrepreneur to a collective economic development and moving forward the discussion of entrepreneurship to the kind of society and the kinds of citizens that it is creating. By conducting ethnographic study on these exemplars, patterns have emerged that are informative to design strategies for infrastructuring and socio-material negotiations.
Design education opportunities for non-designers are abundant and growing, many offered as rapid sprints through executive education style workshops or online courses. While these quick immersions may serve to infuse design thinking into the work processes of other disciplines, there is a risk of oversimplification. How can courses impart an appropriate sense of design without minimizing its complexity? What are the essential components of design, and optimal timing and formats needed for meaningful delivery? On the other hand, how can we educate those who seek a robust design complement to their existing professions, and those seeking a full transition of their careers into design practice? This study looks at the inception and early iterations of a one-year degree program providing an in-depth education to non-designers seeking a complementary education to other credentials or a full conversion to design through modular degree options. The first years of the program suggest several findings. For example, interdisciplinary cohorts introduce a mix of rational and intuitive approaches. Students need mentorship into design processes and practices, such as subjectivity in assessments and feedback through critique. Educators are challenged to acknowledge the past education and professional backgrounds of students, capitalizing on their unique strengths rather than homogenizing all students into a singular version of design. Students need tools to assess their professional identity during their transition to design. This work in progress will examine the spectrum of design education opportunities for non-designers, including key factors differentiating a degree program from the proliferation of short course exposures.
Lately, various kinds of intelligent products have been invented, and to play a part in the “intelligent” era, I designed an intelligent nursing bottle which can help a user when making up a bottle for a baby in middle of the night. The intelligent nursing bottle, Easybottle is a behaviour induce interaction product, which means that it motivates a user to do something with pleasure. As a mother of one year old, I learned that it is very important for a caregiver to feel satisfied in order to nurse a baby from the heart. Easybottle provides sound modality to notify the caregiver how much water she should pour when mixing powdered formula with water so she does not need to feel agitated to read bottle markings in middle of the night when her eyes are not fully awake.
The methodology that I applied is metaphor. As metaphors, I chose two different sounds to compare; sound of water pouring and sound of a car’s proximity sensor. The main goal was to define more useful interface for Easybottle.
I conducted quantitative within-participants experiment. This study explored whether lifelike sound works better or artificial sound works better as an indication interface. Participants evaluated the water pouring sound interface more positively than a car’s proximity sensor sound interface. Lifelike and hedonic factor appeared to be attractive to the participants and it implies that even though Easybottle is an electronic product, participants appreciate more when it reminds them of nature. Also, entertainment factor is important when doing a chore.