Several constitutive theories have been proposed in the literature to model the viscoelastic response of soft tissue, including widely used rheological constitutive models. These models are characterized by certain parameters (“time constants”) that define the time scales over which the tissue relaxes. These parameters are primarily obtained from stress relaxation experiments using curve-fitting techniques. However, the question of how best to estimate these time constants remains open.
As a step towards answering this question, we develop an optimal experimental design approach based on ideas from information geometry, namely Fisher information and Kullback-Leibler divergence. Tissue is modeled as a standard linear solid and described using a one- or two-term Prony series. Treating the time constants as unknowns, we develop expressions for the Fisher information and Kullback-Leibler divergence that allow us to maximize information gain from experimental data. Based on the results of this study, we propose that the largest time constant estimated from a stress relaxation experiment for a linear viscoelastic material should be at most one-fifth of the total time of the experiment in order to maximize information gain.
The purpose of this study was to define and examine the IASB’s
governance network. The IASB’s governance network was bound to include 14
organisational members and 407 individual actors. I used social network
methodology to examine the professional and geographic perspectives
represented as well as the extent to which the governance network was
structurally embedded. It was found that the network forms a definable
hierarchy that exhibits qualities of structural embeddedness. Banking interests
were more embedded within the governance network than any other
professional, academic, or social group. Also, a strong Western influence was
detected. The societal benefit of this effort was to engage society in general and
accounting researchers in particular in hopes of encouraging discourse about
regulatory processes with both macro and micro consequences.
The foreground Veil of material that lies in front of the Orion Nebula is the best studied sample of the interstellar medium because we know where it is located, how it is illuminated, and the balance of thermal and magnetic energy. In this work, we present high-resolution STIS observations toward the Trapezium, with the goal of better understanding the chemistry and geometry of the two primary Veil layers, along with ionized gas along the line of sight. The most complete characterization of the rotational/vibrational column densities of H2 in the almost purely atomic components of the Veil are presented, including updates to the Cloudy model for H2 formation on grain surfaces. The observed H2 is found to correlate almost exclusively with Component B. The observed H2, observations of CI, CI*, and CI**, and theoretical calculations using Cloudy allow us to place the tightest constraints yet on the distance, density, temperature, and other physical characteristics for each cloud component. We ﬁnd the H2 excitation spectrum observed in the Veil is incompatible with a recent study that argued that the Veil was quite close to the Trapezium. The nature of a layer of ionized gas lying between the Veil and the Trapezium is characterized through the emission and absorption lines it produces, which we ﬁnd to be the blueshifted component observed in S III and P III absorption. We deduce that, within the next 30–60 thousand years, the blueshifted ionized layer and Component B will merge, which will subsequently merge with Component A in the next one million years.
Lloyd C. Engelbrecht (born 1927) is Professor Emeritus of Art History at the University of Cincinnati. He is author of Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism (Cincinnati: Flying Trapeze Press, 2009). He will supply addenda and corrigenda for this book on a continuing basis.
One proactive approach to increasing student engagement in schools is implementing Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) strategies. PBIS focuses on prevention and concentrates on quality-of-life issues that include improved academic
achievement, enhanced social competence, and safe learning and teaching environments. This study is a replication of a study that investigated the combination of active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing. The purpose of the study was to decrease student problem behavior, reduce transition time, and support maintenance of the intervention in the setting. Results show that active supervision, precorrection, and explicit timing decreased student problem behavior, decreased the duration of transitions in two instructional periods, and the intervention was maintained in the setting. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Keywords: active supervision, explicit timing, Positive Behavior Intervention and Support, precorrection, urban education
A sage expression, you make the road by walking, captures the nature of accompaniment in partnership development. The purpose of this action research project was to examine the partnership of a city school and an urban university as one that engaged mutual generation of knowledge from all participants. Action research, where participants are co-equals in decision-making, enhances the co-construction of knowledge and applied practice when stakeholders work to achieve more practical goals. Two high school co-instructors and a university faculty member examined what initially brought them together – a classroom instructional need. While designing and implementing an investigation of the use of class instructional time, they simultaneously conducted a self-study action research project about the dynamics of their partnership and how to improve it. Critical interviews revealed challenges to integrating research findings into practice as well as convergent benefits of partnership development that may be relevant to partnerships of all kinds.
Key Terms: Action research, collaboration, collaborative organizations, mode 2 knowledge creation, partnership development, research-practice gap
Lloyd C. Engelbrecht (born 1927) is Professor Emeritus of Art History at the University of Cincinnati. He is author of Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism (Cincinnati: Flying Trapeze Press, 2009), two volumes. Moholy-Nagy: Mentor to Modernism is the first comprehensive, fully documented biography of the most fully-rounded creative figure of the twentieth century.
This introductory essay was originally published in German in 2014 in the Beiheft, or supplementary volume, that accompanies the first German edition of Vision in Motion.
László Moholy-Nagy, Sehen in Bewegung, Deutsche Fassung von László Moholy-Nagys vision in motion in der Übersetzung von Herwig Engelmann [on verso of title page: “Mit einem Beiheft mit Texten von Lloyd C. Engelbrecht, Hattula Moholy-Nagy und Philipp Oswalt”]
(Leipzig: Spector Books, 2014)
László Moholy-Nagy, Vision in Motion, “id BOOK, INSTITUTE OF DESIGN” (Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1947)