1877 printing of 1877 copyrighted text. The author is credited as the author of Primary Object-Lessons. A guide based on the notion that student knowledge is experienced, not memorized and recited. Each chapter focuses on an object or location that relates to real life experience. Calkins's Manual for Teachers is intended as a supplement for another textbook based on object teaching. The purpose of this supplemental text is to inform teachers of the best ways to teach using the text. The text accomplishes this by suggesting a variety of lessons for each grade level of primary school. The actual text seeks to teach young students practically by teaching them the systematic examination of real objects. Examples from trades and occupations are used to create a desire in students to learns about these occupations and how each contributes to the common welfare. It uses The Schultz Archive includes the complete text, and it is good quality. However, the bottoms of each page seem to be cut off.