A tactile display apparatus renders information to a user, and comprises multiple braille cells attached adjacent to each other along a predefined path, a set of pins housed within the braille cells, and a set of pin holders inserted on the braille cells. The braille cells are moved periodically at a predefined speed via a driving assembly. The pins are selectively actuated by actuators, where the linear motion of the braille cells allow the user to contact the pins to read the information represented by the arrangement of the pins. The pin holders are moved along a defined path to contact the pins, and each pin holder comprises a rigid body and multiple elastic rings attached along the rigid body. The number of elastic rings is equal to the number of pins to allow the pin holder to selectively hold or release a pin.
It is shown in present study that Rainflow method is unable to accurately estimate fatigue life ofcomponents under random loading, almost always. The inconsistencies between results of Rainflowmethod and hysteresis curve are also discussed. Alike the Peak counting method, it is shown that Shadowmethod doesn’t consider the possibility of deformation within individual cycles. Hence, Moshrefifar andAzamfar method is proposed as a novel technique having accurate results in different analytical condi-tions which are in good consistence with results obtained from hysteresis curves. Authors finally proposean algorithm as well as a C language program for this method.
In this research, Industrial Artificial Intelligence (IAI) is discussed as the most promising technology for enabling and realization of the next industrial revolution. The key enablers for this transformative technology along with their significant advantages are discussed. In addition, this research explains “Lighthouse Factories” as an emerging status applying to the top manufacturers that have implemented IAI in their manufacturing ecosystem and gained significant financial benefits. It is believed that this research will work as a guideline and roadmap for researchers and industries towards the real world implementation of IAI. // Please use this for citation: "Jay L, Jaskaran S, Azamfar M. Industrial AI:is it manufacturing’s guiding light? Manuf Leadersh Counc 2019:26–36."
Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPSs) are complex manufacturing systems which aim to integrate and synchronize machine world and manufacturing facility to the cyber computational space. However, having intensive interconnectivity and a computational platform is crucial for real-world implementation of CPPSs. In this paper, the potential impacts of blockchain technology in development and realization of real-world CPPSs are discussed. A unified three-level blockchain architecture is proposed as a guideline for researchers and industries to clearly identify the potentials of blockchain and adapt, develop, and incorporate this technology with their manufacturing developments towards Industry 4.0.
No printing date given. Copyrighted 1888. The author is credited as Principal of the George S. Meade Grammar School Philadelphia. The book purports to train young students to use their own simply vocabulary to compose properly-expressed sentences, as well as oral and written stories and descriptions, while also gradually expanding their vocabularies. Questions accompany detailed pictorial illustrations or short textual examples, some of which are abridged versions of Aesop's fables, to encourage thought and prompt elaboration or storytelling. There are 82 lessons in all. The Schultz Archive is roughly the complete text.
No printing date given. Copyrighted 1871. The author is credited for authoring a number of other books on various subjects. Although the preface argues thought is the seed of composition, the writer must also first conquer/study spelling, grammar, punctuation, style, and clearness of expression before writing an acceptable composition. The two most important points in preparation are the proper formation of ideas and their correct arrangement. The book provides a long list of themes/topics for a composition, with each being broken into several sections for elaboration and discussion. Some themes/topics are given introductions and conclusions. Others contain probing questions, sample quotations for evidence, or claims for further exploration. A few are more complete, brief compositions for study and imitation. Topics/themes include politeness, umbrellas, letter on business, and the cowardice of crime. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text, but many pages are blurred close to spine, making them either difficult or impossible to read in their entirety.
1857 printing of the 1857 copyrighted text. The author is credited as a Doctor of Laws in English (LL. D.). Despite the 1857 copyright notice, this work is identical to the 1835 edition also in the Schultz Archive: Lessons on Common Things: Their Origin, Nature, and Uses for Schools and Families. Illustrated with Fifty-Two Engravings on Wood.
Frost is credited as the editor. This is an American edition of the English book Lessons on Objects, published by teachers of the Pestalozzian school. In this edition hard and Latinized words have been replaced with common ones. Objects are broken down into parts and qualities. Certain lessons are written as dialogues between children and the teacher. The investigation of the objects at the center of these lessons increases in complexity as the lessons progress. Later lessons are written in full paragraphs or as a series of questions. Some of the objects or scenes are illustrated by the wood cut engravings. The book is sectioned into five series, the last two are further separated into subsections such as "on the senses" or "on the metals." The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text. Some of the pages are dark and may be difficult to read.
1835 printing (third edition) of the 1835 copyrighted text. Frost is credited as the editor. This is an American edition of the English book Lessons on Objects, published by teachers of the Pestalozzian school. In this edition hard and Latinized words have been replaced with common ones. Objects are broken down into parts and qualities. Certain lessons are written as dialogues between children and the teacher. The investigation of the objects at the center of these lessons increases in complexity as the lessons progress. Later lessons are written in full paragraphs or as a series of questions. Some of the objects or scenes are illustrated by the wood cut engravings. The book is sectioned into five series, the last two are further separated into subsections such as "on the senses" or "on the metals." The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text. Some of the pages are dark and may be difficult to read.
1828 printing, the second edition, copyrighted 1827. Short book focusing on exercises etymological and syntactical parsing that grow in difficulty over each chapter. The work attempts to make the study of English grammar easier through classification of the forms of English construction. It is to be used after students have committed the rules of grammar to memory. There are forty lessons in all. Some use quotations by distinguished authors. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1839 printing, the second edition - stereotyped, copyrighted 1839. The author has a Master of Arts degree and is credited at Professor of Belles Lettres in the High School of Philadelphia. Conceived as an alternative to texts which teach composition through an emphasis on words and phrases and neglect things, which form the substratum of thought. The text is a course of composition exercises on pictures and real objects. The first edition of 3,000 copies sold out, prompting a second edition which included additions of pictures and a section on dialogue writing. The work has three sections: Introductory Course of Easy Exercises, Structure of Sentences, and Figurative Language. The first section covers description of objects and scenes, subjects for description and narration, and narration of real and imaginary incidents. The second section covers parts of speech and exercises in composition focusing on qualities of style such as clearness, precision, strength, unity, and harmony. The book features many heavily detailed pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1839 printing, copyrighted 1839. The author has a Master of Arts degree and is credited at Professor of Belles Lettres in the High School of Philadelphia. Conceived as an alternative to texts which teach composition through an emphasis on words and phrases and neglect things, which form the substratum of thought. The text is a course of composition exercises on pictures and real objects. The work has three sections: Introductory Course of Easy Exercises, Structure of Sentences, and Figurative Language. The first section covers description of objects and scenes, subjects for description and narration, and narration of real and imaginary incidents. The second section covers parts of speech and exercises in composition focusing on qualities of style such as clearness, precision, strength, unity, and harmony. The book features many heavily detailed pictorial illustrations. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1857 printing of the 1856 copyrighted work. Conceived as an alternative to the Letter Writers which merely supply sample epistles to be copied or imitated. It wishes to provide instructions for young writers who wish to think for themselves. It credits the influence of Jardine's Principles of English Composition, Newman's Rhetoric, Fowler's English Grammar, Parker's Aids to English Composition and Letter Writing Simplified, Wilson's Treatise on Punctuation, and Mrs. Hale's Dictionary of Poetical Quotations and The Treasury of Knowledge. For a list of subjects, see the text's title. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
This first New York edition was printed in 1867 and copyrighted in 1866. Based on lectures given by the author at the Teachers' Institutes at the invitation of the Secretary of the Board of Education of Massachusetts in 1845 and 1846. The contents include many education topics from arithmetic to geography to music to discipline. The Schultz Archive's copy includes only three chapters: the uses and abuses of memory, English grammar, and composition. The author's lecture of grammar seems to draw mostly on the work of Murrary, Crombie, Wallis, and Priestley. The composition chapter is brief and mostly covers the teaching of punctuation.
1895 printing of the 1893 copyrighted text. Fletcher is credited as Instructor of English at Harvard College and Carpenter is credited as Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia College. A series of lectures delivered to the Freshman class at Harvard (by Fletcher) in the spring of 1893. It purports to be a study of the different kinds of composition and their treatment of a variety of subject matter. The kinds considered are letter-writing, translation, description, narration, criticism, exposition, argument, and persuasion. The main principle (called relativity) is that compositions should be judged by their effectiveness for the purpose at hand. The purpose is defined by the object in view, the individuality of the writer, and the capacity of the reader. The lectures are accompanied with examples and exercises for students. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1834 printing of the 1834 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Mrs. John Farrar and is the author of Congo In Search of His Master and The Children's Robinson Crusoe. The text seeks to address the difficulty children have in writing letters (epistles) and to offer an alternative to another popular text, Complete Letter-Writer, which the author finds filled with absurdities and faults. The text offers general directions, simple criticism, and good examples in the form of a narrative about a young letter writer of fourteen. The work covers many topics, such as punctuation, paragraphs, folding letters, sample topics, and invitations. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1904 printing of the 1904 and 1899 copyrighted text.The author is credited as President of the University of Illinois. The text covers the history of organized systems of education in the United States. It begins by discussing the role of English and Dutch settlers on the educational culture and values of the people of the United States and it precedes to look at the different levels of organization based on levels of government and administration from school districts to townships to counties to states and the national level. It includes private education and colleges and universities. It uses statistics from the United States bureau of education. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
No printing year given. 1897 copyrighted text. The author is a Ph.D. and credited as President of Swarthmore College. Based on two leading ideas: progressive exercises in composition and an inductive approach to grammar. The work is divided into sentences exercises and composition exercises. The exercises are based on occupations, nature, history, and great literature. Pictorial illustrations are used to stimulate the imagination. Book I of the text is for third and fourth graders. Book II is for fifth and sixth graders. The author credits the influence of Baron, Junghann, and Schindler. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text of Book I.
1846 fifth edition/printing of the 1843 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of District School Speaker. The text endeavors to find a more natural way of teaching grammar than to rely on the methods used for Latin and Greek. The text's first part is a plan for oral instruction. The second part covers the Eight Parts of Speech. The third part covers twelve rules of syntax, and contains lessons for parsing and the correction of false grammar. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes the preface.
1864 printing of the 1864 copyrighted text. The preface states the methods of the text are the result of eight years of classroom experience and testing. The text is written as a teaching guide with advice on lessons and providing feedback to encourage composition in younger students. The text's method is to introduce composition through the presentation of various forms of writing rather than simplified rhetorical principles. These forms include letters (epistles), diary writing, news items, advertisements, and extempore writing. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1867 printing of the 1867 copyrighted work: a reconstruction of Elements of the Art of Rhetoric (1850). The author is credited as the author of books on logic, grammar, composition, and rhetorical praxis. The preface states Elements of the Art of Rhetoric was distinct for elevating invention to the first rank in rhetorical instruction, reduction of the principles of rhetoric to a more exact system, and the treatment of rhetoric as an art rather than a science. This text made changes to make stronger relations between rhetoric and logic and aesthetics, fuller develop the processes of explanation, and the more exact classification of style. A treatise and textbook on rhetoric, it is divided into two parts: invention and style. Invention is further divided into explanation, confirmation, excitation, and persuasion. Style is divided into absolute properties, subjective properties, and objective properties. Discourse is discussed as oratory, epistolary composition, poetry, representative discourse, judicial, deliberative and sacred. Exercises are used throughout. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1850 printing of the 1850 copyrighted text. This text professes to elevate invention to the first rank in rhetorical instruction. It credits Whately as the only other recent author not to excluded invention, but states that he does so more narrowly than this work shall do. Secondly, it attempts to reduce of the principles of rhetoric to a more exact system,. The art of rhetoric is philosophically distinguishable from logic, grammar, aesthetics, poetry, and elocution, and it is not limited, as it is in Whately, to argumentation. Day argues that explanation and persuasion are large parts of rhetoric and distinguishable from argumentation. and the treatment of rhetoric as an art rather than a science. Thirdly, an emphasis on the practice of rhetoric as an art, and not merely a science, has resulted in the prescription of numerous exercises, and the inclusion of an appendix of themes for composition. The preface credits the influence of German writers Schott, Hoffmann, Richter, Eschenburg, Theremin, and Becker. The text it is divided into two parts: invention and style. Invention is further divided into explanation, confirmation, excitation, and persuasion. Style is divided into absolute properties, subjective properties, and objective properties. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
Ninth edition/printing (no year) of the 1867 copyrighted text. Day is credited as the author of Logic, Rhetoric, and Rhetorical Praxis. The book is based on Day's rhetoric that argues thought (and forms of thought) is the starting point for teaching rhetoric, composition, and grammar rather than style and form of language. Emphasis is put on teaching methods of thought and study with accompanying exercises. Definitions and principles are here given in their simplest forms. Introductory exercises cover parts of speech, such as sentences, clauses, and words. The next section, the Art of Composition, is divided into simple objects, principal elements fo the sentence, modifying elements, abnormal forms, construction, analysis, symbolism of thought, and explanation. Oral and written exercises are included throughout, including exercises in correction. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1870 printing of the 1870 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of books on logic, discourse, composition, and literature. The book is based on Day's rhetoric that argues thought is the starting point for teaching rhetoric, composition, and grammar rather than style and form. The text is aimed at students of different levels, using various font sizes for each: the larger fonts for the young, smallest for older or more advanced. The introductory lessons cover parts of speech. These are followed by sections on concrete nouns (object lessons), attributes, distinctions of nouns, modifying elements, abnormal forms, construction, and explanation. Oral and written exercises are included throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1876 printing of the 1876 copyrighted text. Original edition copyrighted 1860. The text is based on the idea that thought is the foundation of discourse and comes before considerations of form or style. This text is for less advanced pupils than the author's Elements of the Art of Rhetoric, and as such, includes summary statements of its principles. The revised edition has added a praxis of choice of words and their use in sentence-construction (to address students' troubles with grammar). It has also been changed to coincide with changes to the author's rhetoric elaborated in his The Art of Discourse. Part One, Invention, includes chapters on narration, description, division, partition, and confirmation. Part Two, Style, includes chapters on oral, suggestive, grammatical, subjective, and objective properties. Exercises appear throughout. The appendix includes over five hundred themes. The Schultz Archive's copy is roughly the complete text.
1870 printing of the 1869 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Brooklyn, NY and has a Doctor of Laws in English (LL. D.). The prefaces says the work has three parts. The first part covers sentence structure with familiar examples and makes references to Bullions's grammar. The second part gives selections for analysis and parsing. The third part gives practical methods in composition (as opposed to "tiresome exercises" or the laws of rhetoric). The Schultz Archive's copy only contains part III: Composition, which contains: framing sentences, copying, dictations exercises, reproduction, impromptu composition, paraphrase, variety of expression, criticism, the essay, letter writing, style, choice of words (perspicuity, purity, propriety, and precision), structure of sentences, and figurative language.
The thirteenth edition corrected and much improved, printed in 1823, copyrighted in 1821. No information on the author is given. The preface says the work has been abridged and arranged the definitions and rules (to be committed to memory) so as not to overburden the pupil. Repetition and parsing exercises are used to aid the teaching. Exercises in correcting false syntax are also used. The work is sectioned orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. Corrections for the false syntax exercises are included in the appendix. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
1852 printing of the 1852 copyrighted text. Reverend W. Colegrove is credited as principal of Burton Academy and member of the board of school examiners for Geauga County. A grammar handbook following six principles: 1) Brevity, conciseness, and accuracy; 2) Simplicity in classification; 3) Perspicuity in the arrangement and adaptedness to the purposes of class recitations; 4) Freedom from superfluities; 5) Comprehensiveness in the plan; 6) Originality in design and execution of the work. The introduction says that composition should be kept separate from the teaching of grammar. Analysis, or syntactical parsing, is viewed as helpful for mental discipline and has a prominent place in the work. Authors credited for influence are Webster, Mandeville, Green, Wells, Chapin, and Whateley. The work follows the orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody divisions for its organization. The appendices includes short excerpts by respected authors for parsing exercises. The Schultz Archive copy is roughly the complete text.
No printing or copyright year are on this copy (the dedication is dated 1820), but a handwritten note dates it to 1901 (it was long out of print, according to the preface). No information on Cobbett is given, but in the incomplete editor's preface states that Cobbett was the first to demonstrate how to write for young people and in a manner that plain people can understand (in a conversational style). The editor goes on to say that grammar should not be taught out of books, but rather by the teacher himself. This book is meant for those who are learning without a teacher, or it is for children of at least twelve. The editor says Cobbett is addressing boys fourteen and fifteen years old. The text is a written as a series of letters (epistles) and covers orthography, etymology, syntax, and prosody. Including are examples of false grammar, errors, and nonsense. The six additional lessons for statesmen are dated 1822. The Schultz Archive copy is missing some pages at the beginning which cut into the preface, but otherwise the entire text is complete.
No printing date given. 1886 copyright. The author is credited as Reverend Charles Coppens, Society of Jesus, and author of The Art of Oratorical Composition. A textbook on rhetoric and poetry. Book I: Elements of Composition covers object-lessons, words, sentences, combination and punctuation of sentences. Book II covers ornamentation, such as tropes and figures. Book III covers style in literary composition. Book IV covers genres of prose: imitation, epistles, narration, description, essays, dialogues, novels, history. Book V covers versification. Book IV covers nature and varieties of poetry. Illustrative examples and exercises appear throughout. The Schultz Archive's copy only has the first 251 pages of the text, which covers Book I thru IV.
1859 printing of 1859 copyrighted work. The author is credited as Professor of English Literature in the University of Pennsylvania, Late Principal-Assistant Professor of "Ethics and English Studies" in the United States Military Academy at West Point. A textbook designed to be a complete overview of rhetoric, putting an emphasis the application of rhetorical philosophy to the practice of writing. The author credits the influence of Whately, Campbell, and Aristotle. The text discusses the history of rhetoric, Campbell's four divisions, the relations of rhetoric to aesthetics, division of poetry, oratorical discourses, other genres (history, biography, fiction, epistles), invention, argument, persuasion, arrangement, style, and qualities of style. The author uses illustrative examples from the bible and from modern English and American writers. The Schultz Archive's copy is the complete text.
No printing information given. 1901 copyright. Copeland is credited as Lecturer on English Literature and Rideout is credit as instructor in English. An impersonal overview of the freshmen composition course at Harvard, breaking down the semester chapter by chapter. It discusses how the courses are structured, how papers are graded, how feedback generally appears on these papers, and how students generally perform throughout the course. The book ends with a collection of sample essays. The Schultz Archive's copy is the entire text.
1899 printing of 1899 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of Beginners' Readers I, II, III and Vivid Scenes in American History. The text is a teacher's manual to accompany Letters From Queer Folk, a composition book aimed at enhancing student learning by drafting correspondence with imagined people. The text covers various genres of writing such as business, social, telegrams, advertisements, receipts. It addresses particular skills such as paragraphing, vocabulary, punctuation, and arrangement. The Schultz Archive copy is the entire text.
1868 printing (40th edition, revised) of the 1864 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the Principal of Cortland Academy and author of three other books on grammar and the English language. Rather than begin with the usual brief section on orthography, the text's first part touches on words, phrases and sentences. Part two is etymology, part three is syntax, and part four is prosody. The author uses circular charts to aid students with learning grammar. Sentences are diagrammed to separate their elements. Examples, exercises and review questions are implemented throughout. There are many exercises in analysis. The Schultz Archive's copy only includes the first 67 pages of the text, which runs through all of part one and ends on the first page of part two.
1916 printing of 1902 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Principal of the High School Department of the Ethical Culture Schools, New York. An examination of the practices and assignments common in elementary and high school. According to Chubb, the purpose of the text is to provide instructors with some notion of what is being taught most commonly for the various levels of students and what the most common practices are. He indicates that his book does not advocate a specific pedagogical practice; rather, he hopes only to establish a greater continuity in English instruction throughout the educative process because a varied process can only prove detrimental to education on the whole. The book touches on reading and composition (both oral and written) from kindergarten up to high school. It addresses what sorts of literature should be assigned as reading as well as how grammar should be taught and the four kinds of writing: narrative, descriptive, exposition, and argumentative. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and the scans are good condition.
1890 printing (83rd 1000) of the 1884 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Teacher of English Language and Literature in Ann Arbor High School. Chittenden's text seeks to provide young high school students with a primer of knowledge for the study of rhetoric. The author claims that the intention is to use as little theory as possible to teach the beginnings of correct writing. She details a fairly precise method that begins with the principles of English grammar and works through examples of literature, style, expression, letter-writing and more. Exercises in reproduction are designed to have students put good writing examples in their own words. Exercises in development provide students with detail, which they must then weave into a composition. Exercises in summary teach student to condense. Exercises in paraphrase teach students to rephrase with style. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, except pages 122-23, and the scans are in good condition.
No printing information given. Copyrighted 1857. No information on the author is provided. As the lengthy title suggests, Chesterfield's text is directed at any student who wants or needs to learn how to compose an effective letter. The author claims that the book may prove useful for students young and old, as well as for students who wish to learn to write polite letters for society or business letters for monetary purposes. No matter the student or cause, Chesterfield claims that all people may benefit from an increased knowledge of how to write letters. The text offers instruction on all aspects of letters, including grammar, style, arrangement, concluding, and more. Examples of different genres of letter are provided, such as business or love letters. The Schultz Archive includes the complete letter-writing section (with the exception of pages 50-51 and 58-59), but the text seems to continue beyond the letter-writing portion. Some highlighter obscures text throughout, but the quality is good nonetheless.
1847 printing. No copyright date provided. The author is credited as Editor of the United States Gazette. A grammar handbook for those who feel "the need of simple and familiar explanations and illustrations, and oft-repeated rules." Chandler claims that this textbook is intended to present grammar instruction in a more interesting manner than it is usually presented. He claims that his text accomplishes this goal through the use of familiar language, numerous examples and illustrations, and through exercises in parsing. Chandler does not intend for this textbook to replace the grammar instructor, but that the book should be used as an effective supplement to in-class instruction. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt of the cover page, preface and the first 11 pages of content. The scans are good quality, but there are a few markings that obscure the text.
1842 printing. No copyright date given. No information on the authors is provided. The authors' text begins with a brief discussion of the inefficacy of the previous method of instructing grammar and composition, which included a heavy emphasis on rule memorization and the reading--and subsequent copying of--classic texts. The authors, instead, advocate a more "natural" approach to the acquisition of grammar and composition: practice, object use and familiarity. The authors propose students should be given the chance to copy short pieces by good authors to learn neatness and exactness. They then work with writing about familiar objects, exchanging their work and correcting each other's errors, discussing their work as a class, then having their instructor provide feedback for correction. The authors suggest beginning with concrete objects that are near the students and progressing through to more complex abstract ideas and series of objects in order to assist in the acquisition of composition abilities. The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (although it is a fairly short text), and the quality of the scans is fairly good; however, there are a few places where markings on the text are somewhat distracting.
1897 printing (the sixth edition, revised and enlarged) of the 1891 copyrighted text. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia College (University?); formerly Associate Professor of English in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Carpenter claims that the exigency of his text is the fact that most students learn more easily from the comments the instructor makes because her/his examples are familiar to the student and s/he uses literature that is more relevant to the students than what is usually found in texts. Each section contains a fairly detailed exercise that includes explanations, examples and systematic exercises for the students. The exercises often emphasize correcting errors. The chapters cover words, sentences, paragraphs, whole compositions, qualities of style (clearness, force, elegance). Barrett Wendell is credited as a primary influence. Wendell, McElroy, A. S. Hill, David Salmon, and Genung are referenced. The Schultz Archive only includes brief excerpts, but they are good quality.
1902 printing of the 1900 copyrighted work. The first high school course was initially published separately in 1899. The author is credited as Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia University. This text by Carpenter builds on his previous Exercises in Rhetoric and English Composition that was published roughly 10 years prior. Based on the conclusions of the committees of ten and fifteen, the author is working from the conclusions that students in high school should received the same rhetorical training as those in college; that training should be at least two years; the first course should focus on words and the structure of sentences and paragraphs, and the second should focus on the main principles of exposition, narration, description, and (perhaps) argument; that students have abundant practice in applying principles; that correctness, clearness, directness, and simplicity of style should be emphasized. The author credits Barrett Wendell and F. N. Scott as influences. Exercises are provided throughout.The appendix also includes suggestions for "home reading" and "words frequently misused." The Schultz Archive includes the complete text (although it is missing pages 246-53), and it is good quality.
The second edition, printed 1859, copyrighted 1858. The work begins with twenty pages of certificates: words of praise from various people. A grammar handbook aimed at a wide audience of readers who wish to become "grammarians." Based on Lindley Murray's Grammar and the work of Samuel Kirkham, the author seeks to establish a more effective and systematic method of teaching students to parse and correct. For each grammatical principle Caldwell offers a number of questions and answers to elucidate the system of grammar. Students are expected to memorize the answers (the rules). Examples of false orthography, false syntax, and false punctuation are used to teach correcting. The Schultz Archive only includes a brief excerpt, but the scans are good quality. However, some highlighter obscures text throughout.
1877 printing of 1877 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of Primary Object-Lessons. A guide based on the notion that student knowledge is experienced, not memorized and recited. Each chapter focuses on an object or location that relates to real life experience. Calkins's Manual for Teachers is intended as a supplement for another textbook based on object teaching. The purpose of this supplemental text is to inform teachers of the best ways to teach using the text. The text accomplishes this by suggesting a variety of lessons for each grade level of primary school. The actual text seeks to teach young students practically by teaching them the systematic examination of real objects. Examples from trades and occupations are used to create a desire in students to learns about these occupations and how each contributes to the common welfare. It uses The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and it is good quality. However, the bottoms of each page seem to be cut off.
1900 printing of the 1899 copyrighted text. William B. Cairns is credited as having a Ph.D. and as Instructor in English in the University of Wisconsin. A thorough guide that divides its focus on style and invention. Cairns's text seeks to teach rhetoric in a familiar way without introducing new terms or definitions. He argues principles are dependent on usage and that style and invention should be treated together. Style and invention have independent sections, but each contain cross references to the other. Long illustrative texts are used rather than scattered short ones and appear at the end of chapters. Part one, style, has two chapters: Language determined by usage, and language adapted to the Needs of the reader. The first covers spelling, grammar, and word usage. Chapter two covers qualities of style (clearness, force, ease, unity) and a section of qualities expressed in full sentences. Part 2, invention, has chapters on narration, description, exposition, argumentation, and persuasion. The prefaces credits Genung and A. S. Hill as influences.The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and the scans are fairly good quality.
Copyright and Digital Collections: A Data Driven Roadmap for Rights Statement SuccessThis presentation focuses on data driven research from both a survey and in person interviews to articulate a roadmap for digital collection managers to navigate copyright challenges stemming from the adoption of standardized rights statements and licenses. Barriers to implementation of the RightsStatements.org statements and Creative Commons licenses will be described, including methods to remove such objections to using the standardized rights statements. Additionally, the research will outline the workflows of institutions that have been successful in the application of RightsStatements.org statements, what barriers they met, and the methods that were used to overcome the challenges they faced.
Despite the increased popularity of online tools for remote teamwork and meetings, moderated collaborative activities between multiple users in early conceptual design stages, such as brainstorming sessions, are yet not well supported. In this paper, we introduce All4One, a networked system that enables multiple remote users to participate in a moderated visual sketching session. Each participant can independently draw and share sketches using a tablet, and a moderator uses a set of tangible tools to arrange and manipulate sketches that are displayed in real-time on a whiteboard. We present our prototype in detail and the results from a workshop study simulating a brainstorming session with designers who tested the system in practice. Results show several usage patterns and the potential of All4One for use in early design stages, and the importance of the role of the moderator as the facilitator of the design process. The paper concludes by identifying weaknesses and strengths of the current system and possible directions for future work.
Solution-generation design behavior in general, and "reflection-in-action" in particular, can serve to differentiate designers, recognizing their personal reflecting when designing. In psychology, reflection is found a more robust tool to enhance task performance after feedback from a personal "device" that generates the process itself while interacting with visual representation. Differences among students' interior design processes appear in their solution-generation design behavior. A “think aloud” experiment identified solution-generation behavior profiles. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies showed how design characteristics unite, forming patterns of design behavior. A comprehensive picture of designers’ differences emerged.
The research aimed:
to identify individual design students’ solution-generation profiles based on design characteristics.
to show how reflection-in-action appearing in the profiles can serve to predict how novice designers learn and act when solving a design problem.
to enhance the uniqueness of reflection-in-action for designers as distinct from reflection in other fields.
Four distinct solution-generation profiles emerged, each showing a different type of reflective acts. Identifying reflection-in-action type can robustly predict how designers develop design solutions and help develop pedagogical concepts, strategies and tools.