Despite the increased popularity of online tools for remote teamwork and meetings, moderated collaborative activities between multiple users in early conceptual design stages, such as brainstorming sessions, are yet not well supported. In this paper, we introduce All4One, a networked system that enables multiple remote users to participate in a moderated visual sketching session. Each participant can independently draw and share sketches using a tablet, and a moderator uses a set of tangible tools to arrange and manipulate sketches that are displayed in real-time on a whiteboard. We present our prototype in detail and the results from a workshop study simulating a brainstorming session with designers who tested the system in practice. Results show several usage patterns and the potential of All4One for use in early design stages, and the importance of the role of the moderator as the facilitator of the design process. The paper concludes by identifying weaknesses and strengths of the current system and possible directions for future work.
The purpose of this study is to plan and operate design-workshops based on project-based learning (PBL), and examine their educational value for students. The PBL workshop encour- ages direct participation from students and produces educational value, and it is important to raise the interest level of workshops to elicit proactive participation. The workshop in this study was carried out over two weeks in January 2017 at Korea’s Yonsei University. The workshop was composed of eight teams of students from three countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, and the course was primarily divided into two sessions. The workshop participants examined in this thesis were notably satised with the elements of the course meant to garner interest. In the questionnaire results, participants also indicated that they obtained ample educational value through the workshop. An important element of the workshop was to connect the participants with businesses, which is also an important component of design education. Despite this, participants expressed a relatively lower level of satisfaction com- pared to other elements of the workshop. The results and analysis of this study will hopefully become a meaningful resource for educators when designing workshops in the future.
Case studies are discussed, from Northumbria University’s practice-led Centre for Design Research (CfDR) that demonstrate how visualising concepts and designs through digital animation can enable effective communication of ideas and interactions, which in turn enables creative leaps in thinking, understanding and decision-making. Animation is a tool that can unlock the comprehension into what is and what could be. This paper reflects on a number of collaborative projects between the CfDR and several scientific communities, demonstrating and focusing in particular on the process of visualisation, designing digital animations to communicate complex processes, ideas and interactions. An approach and understanding has been developed about how to effectively communicate potentially complex, scientific and technical concepts for the benefit of the client and the end user, in particular the lay audience whose knowledge of the subject may be limited or non-existing.
Findings indicate that the process of constructing simple digital animated stories becomes a learning process for both designer and client. Critical discussions during collaborative meetings develop shared understandings: helping clients to think more creatively about communication (appreciating the benefits of manipulating a truth to position to waylay contextual confusion), and making implicit knowledge belonging to the client explicit to the designer. It is important to state that this negotiation is more effective when the designer is a layperson with respect to the complex implicit knowledge of the client. During these collaborative conditions the untangling of complex ideas have achieve the a-ha moments in the animations’ audiences.
The challenges facing many small nonprofit organizations are increasing at a greater rate than the internal capacities of many within this sector are able to address effectively. This situation has small nonprofits questioning their sustainability and ability to deliver their services in the long term. Often these small nonprofit organizations are working within a business model and communications paradigm that has remained unchanged for decades and one which is proving no longer effective in attracting awareness, engagement, and support. Many of these organizations are facing a critical failure requiring significant business model innovation to achieve both their short-, mid- and long-term goals. Design thinking is an avenue for nonprofits to achieve business model innovation by developing new, unique concepts supporting an organization’s viability and the processes for bringing those concepts to fruition. This case study outlines the design thinking process applied to business model innovation for a small, 22-year old, nonprofit approaching critical business failure.
The environment in which patients (need to) reside has a great influence on their wellbeing (Ulrich, 1991). That is why introducing ‘Design for Wellbeing’ is key in the design of palliative environments. People in the last phase of their life become more receptive to environmental stimuli. From our perspective, this triggers design to become even more relevant in such contexts. People’s search for subjective well-being (SWB) has promoted a change in vision in the design of new products, services and environments, with a focus not only on material properties, but also on the personal values that trigger actions that can contribute to people’s SWB. Such considerations contribute also to proposing answers to the question of how design can support people to have a meaningful life and ‘be well’ in the best possible way, according to the circumstances.
The purpose of this paper is firstly, if design for wellbeing can be performed in the context of palliative care, and secondly, how research could be set up in such a precious context. A thorough literature review will be performed to answer these questions. The value of this study lies in aiming to try to enable terminally ill patients and people from their immediate surroundings to cope with these events via design, and to stimulate people to be able to perform activities that they like (most) and which contribute to their SWB.
This paper presents the results of a research based Living Lab experience, where people participate together as users, researchers, stakeholders and collaborators working to effect change to improve social inclusion and social participation for persons with functional difficulties. The Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall (RehabMall) transforms an urban shopping mall into an interdisciplinary, multi-sectorial research platform that supports multiple projects investigating what constitutes an accessible and inclusive environment for people with physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities. We present an overview of the RehabMALL Living Lab, the contexts of the project and the project meta-analysis to present the salient issues emerging from the projects that were done. Grounded in a design research approach, and inspired by the Ecological Systems Theory of Bronfenbrenner (1979), the investigations conducted focus on subjective and inter-subjective experiences within understanding obstacles and facilitators that frame how people experience going to the mall, and how the physical, cognitive and virtual environments that support these activities might be better served. Disability is defined within the framework of the “World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning (WHO, 2003). The overview of the project is presented with particular attention to the various collaborations and partnerships created alongside the issues that emerge in terms of results, and how people might be better served when public spaces are designed with their input and within a perspective of universal design.
This paper engages with the literature to present different perspectives between forecasting and foresight in strategic design, while drawing insights derived from futures studies that can be applied in form of a design-inspired foresight approach for designers and interdisciplinary innovation teams increasingly called upon to help envisage preferable futures. Demonstrating this process in applied research, relevant examples are drawn from a 2016 Financial Services industry futures study to the year 2030. While the financial services industry exemplifies an ideal case for design-inspired foresight, the aims of this paper are primarily to establish the peculiarities between traditional forecasting applications and a design-inspired foresight visioning approach as strategic design activities for selecting preferable futures. Underlining the contribution of this paper is the
value of design futures thinking as a creative and divergent thought process, which has the potential to respond to the much broader organizational reforms needed to sustain in today’s rapidly evolving business environment (Buchanan, 2015; Irmak, 2005; Muratovski, 2016).
This paper engages with the literature to present different perspectives between forecasting
and foresight in strategic design, while drawing insights derived from futures studies that
can be applied in form of a design-inspired foresight approach for designers and
interdisciplinary innovation teams increasingly called upon to help envisage preferable
futures. Demonstrating this process in applied research, relevant examples are drawn from
a 2016 Financial Services industry futures study to the year 2030. While the financial
services industry exemplifies an ideal case for design-inspired foresight, the aims of this
paper are primarily to establish the peculiarities between traditional forecasting
applications and a design-inspired foresight visioning approach as strategic design
activities for selecting preferable futures. Underlining the contribution of this paper is the
value of design futures thinking as a creative and divergent thought process, which has the
potential to respond to the much broader organizational reforms needed to sustain in
today’s rapidly evolving business environment (Buchanan, 2015; Irmak, 2005; Muratovski,
This paper reviews contemporary communication design practice in Australia through a series of interviews with practitioners, conducted to better understand the place of sustainability in contemporary practice. It is especially concerned with the expectations and experience of designers, and their attitudes towards sustainability in practice, and the contrast between designing ‘greener things’ and establishing more sustainable outcomes for their clients through deeper collaboration. The paper is part of a larger PhD project attempting to establish ways of expanding the understanding of sustainability for communication designers.
There is a growing need for sustainable fashion since the 2010s. As artists and designers explore the potential use of innovative materials developed by synthetic biology and DIY bio-hacking (Myers, 2010), recent practice-led research in fashion design aims at building the better relationship between ecological sustainability and biotechnology to cope with the limited resources available on the earth (Fletcher, 2008). Based on this issue on the material sustainability, this practice-led research analyzes the current production processes of the fashion industry to propose possible solutions by incorporating emerging biotechnology and fashion design in the context of sustainable design. As the methodology, the authors adopt two processes to make bio-garment. First, the experiment of DIY bio has been conducted for culturing ecological bio-material SCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast) that produces bacterial cellulose. The material has similar properties to leather. Second, designing the garment through 3D modeling has been tackled because we aim to make the bio-materials grow onto a 3D printed mold as ‘zero waste method’ (Rissanen; Mcquillan, 2016) , which can eliminate textile waste at the design stage. By the application of biological materials in the process of dressmaking, this practice led research has been analyzing the production line of the fashion industry and trying to propose sustainable solutions. Also the research aims to combine emerging biotechnology and sustainable fashion in order to establish the design process as an alternative design process to the polluting industry.
Identifying Infants can be harder than it seems. Particularly in remote and limited resources settings, rapid and accurate identification of infants presents an unsolved complex sociotechnical problem. Imagine a long line of caregivers, each carrying several children, waiting outside in heat and humidity for required vaccinations. Caregivers may only know the infant's given names: how can the they be identified for record keeping?
Vaccination cards are notoriously unreliably and easily lost, mistakes abound. Recent technologycentered attempts th
In order to develop a new, infant-centered solution from the ground up, we assembled a diverse team of engineers, clinicians, ethnographers and designers and followed a Human Centered Design (HCD) approach of ethnography, rapid prototyping and testing. We examined all common modalities used in adult biometrics-- ear, iris, retina, face, foot, palm and finger recognition and compared technical feasibility, usability and acceptability for the infant use case. We prototyped many infant-centric devices and arrived at lead candidates using modified contact vs non contact palm and finger scanning. Frequent design-test cycles were critical as the complexity and changing nature of infant physiology, behavior and caregiver dynamics could not be predicted, only tested with subjects. This was compounded by moving targets of evolving infant-centric software, hardware and device design.
In summary, we report here an HCD based approach to infant biometrics. We developed and tested robust, socially acceptable technologies that adapt to the tiny, sensitive yet changing fingers of very young infants.
In this study, based on the perception of older adults, fuzzy positioning of healthcare wearables and impacts of differentiated product positioning on human considerations and design communication strategies are studied. Empirical researches are performed by adopting both quantitative research (248 questionnaires for clustering and regression analysis) and qualitative research (15 cases for in- depth interview). The perceptions of older adults on product positioning are divided into three types: Tech-Aid, Fash-Acc, and Fash-Tech. Results indicate that the influential human considerations for each positioning were different from each other. Through coding and storyline analysis, diverse communication strategies are found for each positioning. The outcomes for each type are as follows. For Tech-Aid, wherein older adults lay emphasis on usefulness, ease of use, and privacy, the designers can adopt a calm communication strategy by giving priority to older adults’ control power, fitting symptoms, user-friendly, and cautious interconnection. For Fash-Acc, wherein older adults focus on personal image, aesthetic appearance, and ease of use, an active communication strategy for modeling a style for elderly fashion that agrees with aesthetic appreciation and simplified operation can be adopted. For Fash-Tech, wherein older adults require to integrate usefulness, ease of use, aesthetic appearance, comfort, privacy, and self-image, a persuasive communication strategy can be used, through which designers can offer older adults more data insights and entertainment, along with data association, and in the meantime, reduce data interferences and pay attention to style modality and appropriate display with context fusion and contact comfort.
The term “community-based participatory design” (CBPD) recently emerged as a distinctive space in the Participatory Design tradition (DiSalvo, Clement & Pipek, 2013; LeDantec, 2016). This move marks a shift from treating the process of design primarily as a product development method, to one that builds social and technical capacities – or infrastructures – of individuals and communities (Björgvinsson, Ehn, & Hillgren 2010; Karasti 2014; LeDantec 2016). This paper describes participant gains from a design workshop conducted as part of a research collaboration involving a university-based research center, and four NGOs, the participatory design workshop aimed to: (1) build the capacities of young people; (2) guide young people in the creation of novel and locally relevant gender and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) solutions; and, (3) bring voices of young people into research and programmatic questions around gender and SRH in the public health domain. The workshop was conducted with 31 young people aged 15-25, over 2.5 weeks, in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The evaluation demonstrates that the workshop resulted in exposure to working in mixed-gender teams, developing problem-solving skills, and increasing SRH awareness and knowledge. The workshop produced six low-fidelity prototypes, five of which were subsequently refined and piloted by three Lucknow NGOs.
This research aims to investigate how Korean digital agencies practice design thinking for their website innovation. Based on a literature review on the design- thinking-driven web development process, multiple case studies of award-winning website projects were undertook. Through analyses of these cases, the following challenges and lessons were disclosed: (1) challenges – building a long-term, playful partnership with clients, leveraging decision-making executives’ design thinking awareness, and coping with limited resources (design thinking practitioners, budgets, and schedules) and (2) lessons – cross-functional collaboration, agile mobile-first development process, powerful visual storytelling, and compelling UX strategies and UI guidelines. Moreover, distinct approaches of design thinking practices were identified according to two website types: a brand promotion website – killer branding content-driven approach, and a service channel website – better UI/UXdriven approach.
Traditional Industrial Design sponsored studios (when a corporation partners with a student design studio) can quickly become design for hire studios which limit student learning outcomes as well as successful outcomes for the Sponsor. In assessing instruction practices in sponsored studios, traditionally success is limited to products moving directly into production. By reframing the studio into an incubator and in-line studio setting students could work in the same fashion as an in-house design studio, with mass diminutive ideation focusing on performance initially rather than aesthetics causing an increased standard for success. Because students would be concentrating on editing down a mass amount of variables with swift precision using raw but effective mockups, time would not be wasted on improving the craft of an initial, potentially ill- developed concept, leading to more risk projects with market disrupting potential rather than just an aesthetic or materials update going into production.
In a multi-disciplinary studio setting students from Industrial Design, Apparel Merchandising and Design, and Kinesiology, partnered with a corporate sponsored studio instructed in the framework premised above. The outcomes were a success with the studio functioning beyond a studio for hire scenario to learning objectives being met as well as aspects of projects moving forward into to development and projects moving directly into production as well as applications for patents. This paper investigates how studio culture can be reframed to create a diverse range of success as well as what specific instruction techniques, making techniques, and studio culture lead to this success.
Increasingly universities are adopting a collaborative approach to ensure research outcomes have industry-relevant impact. This collaboration has known challenges given the complexity of the process which requires successful negotiation across the needs of various stakeholders, disciplinary knowledges and cultural contexts. A co-creation approach in collaborative research can assist in navigating these challenges by empowering all stakeholders including industry, the academy and the community. This paper presents a case study of an industry engaged research project that employed this approach. Partnering with a northern European international airline and universities from Australia and Singapore, the project investigated opportunities for innovation around the ageing population’s user experience with in-flight packaging. Applying case study method, data collected included in-flight observations, expert interviews, co-creation workshops and prototyping. Challenges as well as opportunities are identified around how the co-creation approach supported the industry relevant outcomes of the project. The findings suggest that co-creation supports better outcomes for collaboration across the complexity of industry engaged cross-cultural research projects.
The “Safety Grand Challenge” is a collaborative research project between the Royal College of Art (RCA) School of Design, and the Lloyd's Register Foundation (LRF). The maritime industry is dominated by “grandfathering” leading to a slow-pace of adopting innovations that can reduce risk and save lives at sea. We describe how impact was achieved through collaboration and design innovations that bridged the risk gap between technologies and human behaviours. Starting from the project brief we designed a collaborative platform that supported a constructive dialogue between academia and partner organisations that aimed to foster innovative design approaches to risk and safety. The project generated an engaged community with diverse expertise that influenced the outcomes which included seven prototypes designed by a group of thirty students from across the RCA. Throughout the course of the project the network extended to other partners beyond the initial ones that included the RCA, LRF and Royal National Lifeboat Institution. The “Safety Grand Challenge” demonstrates how research can be an explorative platform that offers opportunities to analyse and design solutions to real life safety problems in mature industries through the prototypes that reflect the sophistication of the project’s collaborations. Our conclusions support how design research helped identify the value of design for safety in tackling complex issues that intertwine human, environmental and commercial views and can shape new forms of collaborative research between academia and industrial partners.
This study suggests that student reflection on academic and industry collaborative projects can enhance student’s understanding on the design process to solve live industry problems. It contributes to the body of design literature to support students learning of explicit and implicit knowledge (Boling et al., 2016; Land et al., 2016; Salama, 2015). A 2017 learning- by-making (LBM) unit in the School of Architecture and Design, at the University of Tasmania, Australia, developed a unit for students to collaborate with Neville Smith Forest Products Pty. Ltd. (NSFP). NSFP is a local Tasmanian timber product manufacturer who currently stockpiles out-of-grade timber that has limited market applications. Undergraduate design students from second and third year Furniture, Interior and Architecture degrees collaborated with NSFP to value-add to their out-of-grade resource in the LBM unit. A series of design challenges, observations of industry practice and access to out-of-grade timber from NSFP exposed students to live industry problems and provided them the opportunity to build professional design skills. Students reflected on the collaborative LBM unit in a reflection journal, which was used to provide evidence of their learning experiences. The collaborative environment between academia and industry allowed students to acquire an understanding of timber product manufacturing that helped them develop empathy towards the industry problem and influence the development of new products. This study presents how student reflections influenced a change in their design process as they progressed through sequential design challenges to address an industry problem by adopting Valkenburg and Dorst (1998) reflective learning framework.
The purpose of Experience Group Sessions is to identify the health and lifestyle challenges that make it difficult for patients and families to manage chronic medical conditions. The Innovation Engine at Carolinas HealthCare System worked with pediatricians to identify and recruit patients with chronic asthma. Experience Group Sessions were a way for families and patients to share their experiences managing asthma and allowed facilitators to gather insights about what does and does not happen in their daily lives. The key themes and quotes collected from the Experience Group Sessions were grouped into three categories of outcomes that define success with health: capability, comfort and calm. The results of the analysis were shared with the workgroup to inform the design and strategy for an integrated practice unit. Integrated practice units are intended to bring together a full range of providers and services to specifically address a certain medical condition, in this case, pediatric asthma at Carolinas HealthCare System. This integrated practice model will be reorganized around patient-centered care and value to improve overall health for children with asthma.
The Japanese government has planned by 2020 to introduce the Finnish Neuvola System, a fundamental social childcare system that covers the period of pregnancy to child care. The purpose of this research is to clarify the conditions for high quality of Neuvola service, comparing childcare of Finland and Japan. First, the social systems of Finland and Japan, legal actions and other related social backgrounds are covered. Following this, the results are analyzed. Secondly, the results of interviews in Finland with Neuvola public health nurses and three typical Neuvola users, including a father, mother, and pregnant woman are presented. As a result of survey, six conditions were identified as the basis of Neuvola services: personal health checks, facility preparation, pleotropic care, communication through mutual dialogue, customized information and management of service provider quality. In a society where nuclear families are increasing, it is harder to care for children without someone’s support. In comparing Finnish and Japanese childcare systems, the Finnish system perceives childcare as a social matter. In the Neuvola System, people are always open to discuss about any worries or queries. In Japan, the system is closed toward personal matters and private treatment options are not adequate. This is a major factor in larger problems that exist in the Japanese system.
The results are discussed in relation to previous studies of participatory roles in social health care services in the Japanese government and users of these services, leading to the proposal of a Japanese childcare service design.
This paper introduces academic research into conceptual apparel and fashion narratives that are inspired by diverse art and media aesthetics for unique collection stories. Distinct photography forms the design continuum with photo-real imagery carefully mapped onto patterns, creating fabric textures and garment shapes. They concentrate in their content on investigating place and space as a shared environment. The actual design practice is therefore embedded in a reflective discourse that is driven by exploring textiles as a social, factual or cultural platform for meaning and narrative. Fabric is treated as a screen and canvas for a collage of visual information, cultural environment, collective memory and association. In contextualizing this multi-disciplinary approach, wider theoretical implications and readings of narrative imagery in textile, fashion design and art are cross-referenced. A focus is on particular limited editions as a research model and case study within this practice. Bespoke ranges have been commissioned by partners in creative industries that explore site-specific histories and new insights for design outputs. They have been exhibited at international fashion weeks as well as in museum and gallery contexts. As a second outcome they have also played an important role by being commercialized in an academic spinout company and intersecting research strategy with academic enterprise. This is referenced in this context as an underlying support structure for dissemination of above experimentation.
It was late on a Friday evening. A great time to avoid crowds. Most people were dining and drinking, absorbing the city’s capacity for pleasure, or maybe relaxing at home. That left the supermarket to me and others whose lives are synchronized differently. But as I stumbled my way through those harshly lit corridors of obscene American consumption, I realized I was among some highly unusual company. In every aisle, there were people—people?—clad in blue uniforms with devices attached to their forearms and fingertips, cables and wires dangling, each methodically filling large specialized carts. These were not shoppers like me. They were employees of the grocery chain operating— operated by?—new software for online ordering and curbside pickup. Surely, this wasn’t such a strange scene in contemporary stores around the world. Yet, it did raise strange—radical? — possibilities: a specter of “before” for an unforeseeable and potentially unpleasant “after.” The unity of the human and the machine, not implanted but merged in the operation, made me wonder: Are they cyborgs? Incipient cyborgs? Is this still a supermarket? Or an altogether different kind of space? One in the process of becoming? But becoming what?
The image that flashed to mind was that of an Amazon fulfillment center: a million acres of non-stop conveyor belts with robots finding and retrieving machine-labeled products and filling yellow bins under the supervision of a handful of humans. Robotic automation creating efficiency while eliminating the unpredictable and unproductive complexities of human labor and interactions. Perhaps, supermarkets are undergoing a transformation from spaces where humans browse, compare, select, and purchase to cyborg-operated warehouses. Perhaps this rapid and fundamental revision of function is an inevitable result of the increasing rate of technical reformation of everyday life.
Then again, perhaps my lucid vision of this scene as a new-reality- becoming is an example of what has been called “dystopian imagination”—an imaginary projection of “ethical and political concern” [Baccolini & Moylan, 2]. Or maybe it’s only a personal paranoia about the brave new world unfolding.
Living in a modern society is becoming more complex, so in order to keep up with, a person should accomplish various kinds of task at once. Daily life requirements, obligations and the capacity of human memory lead us to collect and control our behaviors, bodies and lives through self-tracking devices. Aim of this paper analysis of emerging digitalized self-tracking trend through content analysis of Wired Magazine. Wired Magazine, both in printed and online, monthly, publish technology related articles how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy and politics. It reaches more than 30 million people each month through wired.com, digital edition. Since the term 'quantified self' emerged for the first time in Wired Magazine, for this reason Wired Magazine is one of the most important sources to be used for content analysis. This present study carries out a content analysis of all the issues until December 2016 through 'self-tracking' and two other related terms: 'quantified self' and 'lifelogging'. The usage period and popularity of these terms and, the relation network with the main topics and the subtopics are examined. As a result, it is possible to define wired magazine as a medium in which industry-academia and users come together and, feed each other reciprocally. Wired Magazine have contributed significantly and continues to contribute to the development of the digitalized self-tracking trend in terms of its content.
Traditional craft has been relegated to the margins in modern culture, being perceived as out step with technological, economic and societal progress. However, emergent research is rediscovering the nature of craft and its potential for contributing to design practice in conjunction with developments in science and technology. Through the analyses of craft and sustainability, strong connections are revealed as well as some incompatibilities. The contribution of this paper is to a) map a systemic view of craft and b) establish a theoretical understanding of the relationship between craft and a holistic understanding of sustainability. Drawing on recent research that proposes three areas of leverage for sustainability, we argue that craft, as a system of making, knowing and being, has significant potential to contribute actively and tangibly to the transitional conditions, thereby serving as an agency for sustainable transformation.
Starting or growing a co-op/internship program can be intimidating; for both educators and potential employer partners. In an effort to learn the pain points for both parties, opportunities
to break down barriers and build bridges, and identify actionable steps to get started, faculty from the University of Cincinnati’s Division of Experience-Based Learning and Career Education conducted a two-year research project with 65 co-op and internship employers from more 15 unique industry clusters, and 50 university faculty and staff representing 24 unique institutions. This poster will graphically share the resulting findings from more than 1250 qualitative responses, and generate discussion on the educational pedagogy of creating best practices for employer partners. Find out what “the survey says”!
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Mark Hallerberg is Dean and Professor of Public Management and Political Economy at the Hertie School of Governance, a private public policy School in Berlin, Germany. His research focuses on fiscal governance, tax competition, financial crises, public sector innovation, and European Union politics.
He previously held academic positions at Emory University, where he maintains an affiliation with the political science department, as well as at the University of Pittsburgh and Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his PhD from UCLA in 1995.
This paper will address some design concerns relating to philosopher Étienne Souriau’s work Les différents modes d’existence (2009). This has important bearings upon design because, first, this philosophical attitude thinks of designing not as an act of forming objects with identity and meaning, but rather as a process of delivering things that allow for a multiplicity of creative remodulation of our very existences. Secondly, Souriau unpicks the concept of a being existing as a unified identity and redefines existence as a creative act of nonstop production of a variety of modes of existence. In doing this he not only moves ontological considerations to the fore of philosophical discussions away from epistemological ones, but does so in such a way as to align with attitudes to ethics that relate it to ontology – notably the work of Spinoza. (This places Souriau in a philosophical lineage that leads back, for example, to Nietzsche and Whitehead, and forward (from his era) to Deleuze and Guattari.) In thinking both ontology and ethics together, this paper will introduce a different approach to the ethics of design.
This article concerns the use of critical design practices within the context of commercial semiotics, arguing that incorporating practices from a critical design approach is valuable for client brands, but also an important means with which to incite brands to consider more deeply their role in shaping the future. As an alternative to the oppositional approach frequently taken by critical design practitioners, working through design practices collaboratively alongside client brands creates potential for the radical changes sought by many of the movement’s vanguard. A case study of recent work with a corporate client demonstrates the practical effects of using critical design practice within a commercial setting, proving the complementarity between critical design practice and commercial semiotics – where the confluence of the thinking brought new value to improve product design for example – and points to the value of using current leading edge thinking within the design community.
Designing successful products and services that people like, requires an understanding of the context and the aspirations of those people. Over the past decade, a range of methods has been developed to help designers gain such empathy. These have worked well when designer and target user share a cultural context. However, designers often find it difficult to empathize with the user insights of individuals from a culture beyond their first-hand experience. To help designers step beyond this limitation, those user insights need to be placed in a larger understanding of the cultural context. In this paper, we present Cultura: a toolkit that uses nine cultural aspects based on cultural models, informing designers about user insights in a broader cultural context. The toolkit was evaluated in design sessions with four design teams. The findings indicate that Cultura provides inspiration and motivation for designers to gain empathic insights into users beyond their own cultural boundaries and to make effective designs for people.
Western cultures focus on salient objects and use categorization for purposes of organizing the environment (an analytic view), whereas, East Asians cultures focus more holistically on relationships and similarities among objects when organizing the environment (a holistic view). Previous research has shown that cognitive approaches differ between cultures: European Americans prefer an analytic style, and East Asians tend to use a holistic style. However, little is known about how cultural differences in cognition relate to aesthetic preferences. In this paper, we explored whether cultural differences arise in preferences for products set in matching vs. mismatching contexts. Participants in a laboratory experiment included European Americans and East Asians. Individually, they viewed images of a variety of furniture products (chairs, coffee tables, and floor lamps) and rated their aesthetic appeal. Each product type appeared in three different contexts: matching (target product shown in its usual in-home context); mismatched (target product shown in an unusual in-home context), and neutral (the target product shown on a white background). For both cultural groups, products were judged to be more aesthetically pleasing in the matching than in the mismatched context. However, ratings for products in mismatching contexts were significantly higher among East Asians. Our findings suggest that those with holistic views (East Asians) are more tolerant of mismatches than are those with more analytic views (European Americans). The implications for product and marketing design include greater attention to context presentation.
Graphic design is often seen in the commercial context and is discussed through topics linked to software and technology. When we look around us we can realise that billboards, banners, posters and most of the print that surround us in the public space are delivering messages of marketing, corporations, consumerism and other commercially inclined narratives. This, however, is not the only way to comprehend the practice of a graphic designer. Graphic design can take a socio-pedagogical and historical role and distribute alternative messages in the society which are not linked to money and consumption, unless education, reading and studying are considered consumption of sorts.
It is obvious that graphic design is a powerful tool that shapes our understanding of reality. This happens through being exposed to the work. Posters are claimed to mirror societies by many theorists and most visual communication is mediated by a graphic designer. Thus, Bonsiepe stated already in 2005 in his speech Design and Democracy that there is an absence of questioning activities linked to design production. It is yet a relevant theme that research needs to approach; also in a post-colony where the printed poster is ubiquitous. A simple sheet of printed paper. A very simple but extremely complex and powerful. There lies an investigation that this paper will start. The outcome of this paper to share knowledge within the researchers about creating new meaningful pathways in understanding globally important practice of graphic design. Art and design are universally important.
IASDR 2017 Workshop
Design now faces with new challenges that have made us rethink about our current design paradigm. It motivated us to organize a forum called, Design 3.0 Forum at KAIST in 2016, where we invited globally renowned design researchers and practitioners from different countries to discuss about important agenda for emerging challenges. The agenda we extracted from this forum can be summarized as follows: 1) envisioning of designers' future roles on open creativity and design; 2) dissemination and evaluation of design research outcomes by keeping deep design values; and 3) post education and practice that moves beyond the current use-centered perspectives by thinking big toward social innovation and large-scale impact.
As the result of the Design 3.0 forum, we all agreed that we must continue to develop and extend these agenda and collaboratively make executable actions to carry them out in the design community. In this special session at IASDR 2017, not only the organizers of the previous Design 3.0 forum (i.e. Youn-kyung Lim, Ron Wakkary, Kun-pyo Lee, and Tek-jin Nam), we invite the people who have not participated in the previous forum but can provide important insights on these issues. For the format of the session, we will take the panel format where the invited participants will present their positions first, and then have in-depth discussion on them among the participants and the audience. Through this special session, we expect to advance the initial Design 3.0 agenda and can generate more concrete and executable action items for Design 3.0.
Please follow developments of this work at http://design3-0.org/2017iasdr/
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Tracy Moss is an independent design consultant and currently serves as the Course Director for Counter-Proliferation Opportunity Design at Joint Special Operations University, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. As co-founder of the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Design Thinking education program, she also serves as core faculty for the full complement of design-related courses and activities at the university and headquarters.
Ms. Moss retired from military service in 2015 having spent 20 years on active duty in both the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. During her final four years of military service at USSOCOM, she served as the lead Analyst and Planner on two operational design teams and as Chief of Counter-Weapons of Mass Destruction Analysis.
Developing successful RNPs can bring competitive advantages for companies. However, the success rate of RNPs are relatively low because consumers often feel resistant to adopt
them. One reason for consumers’ resistance is their lack of comprehension of RNPs. To facilitate consumers’ comprehension, this paper conceptually discusses the opportunities related to designing the appearances of RNPs. More specifically, to facilitate consumers’ internal and external learning, this paper explores four underlying mechanisms: 1) product appearance as a visual cue to trigger category-based knowledge transfer, 2) to trigger analogy-based knowledge transfer, 3) product appearance as an information carrier to communicate innovative functionality directly, and 4) product appearance as a way to trigger congruity with innovative functionality of RNPs. The rationales for each underlying
mechanism are conceptually discussed, supported with relevant empirical evidence and examples found in the markets.
In societies where productivity is prioritized over presence, anxiety abounds. The extensive and alarming effects of anxiety on the mental and physiological wellbeing of bachelor students inspired a cross-disciplinary team to tackle this problem. Using combined expertise in visual design, music technology, psychology, art therapy and mindfulness — a digital tool entitled “Modes” was born. The Modes digital tool is an atmospheric, introspective, and aesthetically sophisticated engagement of three senses: ophthalmoception (sight), audioception (hearing), and tactioception (touch). Through immersive interaction, mesmerizing visual and sound landscapes are generated in order to reduce anxiety in bachelor students. The two measurable outcomes of Modes are 1) the reduction of self-reported anxiety in bachelor students, and 2) the reduction of bachelor student heart rates.
Interacting with the Modes digital tool is like playing in a sandbox of dynamic visuals and music. Users begin by selecting and entering one of three digital environments entitled Refocus, Chill, or Energize. Each environment (or mode) offers a unique set of visuals and music designed specifically for anxiety reduction. The design and functionality of Modes are rooted in tenets of mindfulness practice and Ayurveda — an ancient Indian healing system emphasizing inner balance as a method for maintaining health and wellness (Kiefer, 2016). The Refocus, Chill, and Energize modes aim to balance each of three governing principle of Ayurveda that regulate physiological activity. Ultimately, users may combat and control their anxiety in three targeted ways: by refocusing, chilling, or energizing.
The political rhetoric of today economy has framed innovation as reproduced and reserved by specific people in specific locations. This framing has shaped the discourse of who is deserving and who is not deserving and gradually sets the foundation of social discrimination, inequality, and exploitation as part of the neoliberal economy. Given the claim that entrepreneurs are inventing the future, this paper envisions alternative futures in which performing economy contributes to socio-technical transformation. To that end, this paper focuses on two community- based initiatives in Chicago that their contribution to economy is not recognized due to incompatibility with mainstream narrative. In these counter-hegemonic exemplars, different but potentially related future-making practices occur; they are shifting the emphasize from individual entrepreneur to a collective economic development and moving forward the discussion of entrepreneurship to the kind of society and the kinds of citizens that it is creating. By conducting ethnographic study on these exemplars, patterns have emerged that are informative to design strategies for infrastructuring and socio-material negotiations.
This study introduces a new perspective on the design pedagogy in learning symbol design. A new experimental discipline implemented by the design methods demonstrates positive learning outcomes for students on the development of symbol study. Understanding denotative and connotative interpretation in visual literacy is essential in order to convey not only a clear message but also distinctive recognition as the nature of symbol quality. Students executed design experiments with design theories and methods for understanding design fundamentals of the denotative symbol and explored a matrix table for cultivating connotative symbols. This pedagogical strategy applied to the expansion of visual concepts with progressive experiments on each stage; 1) analyzing perceptive characteristics, 2) simplifying visual construction, 3) developing a visual concept with connotative meaning, and 4) configuring visual balance and enhanced quality based on design principles. With examples of student outcomes, this paper explains an analysis of functional expression and interpretation applied by design methods. This study discovered that earlier teaching of design fundamental disciplines with theories and methods in the graphic design major gave students better opportunities to pursue their further study more effectively and productively.
Design processes are so complex that it is not easy to remember, reflect and record in detail after the actual processes are over. This paper proposes a notation to depict a design process as a whole while keeping its original complexity in terms of visual and structural aspects. The notion affords two types of structures to represent design processes, through activity units, a series of actions of the same kind, and design elements including ideas, prototypes and theories emerged, created, and applied during the design process. We use a design process of an actual design workshop as a case to derive the notation while using the online presentation tool “Prezi” as an interaction framework. We then investigated the depicted design process by re-experiencing the process as a first-person engagement using the designed notation. Prezi's animation mode allowed us designate a sequence along which viewers can experience the design process by zooming in some activity units and design elements, and its presentation mode allows us to look back the design process from the start to the end by following activity units arranged in the temporal order. Following the transitions among some design elements allows us to focus on essential objects in the design process. The depicted process illustrate that the two structures of activity units and design elements are not corresponding to but independent of each other.
To limit the harm and damage caused by river flooding, signs to indicate dangerous water levels are placed along the river, particularly where there is a danger of overflow. However, the general level of awareness of such signs is low. In this study, we examined ways to efficiently convey information that people have little interest in and find difficult to understand.
Dangerous water levels are quantified and communicated using colors to indicate the degree of danger, and this information is conveyed to the public with signs on bridge piers and slopes. Various other measures are also employed, e.g., adding evacuation pictograms to signs, displaying signs separate from graduated water level indicators, and providing detailed information via the river office website. In addition to using Internet channels such as websites and Facebook, it is common to create and distribute pamphlets and other kinds of printed notifications to communicate such important information as widely as possible. Nevertheless, information that is essential in an emergency but unnecessary at ordinary times is difficult to communicate widely and effectively, even if all these measures are taken. This is because even if people accept that such information must be understood, they remain uninterested and find the information difficult to understand. To solve this problem, we created a story featuring mascot characters for each danger level. This story, presented as a picture book, overturns the conventional attitude toward such information. We thereby developed a medium for communicating important information in a way that better captures people’s interest.
IASDR 2017 Guest Speaker
Kit Zhang is a Senior User Experience Designer and Design Manager at Amazon. She is currently working on Amazon Fashion’s personalized shopping experience, including Amazon's fashion service, “Prime Wardrobe”.
She was the solo designer and researcher on the launch team of Amazon’s first brick-and-mortar "Bookstore". Throughout her three year journey at Amazon, she has been advocating for design research through collaboration with researchers, as well as pioneering new research methodologies as a designer on startup-mode teams.
Kit has nine years of design industry experience in consultancies and corporations. She has designed and launched various consumer facing and enterprise products. Kit has a Master of Design degree from the University of Cincinnati, College of DAAP.
Design education opportunities for non-designers are abundant and growing, many offered as rapid sprints through executive education style workshops or online courses. While these quick immersions may serve to infuse design thinking into the work processes of other disciplines, there is a risk of oversimplification. How can courses impart an appropriate sense of design without minimizing its complexity? What are the essential components of design, and optimal timing and formats needed for meaningful delivery? On the other hand, how can we educate those who seek a robust design complement to their existing professions, and those seeking a full transition of their careers into design practice? This study looks at the inception and early iterations of a one-year degree program providing an in-depth education to non-designers seeking a complementary education to other credentials or a full conversion to design through modular degree options. The first years of the program suggest several findings. For example, interdisciplinary cohorts introduce a mix of rational and intuitive approaches. Students need mentorship into design processes and practices, such as subjectivity in assessments and feedback through critique. Educators are challenged to acknowledge the past education and professional backgrounds of students, capitalizing on their unique strengths rather than homogenizing all students into a singular version of design. Students need tools to assess their professional identity during their transition to design. This work in progress will examine the spectrum of design education opportunities for non-designers, including key factors differentiating a degree program from the proliferation of short course exposures.
The number of migrant workers in South Korea is on the rise, but their inadequate Korean language skills prevent them from being promoted at work, or fairly treated as respected members of the society. In this study, in collaboration with a government-authorized language educational facility for immigrants, the authors investigated (a) challenges in migrant workers’ Korean as a second language learning, and (b) design principles of lessons and learning materials specifically targeted to their needs. Student and teacher interview data confirmed that the workers’ limited time for study, weak motivation, Korean colleagues’ indifferent attitude, and limited teaching resources at educational facilities are major barriers to achieving higher levels of linguistic skills. From the data, the authors identified four design principles: personalized content, community participation, portability of materials, and micro learning modules. Informal lessons via Facebook, factory safety signs, and portable writing drill booklets are designed as on-going experimentations of the principles.
This research is based on the scenario in the context of Hong Kong, in which church has been built in densely populated urban environment restricted in flat space. The research objectives were: 1) firstly to investigate the relationship between theology and spatial design in Hong Kong Protestant church; 2) secondly, to analyse the issue of the lack of design with respect to sacred identity in the church of Hong Kong that leads to an unappealing and non-sacred appearance of Protestant church; 3) and finally, to establish theoretical standpoints on designing sacred space with contemporary quality without surrendering of the sacred identity. The aims of the research were to understand the influence of secularisation to the rationale of church design and to generate an appropriate identity of church with a theoretical standpoint to serve the contemporary community effectively.
In order to meet these objectives, the study comprised of a qualitative site observations of 171 churches, which provided comparative figures for the study of churches incorporated with design elements or no design elements.
In Hong Kong approximately 775 one-flat churches, which are 66% of the total number of Protestant churches, are located in different layers of vertical space within this vertical city. When churches provide social services in the same limited space, the identity of church is surrendered to the need of the social community.
This study endeavours to facilitate church design with the focus on the immanence quality in order to encounter the different spatial limitations in church design.
This paper explores the collaborative process of designing a physical object to support a National Science Foundation funded educational research project. Researchers involved with this project are exploring the ways in which gesture can aid in a explanations of science phenomena, particularly ones that have unseen structures and unobservable mechanisms. In order to manipulate the science simulations, a motion sensitive device captures students’ hand gestures. It can be difficult for students to know how to engage with this device, which impedes both student learning and associated research. In order to reduce usability challenges and enhance the connection between a student’s gestures and the scientific concepts presented on the simulation screen, a collaborative and iterative design process was conducted to create a designed form that would assist students in productively engaging with the simulations. The iterative development process of this project is an exemplar of how designed items can be developed to support multidisciplinary research projects, while also creating new fields of research. Future exploration of this device’s impact on student interaction and learning may bring to light how objects can change how people gesture in learning contexts, leaving a lasting imprint on their understanding and memory.
Decisions made by user interface designers play an influential role in how people interact with software, this is especially true when it comes to the creation of tools to support teaching. As technology continues to play a more prominent role in schools, it poses an important question about how the design of learning tools influence what teachers do in classrooms. Data analytics is one opportunity technology offers for teachers to foster collaboration in student groups. Data analytics have the potential to provide teachers with a live view of what students are doing when using technology, which research shows is challenging to implement in classrooms. This paper focuses on the process to design a tool that assists engineering discussion session teacher assistants (TAs) to monitor collaboration within groups. We report on findings from interviews with TAs on what they anticipate they would need in order to support group work, and discuss how their responses influenced the design of this tool.
This paper reports on the development of a mindful interdisciplinary design methodology in the context of the MinD project research into designing for and with people with dementia, which takes the particular focus on supporting the subjective well-being and self-empowerment of people with early to mid stage dementia in social context.
Existing research is for the most part focussed on functional support and safe-keeping from the perspective of the carer. References to decision-making and empowerment are predominantly related to action planning for dementia care or advance care planning. References to care and social interaction show that caregivers tend to take a deficit-oriented perspective, and occupation of people with dementia is often associated with doing ‘something’ with little focus on the meaningfulness of the activity. Furthermore, caregivers and people with dementia tend to differ in their perspectives, e.g. on assistive devices, which might offer support.
The MinD project, has therefore developed an interdisciplinary co-design methodology in which the voices to people with dementia contribute to better understanding and developing mindful design solutions that support people with dementia with regard to their the subjective well-being and self-empowerment a well as meaningful and equitable social engagement.
This paper discussed the design methodological framework and methods developed for the data collection and design development phases of the project, and their rationale. It thus makes a contribution to interdisciplinary methodologies in the area of design for health.
Today, while profit maximization is still the bedrock of the capitalist model, people have embraced the idea of social contribution as a useful strategy in businesses. In this recent movement, Creating Shared Value (CSV) strives for a win-win solution that creates both social and business value. While in its early stage, CSV is showing promise and potential; society is witnessing a paradigm shift from practices of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) to CSV which is more sustainable and effective approach. Since Porter and Kramer originally introduced the concept in 2011, CSV’s application has expanded to many areas of business management, but it has not been discussed comprehensively in design research as of yet.
The title of this paper, “Designerly Way of Creating Shared Value” (DCSV) is inspired by Nigel Cross’s famous book, Designerly Way of Knowing (2006). ‘Designerly’ is an adjective describing ‘how’ designers think and behave that is different from professionals in scientific disciplines. The aim of this paper is to propose a new matrix illustrating the link between creating shared value and design, and to systemically describe the existing examples of DCSV (Cross, 2016). The paper will begin with an introduction to the concept of CSV followed by a brief literature review on CSV in design research. The second part will focus on demonstrating the new DCSV matrix by illustrating the four examples that exemplify it.
This paper details the evaluation process undertaken to create criteria for the development of an iPad stand for elderly users. Emphasis is on the requirements elicitation stage with end users in the field. 32 elderly participants taking part in the activity group as part of the Ageing-Well program of a City Council in a cosmopolitan area in Australia were part of an evaluation in which three existing iPad stands were trialled. While commercially available stands are abundant, specific problems such as reduced grip, basic technical understanding of the stand, and concerns surrounding stability were encountered within the group. Observation and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the cohort to determine factors surrounding the suitability and uptake of these stands by elderly users – most of them with some disabilities - with findings suggesting that current tablet stands require fine levels of dexterity, which may not be appropriate for elderly users where such a device is needed. While usability in setting up the stand and use is a strong factor, aesthetics and material qualities are equally important for enjoyable use. In addition, the use of iPads in social activities between two or more older adults has specific demands in terms of visibility of screen, sturdiness and easy movement that is not considered by current tablet stands. The paper ends with proposing design recommendations. Further research is required to develop a suitable solution and refines these
Futures techniques have long been used in large enterprises as designerly means to explore the future and guide innovation. In the automotive industry, for instance, the development of concept cars is a technique which has repeatedly proven its value. However, while big companies have broadly embraced futures techniques, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have lagged behind in applying them, largely because they are too resource- intensive and poorly suited to the SMEs’ needs and idiosyncrasies. To address this issue, we developed DIVE: Design, Innovation, Vision, and Exploration, a design-led futures technique for SMEs. Its development began with an inquiry into concept cars in the automotive industry and concept products and services in other industries. We then combined the insights derived from these design practices with elements of the existing techniques of critical design and design fiction into the creation of DIVE’s preliminary first version, which was then applied and evaluated in two iterations with SMEs, resulting in DIVE’s alpha version. After both iterations in context, it seems that DIVE suits the SMEs because of its compact and inexpensive activities which emphasize making and storytelling. Although the results of these activities might be less flashy than concept cars, these simple prototypes and videos help SMEs internalize and share a clear image of a preferable future, commonly known as vision. Developing DIVE thus helped us explore how design can support SMEs in envisioning the future in the context of innovation.