1853 printing of 1853 copyrighted text. The author is a reverend and credited as Principal of the Oakland Female Seminary. The preface explains the author's interest in female education and his belief that rather than too much education spoiling women, it makes them more loving and a more positive (and religious) influence on the family. These letters have been adapted from their original form as lectures to students. They include topics such as study, conversation, religion, manners, dancing, temperance, marriage, duties to parents, spoiled girls, and teaching. There is also an appendix on female education. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1891 printing of the 1891 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of MacLeod Reproduction Stories, MacLeod Composition Outlines, Lessons on Common Minerals, etc. The book is meant for students and teachers and aims to give information about the familiar objects around us. Examples of objects covered by chapter are: cotton, flax, tea, bread grains, pepper, bricks, and tobacco. The margins contain questions to answer from the information given in the text. Examples of topics covered in the cotton chapter: Where found, appearance of plant, the cotton gin, manufacture of cotton, spool-thread, fabrics made of cotton. Each chapter ends with a blackboard outline and ideas for objects to aid in the lesson. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
This 60th edition is a 1862 printing of the 1834? (date unreadable) copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric in Bowdoin College.
The author states that while instruction should be provided through familiar talking lectures, a textbook should contain a mere outline--some general principles plainly stated and well illustrated. The author provides five objectives: some acquaintance with the philosophy of rhetoric, cultivation of taste and the exercise of the imagination, skill in the use of language, skill in literary criticism, and the formation of a good style. The chapters are: on thought as the foundation of good writing, on taste, on literary taste, on skill in the use of language (verbal criticism, composition of sentences), and on style. These chapters are followed by a sections of exercises that correspond to each chapter. After the exercises the author provides a historical dissertation on English style. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1890 printing of the 1888 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Teacher of English in the Hillhouse High School, New Haven, Connecticut. This text asks how teachers should make use of the now cheaply available copies of quality literature in their classrooms. The chapters cover: History of the English Language, the Anglo-Saxon Element, the Classical Element, Figures of Speech, Common Errors, Diction, Sentences, Punctuation and Capitals, Letter-Writing, Composition, and Biographical Sketches. Exercises and illustrative examples are used in the available chapters. The book credits the influence of Guest's Lectures on the History of England; Angus' The Handbook of the English Tongue; Swinton's New Word-Analysis; the rhetorics of D. J. Hill, A. S. Hill, Hart, and DeMille; Errors in the Use of English by Hodgson; Mistakes in Writing English by Bigelow; Wilson's Treatise on Punctuation; and Whitney's Language and the Study of Language. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes later chapters on letter-writing and composition of various modes.
1971 reprinting of the 1905 text. The New Harmony Movement was a social experiment based on collective cooperation founded in Indiana in 1824. The Schultz Archive's copy features an informative historical introduction and chapter XX: The Educational Experiment, as well as the appendix.
1902 printing of 1902 copyrighted text. As a companion piece to Lockwood and Emerson's Composition and Rhetoric, this brief manual aims at helping teachers with lessons through additional hints, student sample work, and references and supplementary drill. The sections are an introduction, a review of English grammar, retelling another person's thought, expression of the pupil's own thoughts, imagination in description and narration, essential qualities of the theme, the paragraph, the relation of the college requirements in English to the study of composition and rhetoric, and adaptation of this textbook to various courses of study. The Schultz Archive's copy of this supplementary text is roughly complete.
1862 copyrighted text. Lilienthal is credited as a doctor and Allyn is credited with a Master of Arts. The work is prepared by the order of the Cincinnati Public School Board. Things Taught is a "book of questions without direct answers" that "seeks to acquaint [students] with the world." Through object lessons, observation, and the creation of stories, students are presented a new means to observe the world around. The sections are development of ideas by observation, development of ideas by observation and reflection, stories to be written from memory, transformation of poetry into prose, stories to be made from elements and letters, description of natural bodies, themes for composition, business papers, advertisements, and invitations and certificates. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1902 printing of the 1902 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Ph.D. and as Associate Professor of English in Lewis Institute and as the author of additional books. This revised and rearranged version of an earlier text is best adapted for the first two years of high school. The six chapters are composition in general, punctuation and sentence-structure, correctness in the sentence, description, narration, exposition and argument. The first chapter drills the student in reproduction, summary, and letter writing. The second chapter asks students to learn by hearty forty typical sentences with their punctuation. The third chapter covers practical grammar and idiom. The last three chapters are the second year, dealing with types of discourse; principles of unity, sequence, and contrast; the description chapter uses pictures; and spelling. Exercises are used throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1899 printing of the 1897 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Ph.D. and as Associate Professor of English in Lewis Institute and in the University of Chicago. The preface argues that teaching composition needs more utilization of literature and and more appeal to social interests, more inductions and generalizations by the student himself, and more time for practice and criticism. The subjects of the chapters include reading aloud and spelling, punctuation, dividing a paragraph into sentences, organizing the theme, word choice, mastery of a writing vocabulary, letter-writing, reproduction, abstract, summary, abridgment, narration and description, and exposition and argument. Writing exercises and illustrative examples are used throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1900 copyrighted text. The preface argues that the teaching of rhetoric that focuses on statements of definitions and principals which students are expected to memorize is ineffective. Instead, this text proposes an inductive approach in which the teaching of rhetoric is paired with the teaching of literature. The divisions of the book are qualities of style (clearness, force, elegance), forms of style (verse, prose), and methods of treatment (description, narration, exposition, argumentation, persuasion). Exercises and illustrative examples are included throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is missing pages 2 - 139 and perhaps some pages of the appendix.
1809 printing. The author is credited with a Master of Arts degree and as Principal of Baltimore College. This text is written in a question and answer form for the benefit of both students and instructors. Rhetoric is defined to be the quintessence of all that is excellent in Belle Lettre and classical and literary composition. The topics covered include taste, criticism, genius, sublimity, beauty, novelty, imitation, style, sentence structure, harmony, figurative language, kinds of poetry, characters of prose, classical argument, and Stirling's definitions of tropes and figures of rhetoric. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1853 printing of the 1853 copyrighted text. The author is a reverend and credited with a Master of Arts degree and as the author of two other books on grammar. The book aims to avoid the pitfalls of offering too little assistance to students or providing too much, while preparing them to undertake the discussion of a subject in a methodological and logical manner. Its first part covers sentence making with sections on the parts of a sentence, kinds of sentences, analysis of sentences, and the synthesis and composing of fables. The second part covers variety of expression, looking at arrangement, structure, word choice, synonyms, and colloquial and narrative forms. Part three covers description and figurative language and has sections on description, narrative, biography, history, epistolary, figures of speech, theme outlines, essay outlines, and declamation and oration. The fourth party covers punctuation and versification. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1892 printing of the 1891 copyrighted text. Based on experience teaching in the high school in Cleveland, Ohio. The preface explains the authors are concerned that students aren't taught how to go about writing assignments (especially those requiring research) and that they are made too self-conscious to write.The chapters cover narration, the use of words, description, common language errors, correspondence, combining narration and description (in poems, story writing, and nature writing), studying sentences and paragraphs, rhetorical figures, study of authors, qualities of style, historical writing, short stories for children, versification, Shakespeare, book reviews, persuasive discourse, and public speaking. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1869 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Master of Arts degree and as the author of several titles on grammar. The preface claims that the teaching of language has been primarily focused on grammar and analysis rather than on expression. It attempts to weave the teaching of grammar with rhetoric and composition with a progressive series of exercises designed to develop skill in the use of words, in the construction of sentences, and in the finding of thoughts. It uses good models (in particular, excerpts from celebrated writers) rather than examples of errors. It covers style, descriptions, narration, exposition, persuasion, and varieties of compositions. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
This "New and Improved Edition" was published in 1894 and copyrighted in 1892. The author is credited as Professor of Language and Literature in the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and as the author of several other books. The text claims it is responding to teachers' need for work for pupils to do in illustration of what they have learned. The first section on invention covers sentence structure, forming paragraphs, analysis of subjects, and preparation of frameworks. The second section on qualities of style discusses perspicuity, imagery, energy, wit, pathos, and elegance. The third section on productions breaks up prose into oral (conversation, debates, sermons, etc.) and written (biographies, histories, fiction, letters, etc.). It also discusses poetry by focusing on mission, style, form, and kinds (satiric, epic, dramatic, etc.). Exercises include specific directions for altering or analyzing examples. Excerpts from the work of well known authors are used throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1891 printing of the 1884 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Teacher in the Children's Aid Society Schools in New York City. Influenced by Froebel's education by occupations, emphasizing experience and action in place of books and abstract thinking, in the spirit of the New Education. The chapters cover arithmetic, weights and measures, form and geography, color and form, language, busy work, miscellaneous, and slate work. The exercises in these subjects use ordered directions or operations and lists of questions. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1892 printing of the 1892 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the editor of The School Journal and Teachers' Institute and as the author of School Management. A brief teacher's manual that focuses on prompts and exercises for classroom instruction. Includes samples, explanations, structural guides, guiding questions, a list of subjects or themes, and suggestions for correcting compositions. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1827 printing of 1826 copyrighted text. The author is credited as an M. D. A text for teaching elementary students to create a habit of thinking and understanding what is read based on the Pestallozzi school. It begins with sensible objects and uses oral explanations. Additional influences credited are Murray's Spelling Book and Neef's Method of Teaching. These progressive lessons begins with the alphabet and single syllables and gradually advance in vocabulary with increasingly complex texts for reading. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1902 copyrighted text. Kavana is credited as Teacher of English in the Medill High School in Chicago. Beatty is credited as Instructor in English in the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Designed as a three year course for high school students, this text emphasizes technique and the studio method, using literature as the subject matter to avoid teaching rhetoric and composition as abstract science or mechanical detail. The first year is narration and description separately and then combined. The second year is exposition with narration and description with an emphasis on the book review, historical and biographical essays, and the nature sketch. The third year is argumentation and persuasion as found in debate, oration, and drama. It includes exercises in punctuation, word choice, and sentence structure. Themes are drawn from life and students are encouraged to choose their own subjects. Pictorial illustrations are included. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1826 printing of the fourth edition. Introduction dated 1818. The author is credited with a Doctor of Laws of English degree. A rhetoric encouraging simplicity over deceitful ornamentation, the taming of youthful feeling, and the improvement of taste. It has seven sections. The first treats the origin an structure of language and its relation to the operation of the mental faculties. The second treats the principles of general grammar, as classified by philosophical grammarians, focusing on purity. The third part focuses on sentence structure, and the qualities of unity and strength, referencing Campbell and Blair. The fourth part is on rhetorical figures and uses illustrative examples. The fifth section is on taste, referencing Blair, Lord Kames, and Alison. The sixth part is on characters of style, such as diffuse, concise, dry, plain, neat, elegant, affected, vehement, etc., as well genres such as historical writing, memoirs, philosophical, dialogue, "epistolatory." The seventh section is on poetry. The rules of the text number over 600. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text, although some of the copied pages are a little difficult to read.
1896 copyrighted text. Practical construction and logical arrangement of lessons designed to lead the pupil from perception to expression, illustration to definition, sentence-building to composition. It uses pictures, poems and unfinished stories for exercises as well as questions at the beginning of lessons. Progressive lessons on word forms and sentences structure are combined with exercises in narration and description. Good models are used to teach good style through imitation. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1889 copyrighted text. Drawn from the authors' classroom experiences as teachers, this practical and logical grammar through experience and observation rather than memorization. It features a system of grading as well as consideration of composition and letter-writing. For younger children. The Schultz Archive's copy is a brief excerpt including the introduction, the contents, pages 6 and 7, and pages 154 - 159.
New edition copyrighted 1884 of the 1878 copyrighted text. The author is credited with a Doctor of Laws of English, as the President of the University of Lewisburg, and as author of The Science of Rhetoric. A compendium of rules for guidance in the art of writing. The prefaces argues that learners should first be assisted in finding a subject of thought, and then be shown how to accumlate, arrange, and express the ideas connected with the theme. Chapter one, Invention, contains sections on choice of subject, accumulation of materials, and arrangement of materials. Chapter two, Style, contains sections on diction (purity propriety, precision), sentences (concord, clearness, unity, energy, harmony), paragraphs, figures, and variation of expression. Chapter three, Punctuation and Capitals, covers grammatical points, rhetorical points, printer's marks, capital letters, and the correction of proofs. Chapter four, Criticism, covers taste and pleasure of taste. Chapter five, Special Forms of Composition, covers descriptions, narratives, letters, orations, and poems. The exercises includes sections for the first three chapters. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1880 printing of the 1878 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory in Harvard College. This treatise defines rhetoric as the art of efficient communication by language, communication implying both a speaker or writer and the audience. Part one, Composition in General, discusses and illustrates the general principles of written or spoken discourse. Its sections are: grammatical purity (including good use, barbarisms, solecisms, and improprieties), choice and use of words (including clearness, force, elegance, number of words, and arrangement of words). Part two, Kinds of Composition, covers principles of narrative and argumentative composition. The appendix cover rules of punctuation. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1899 printing of the 1899 copyrighted text. Herrick is credited as Assistant Professor of English in the University of Chicago. Damon is credited as Instructor in English in the University of Chicago. Preface argues students should first be encouraged to write freely and taught habits of thought and invention before subjecting them to criticism. Part one is meant for a first year course with this approach in mind. Parts two thru four are intended for a second year course to systematically drill the students in the principles of rhetoric. Part five may be included in the second year or later. The chapters in part one, preliminary work: composition--oral and written, what to write about, development of subjects, dividing subjects into paragraphs, building sentences, a review of punctuation, how to increase vocabulary, letters. Part two, usage: good use defined, standards of good use, barbarisms, improprieties, idiom and translation, grammar--good use in the sentence. Part three, diction: wordiness, right choice of words. Part four, rhetorical laws of the sentence and paragraph: clearness in sentences--unity, clearness in sentences--coherence, force in sentences, single paragraphs. Part five, whole composition: structure, summaries, original composition--literary laws, descriptive and narrative writing, expository and argumentative writing. The authors include a section of examples of "bad English" to teach correct usage, although they acknowledge this is controversial and suggest it may be omitted. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1875 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor in Davidson College. In this rhetoric principles and rules are stated briefly and any overlap with other subjects, such as psychology, logic, and aesthetics, is avoided. The introduction covers definition, aim and method of study, distribution, of rhetoric. Part one covers the processes of discourse: subject of a discourse, invention, disposition, amplification. Part two covers style: qualities of prose style, choice of words, figures of speech, the sentence, the paragraph, division of style (higher, lower, middle). Part three covers the elementary forms of discourse: description, narration, exposition, argument. Part four covers principal forms of prose: dialogue and epistolary, didactic prose, historical prose, oratorical prose. The author credits the influence of Lectures on the English Language by Hon. Geo. P. Marsh, Theories of Style by J. K. F. Rinne, German Style by Karl Becker, and Homletics by Vinet. The Schultz Archive copy cuts off on page 231, missing pages 232 through at least 279 (according to the ToC).
1847 printings of the 1846 copyrighted texts. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts. The text includes exercises with pictorial illustrations accompanied by connected phrases to teach parts of speech, such as articles and nouns; article, adjective, and noun; and intransitive predication. No instructions are given for each exercise. The Schultz Archive's copy of these two texts appears to be complete, although no table of contents exists to verify.
1869 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Divinity, a Doctor of the Laws of English, and the President of the University of Michigan. Based on the experiences of the author's teaching, this text in an orderly presentation of the theory of the science and art of rhetoric with illustrations and directions on how to profit from it. Includes examples for imitation and disapproval from modern and ancient, obscure and celebrated authors. Divided into five parts: words and the material of expression, figures of speech and thought, composition and style, invention, and elocution. Part one includes sections on how to acquire the knowledge of words and how to obtain a good vocabulary. Part two includes sections on dialogue, vision, and wit. Part three includes sections on taste and different genres (epistolary, historical, fiction). Part four includes sections on description, narration, abstract subjects, and discussions. Part five includes a section on the intellectual and moral elements of elocution. The Schultz Archive is roughly the complete text.
1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts and as the author of "Practical Grammar of the English Language." A grammar textbook written for beginning and advanced students. Part one consists of model oral lessons, on subjects such as naming things, action-words, and word-picturing. Part two covers a more systematic arrangement of the classifications of grammar and includes questions and illustrative examples. Part three covers the properties and modifications of speech with models for parsing and analysis. Part two includes synthetic exercises, while part three has exercises in false syntax. Review questions are used. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
Revised 1880 edition of the original 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as having a Master of Arts. A grammar textbook written for beginning and advanced students. Part one covers technical grammar, sentence-making, and composition. Part two covers properties and modifications of different parts of speech. Part three is punctuation. Exercises in false syntax, guiding questions for descriptions of pictorial illustrations, fill in the blanks for words and phrases, and parsing and analysis (with diagrams for mapping sentences). The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1891 printing to the 1891 text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English, and as Late Professor of Rhetoric and of the English Language and Literature in the College of New Jersey, as the former principal of the New Jersey State Normal School, and as the author of a series of textbooks. A composition textbook designed for use by students with examples for practice. Part one (style) chapters cover punctuation, diction, purity, propriety, precision, kinds of sentences, rules for construction of sentences, figures of speech, special properties (sublimity, beauty, wit, humor), versification, poetry, prose (letters, diaries, news, editorials, history, etc.). Part two (invention) covers objects, transactions, abstract subjects, imaginary subjects, personal narratives, and descriptions. A chapter on proof-reading includes system of notation for correcting student writing. In addition to exercises, includes illustrative examples from celebrated writers. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1886 printing of the 1870 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English, and as Late Professor of Rhetoric and of the English Language and Literature in the College of New Jersey, as the former principal of the New Jersey State Normal School, and as the author of a series of textbooks. The author expresses the conviction that composition teaching should happen much earlier than the typical age of twelve to fourteen and requires regular practice. The book focuses on exercises; the author states practice should come before theory. The chapters cover simple words, derivative words, simple sentences, complex sentences, change of arrangement, change of structure, figurative expression (simile, metaphor, metonymy, etc.), style, letter writing, and an appendix on punctuation. The text contains examples and directions for exercises and compositions. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1869 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a faculty member of the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn, NY. Striving for simplicity and practical instruction, this text approaches teaching composition through steps of preparation rather than asking students to immediately write compositions. The chapters cover oral composition, formation of sentences, incorrect composition, punctuation, preparing composition, copying compositions, poetry and prose, elements of correct composition, style, figures of speech, criticism, and newspapers and magazines. Lessons use models and exercises. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1867 printing of the 1866 copyrighted text. The author (spelled "Hailman" here) is credited with a Master of Arts and is the Principal of the English and German Academy in Louisville, Kentucky. The introduction is by James N. McElligott, who is credited with a Doctor of Laws in English degree. McElligott's introductions explains that the text doesn't make the errors of some object-teaching that focuses on facts without order, but rather provides mental discipline through following the indications of nature and the laws of mind. In the author's words, the principal aim of school education is to teach students how to form ideas and how to express them. This theoretical treatise on education covers object lessons, development of the faculties, grammar, geometry, and natural history. The text includes illustrative examples. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1876 printing of the 1876 copyrighted text. A revised edition of the "popular" 1871 text. Preface explains it strives to teach children to use language, and is meant for nine, ten, and eleven-year-olds. The work is divided into two parts: part one for the year when students read the Third Book in a series of readers, part two for the succeeding year. Students are meant to write in response to the book's questions, the teacher is meant to correct these answers, and students are then to revise them. Illustrations are used to teach children through observation and to teach them facts of natural history. Part one is organized into chapters covering punctuation, words classed by use, errors, descriptions, comparisons, , objects, pictures, and genres (poetry, prose, letters, receipts, advertisements). Questions and sample teacher-students conversations are used throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1871 printing of the 1871 copyrighted text. No information on the author is given, although the author is presumably one of the publishers. The preface explains that twelve-year-olds should be able to speak and write accurately, avoid vulgarisms, and detect errors. While most methods of teaching grammar incorrectly focus on memorization, this text is interested in teaching the practical use of language. This is done through observation (or perception) of correct models, imitation of those models, and finally construction of correct sentences. Observation of correct sentences is guided with questions. The text is organized into punctuation, objects, pictorial illustrations (pictures), brief narratives, poems to be rewritten into prose, letter writing, longer narratives, and activities of classifying words. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
The NATO and the EU Peacebuilding Missions Dataset is created to use fuzzy seta Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) analysis as a method of researching how NATO and the EU missions’ outcomes are influences by organizational assets and decision-making in both organizations. Outcome pertaining to these two sets of missions are intended to measure various aspects of organizational efficacy. There are two groups of variables – condition variables and outcome variables. In the next few sections, we will explain how these two groups of variables were generated, what existing sources and datasets were used and how mission indicators were generated. See attached research note for more detailed information.
Condition Sets: Description
By and large conditions sets that have been generated measure organizational assets for these NATO and EU missions, as well as patterns in their decision-making process. Two critical organizational assets used for both sets of missions are their annual operational budget and their annual deployed personnel. The dataset contains two control variables measuring operational legitimacy – number of contributing nations and number of UN resolutions passed in relevance to the situation in the area of deployment for the duration of the EU and NATO Mission.
Operational Duration – duration of the operation (in months). For ongoing missions, we have used December 31, 2018 as the end date. All data reflect occurrences no later than December 31, 2018.
Type of Operation – based on their mandate, operations are classified as civilian (coded as 0), military (coded as 1) and hybrid (i.e. with military and civilian components, coded as 0.5).
Annual Operational Budget – total annual mission budget in USD. Sources include SIPRI yearbook and peace operations database. In cases of missing data from the SIPRI yearbook, mission factsheets and original data from the mission have been used. This latter technique applies for the following missions: AMUK, AVSEC, BAM1, BAM2, CAP1, CAP2, MAM1, NAVF1, NAVF2, TMC1, EUAMI. If data is reported in EUR, average exchange rate for the duration of the mission has been used to convert the cost. Data has been adjusted to reflect operational budget over a 12-month period.
Average Annual Mission Personnel – it reflects the average total number of personnel/ staff supporting the NATO or EU peacebuilding mission per annum. Sources have been collected from SIPRI yearbook based on reportings for actual deployments on the ground. In cases when no data has been reported I the SIPRI yearbook/ peace operations dataset, mission factsheets and original data from the mission have been used. The data has been averaged and adjusted for a 12-month period.
Days to Launch – describes the number of days needed from the time a decision has been made by the IO top decision-making body (the European Council and NAC) to launch the mission to the time that the mission is officially declared “operational.” If no declaration that the mission is “fully operational” exists, landmark indicators that the mission is fully operational include: ceremony on the ground marking the beginning of the mission, the appointment of mission commander or first recoded operational presence involving activity on the ground. Sources include official EU and NATO documents announcing the decision to create the peacebuilding operation as well as official documents, press releases and reports in reliable media outlets (including New Agencies) documenting an event that would indicate the mission is “fully operational.”
Number of Contributing Nations –highest reported number of contributing nations for the duration of the NATO and the EU peacebuilding operation.
UN Security Council Resolutions – total number of UN Security Council (UNSG) resolutions relevant for the area of conflict adopted for the duration of the NATO and the EU mission. In cases when UNSC resolutions are relevant for multiple NATO and EU peacebuilding missions those have been reported to all relevant missions.
Outcome Sets: Description
Outcome sets include various indicators created to measure operational efficacy. They include annual events contributing toward peace, conflict and the mission’s functioning, annual fatalities and annual deaths among mission personnel, as well as annual difference in fatalities. A more detailed description of these indicators is included below:
Annual Peace Events – this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that have contributed for the peace process in the conflict area where NATO and EU mission have been deployed. Examples of peace events include steps taken to contribute to the peace process (e.g. creation of buffer zone, cession of hostilities, meeting intended to cease fire or set up the peace process, political events related to or contributing toward the peace process and successful conclusion of a peace agreement. It may also include a decision of an international body (e.g. UN Security Council, UN General Assembly or UN Secretary General, as well as a decision made by the NATO and the EU D-M bodies that contributes toward the peace process in the areas where the mission operates. For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual peace events are recoded.
Annual Conflict Events -- this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that have increased the conflict and the conflict potential in the area where NATO and EU mission have been deployed. Instances include resumption of hostilities among warring parties, occurrence of attacks, clashes, eruption of violence, the killing of civilians, military and peacemaking personnel and other violence-related events that contribute toward instability in the mission’s area. For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual conflict events are recoded.
Annual Mission-related Events -- this is an annual indicator based on chronologically recorded events by the SIPRI yearbook that measures events related to functioning of the mission – the decision to launch, the actual launch, implementation, transfer of authority and/ or mandate, transformation and termination of the mission. It also includes events that reflect decisions made by the contributing nations or sponsoring IOs intended to impact mission’s performances (e.g. decisions related to funding, control and command, transformation of mission mandate and rules and other similar events). For ongoing missions is December 31, 2017 the last date when annual mission-related events are recoded.
Average Annual Fatalities – this indicator reports how many average annual civilian deaths have been recorded for the duration of the mission. The data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Dataset (ACD) managed by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies ( https://acd.iiss.org/member/datatools.aspx).
Average Annual Mission Casualties – average annual number of deaths among peacebuilding personnel as reported in SIPRI yearbook/ peace operations database for the duration of the mission. Authors have used discretion to determine the accuracy in cases when there is discrepancy of reported data.
Fatalities Annual Difference – an indicator of differenced annual data of civilian casualties on the ground for the duration of the mission. The indicator is calculated as follows: Differenced Fatalities = Ʃ (CasualtiesY1-Y2 … Casualties Yn-Y(n-1))/ Duration of the mission (in years). It is intended to capture improvement of situation on the ground as a result of presence of the peacebuilding effort.
Condition Sets: Calibration and Rationale
Annual Operational Budget – mission budget reflects resources USD 5 million or less indicate fully out while USD 100 million or more would indicate fully in. A budget of USD 30 should be the watershed borderline of “nether in, not out.” [5-100 million]
Average Annual Mission Personnel – this indicator draws distinction between larger well-resourced missions and smaller missions with limited assets. By and large, missions with 20 personnel or less are fully out, while those with 20,000 or more are fully in. The borderline (net hither in, not out) is 130 people.
Days to Launch – the speed with which the decision is taken indicates how decision-making operated in the case of this mission. D-M that took 5 days or less should be fully out (in, change direction) while D-M 150 days or more should be fully in (out, change direction). 30 days (1 month) should be the neither in, nor out border.
Number of Contributing Nations –control indicator that demotes how high number of contributing nations contribute toward greater legitimacy (30 or more countries marks fully in), while 5 or fewer nations marks fully out. The “nether fully in, nor fully out” is at 15 nations.
UN Security Council Resolutions – total number of UNSC resolutions can vary, fully out is at 0 resolutions while fully in at 50 or more. Since moist of the missions are shorter, Nether fully in, not fully out would be at 8 UNSC resolutions. [Inductive]
Operational Duration – 1 year (12 months) denotes fully out (i.e. short-term mission) while 10 year 120 months denotes fully in; nether in not out would be for missions lasting 5 years (60 months). In other words, a decade is too long, a year is to short, five years is in the middle.
Outcome Variables: Calibration and Rationale
Annual Peace Events – this variable measures the occurrence of peace-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 10 events per annum is fully in. 1 event is nether in not out.
Annual Conflict Events -- this variable measures the occurrence of conflict-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 10 events per annum is fully in. 1 event is nether in not out.
Annual Mission-related Events -- this variable measures the occurrence of peace-related events – 0 events per annum is fully out; 10 events per annum is fully in. 0.5 event is nether in not out.
Average Annual Fatalities – this set measures average number of annual fatalities for the duration of the mission. Cases with 0 fatalities are fully out; cases with 10,000 fatalities are fully in. 1,000 fatalities represent “nether in, not out” value.
Fatalities Annual Difference – this is an indicator that measures the average year-to-year difference in number of fatalities for the duration of the conflict. -50 casualties is fully out (i.e. average growth of casualties by 50 per annum) as this indicator reflects low mission efficacy. 500 is fully in. This number indicates high efficacy; it denotes an average annual decline of casualties by 500 people. If the average number of casualties remains unchanged, then 0 denotes nether in, nor out.
Average Annual Mission Casualties – this indicator measures average number of annual casualties for the duration of the mission. 0 casualties is fully out; 500 casualties is fully in. 0.5 is nether in, nor out.
Shortly after the comparative analysis of Codding et al. was published, I prepared a comment on the article that I submitted for publication. In response to feedback from the editors, I eventually revised the manuscript substantially. That revised version has now been published. In this paper, I share the original submission of the comment, which focuses on important considerations for future studies of risk-‐ sensitive foraging. Meanwhile, Codding and his colleagues have published a response to my comment. They exhibit some confusion about my position, which they describe as “paradoxical.” In a reply to their response, I have therefore added some clarifying remarks at the end of this paper
The aims of this study is to evaluate the impact of interactive student response software (SRS technology) in large introductory classes in Political Science taught at the University of Cincinnati. Getting the students engaged in these classes has been one of the main priorities of the College of Arts and Sciences. This study draws on data from Introduction to International Relations offerings from Fall 2012 to Spring 2018, some of which have used interactive software while others have not used any software. Additionally, some offerings have had an assigned supplemental instructor (IS) while others have not had SI. The overall aim is to evaluate whether these instructional innovations have helped improved student performance in this class. The main hypothesis tested during the study is that availability of SRS technology tends to improve student performance during exams. The secondary hypothesis is that the availability of more advanced (second-generation) student response technology (such as Echo 360) tends to improve students performance in class in comparison to earlier (first-generation) SRS devices (known as “clickers”).
Background and significance
The positive impact of SRS engagement technology on student performance the across different disciplines been well documented in the literature (Marlow et al 2009; Kam and Sommer 2006; Prezler et al 2007 and others). Most of the literature focuses on first generation student response system, also known as clickers (Elliott 2003; Riebens 2007; Crossgove and Curan 2008, Shapiro 2009). Some of the studies focus on the use of this technology without a control group (Beavers 2010; DeBourgh 2008; Kennedy and Cutts 2005; Sprague and Dahl 2010) while others discuss how personal response software impact student performance throughout the whole semester (Evans, 2012). This study differs from existing ones in several ways. First, by collecting data over 5-year period, not only can we compare groups of students using SRS systems with those who don’t but also we can compare offerings using first-generation SRS technology (e.g. the “clickers”) and those using second-generation SRS software (such as Echo 360) that contains more advanced interactive features. Second, the study allows comparison of the SRS impact on different course components and requirements. Third, it evaluates the impact of the student response system in combination with other techniques used in a large classroom such as supplemental instruction or SI. This new setting offers valuable insights about the impact of different types of SRS technology and other interactive techniques designed to engage students in large classrooms.
Approach and Source of records
Records for student performance collected throughout the whole semester for each student. Demographic information for the students enrolled in class collected from the course rosters and from the University of Cincinnati’s student information system Catalyst ( https://catalyst.uc.edu/). All records are electronic. Those that are not available on Catalyst but are generated as a part of the student performance are currently stored in excel format by the instructor and researcher in an external USB drive which is only accessible to the instructor and PI (same person). No other person has access to the data.
The research does not involve the collection of data or other results from individuals that will be submitted to, or held for inspection by, the FDA. No part of the research involves any data that will be provided (in any form) to a pharmaceutical, medical device or biotech company.
This 7 minute demo reel contains excerpts from several 2006-11 shows including:
- Discerning Crane, Herron School for the Arts, Indianapolis, 2010
- NWEMO All Stars, NOTACON, Cleveland, 2010
- Adam Tendler, performing Sonatas and Interludes by John Cage, New Genres Festival, Tulsa, 2009
- Meg Schedel, Odd Nosdam and Why?, SF Cinematheque, San Francisco, 2006
Many challenges arise when trying to appropriately measure a patients INR and titirate their medications. Additionally, many complications arise when this is not done correctly. The microINR provides a possible informatics solution to many of these problems.
Improving Accuracy and Saving Time: Electronic Vitals Documentation
Vitals signs are perhaps the most fundamental component of patient evaluation. Although there
is overwhelming agreement that vital signs are crucial to both detecting and responding to patient
status, the methods in which vital signs are documented in electronic health records (EHR) has
received limited attention in the research literature. Current practice is to document vital signs on
a piece of paper as they are being taken and then later transcribed to the EHR. This practice utilizes
poor use of clinical time, increases the chance of errors and causes a delay in clinical decision
making possibly leading to escalation of care.
This project intends to use evidence based technology methods to electronically document vital
signs in real time. This method of adopting an informatics based solution in a general medical
surgical unit will demonstrate quality improvement, improved safety and cost containment.
There was a lack of standardization of care for patients on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) at Kettering Medical Center. This project discusses the creation and implementation of a standardized VA ECMO physician order set, VA ECMO anticoagulation embedded physician order set, nursing policy and guideline, and standardized electronic health record (EHR) documentation within an ECMO-specific Epic flowsheet.
Excerpts from live audio visual improvisation on May 5, 2017 at the Mockabee in Cincinnati, OH.
David McDonnell - reeds and electronics
Ofir Klemperer - electronics
Zach Larabee - percussion
Charles Woodman, Loraine Wible, Sayak Shome - images
This paper presents a prime aspect of Augmented and Virtual Reality development in the field of healthcare. We explored several recent works and articles and a comparison between generic application development and immersive technology-based application is included. The paper talks about more practical approaches that can be taken to enhance the effectiveness of the application.
The resources (infrastructure) to complete this study are provided by the University of Cincinnati’s Center for Simulation and Virtual Environment Research (UCSIM). And several experiments and projects in the field of health care are used as a reference to make conclusions.