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Last modified: 05/23/2019

[New York City] The European, November 15, 1856-May 2, 1858, editor Hugh Forbes. Forbes, an English Garibaldian organized the emigres of 1848-49 in New York City with local radicals into a coalition of Universal Democratic Republicans. It became part of the International Association of the 1850s, and the foundation for the American sections of the International Workingmen's Association after the Civil War. Impressed by Forbes' war record coupled to his militant hostility to slavery, eastern abolitionists involved with John Brown recruited Forbes to be his military advisor. Convinced that the plan for Harpers Ferry was suicidal and unnecessary, Forbes left the operation. By 1860, he was back in Italy with Garibaldi, and, in his absence, became an easy figure to blame for the project's defeat.

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